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Technical Paper

A Study on Reducing Cooling loss in a Partially Insulated Piston for Diesel Engine

To improve the thermal efficiency of an engine, it is particularly important to reduce the cooling loss from the combustion gas to the combustion chamber wall, which constitutes a major proportion of the total loss [1]. Previous studies addressing cooling loss reduction attempted to use ceramic in place of the conventional aluminum or iron alloys, but this led to a reduction in the volumetric efficiency and increased smoke emissions. This was caused by the ceramics having both a low thermal conductivity and high heat capacity, relative to aluminum and iron. These characteristics cause the piston wall temperature, which rises during combustion, to remain high during the intake stroke, thus increasing the intake temperature and reducing the volumetric efficiency. This increases the smoke emissions [2].
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of a Higher Compression Ratio in the Combustion Chamber on Diesel Engine Performance

In order to improve the brake thermal efficiency of the engine, such as cooling and friction losses from the theoretical thermal efficiency, it is necessary to minimize various losses. However, it is also essential to consider improvements in theoretical thermal efficiency along with the reduction of the various losses. In an effort to improve the brake thermal efficiency of heavy-duty diesel engines used in commercial vehicles, this research focused on two important factors leading to the engine's theoretical thermal efficiency: the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio. Based on the results of theoretical thermodynamic cycle analyses for the effects of the above two factors, it was predicted that raising the compression ratio from a base engine specification of 17 to 26, and increasing the specific heat ratio would lead to a significant increase in theoretical thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Low-Temperature Performance of The NOx Reduction Efficiency on the Urea-SCR Catalysts

Diesel engine has a good fuel economy and high durability and used widely for power source such as heavy duty in the world. On the other hand, it is required to reduce NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) and PM (Particulate Matter) emissions further from diesel exhaust gases to preserve atmosphere. The urea-SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system is the most promising measures to reduce NOx emissions. DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) system is commercialized for PM reduction. However, in case that a vehicle has a slow speed as an urban area driving, a diesel exhaust temperature is too low to activate SCR catalyst for NOx reduction in diesel emissions. Moreover, the diesel exhaust temperature becomes lower as a future engine has less fuel consumption. The purpose of this study is reduction of NOx emission from a heavy-duty diesel engine using the Urea SCR system at the low temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of New Diesel Particulate Active Reduction System for both NOx and PM Reduction

The new Diesel Particulate active Reduction (DPR) system was developed for a medium-duty commercial vehicle as a deNOx catalyst combined with the conventional DPR system to achieve the Japan Post New-Long-Term (JPNLT) emissions regulations. It consists of a catalyst converter named as the new DPR cleaner, a fuel dosing injector, NOx sensors, temperatures and pressure sensors. The new DPR cleaner was constructed from a Front Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (F-DOC), a catalyzed particulate Filter (Filter), and a Rear Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (R-DOC). A newly developed Hydrocarbon Selective Catalyst Reduction (HC-SCR) catalyst was employed for each catalyst aiming to reduce NOx emissions with diesel fuel supplied from the fuel dosing injector. While the total volume of the catalyst was increased, the compact and easy-to-install catalyst converter was realized through the optimization of the flow vector and flow distribution in it by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis.
Journal Article

Diesel Engine Emissions and Performance Optimization for Neat GTL Fuel

The emissions reduction potential of neat GTL (Gas to Liquids: Fischer-Tropsch synthetic gas-oil derived from natural gas) fuels has been preliminarily evaluated by three different latest-generation diesel engines with different displacements. In addition, differences in combustion phenomena between the GTL fuels and baseline diesel fuel have been observed by means of a single cylinder engine with optical access. From these findings, one of the engines has been modified to improve both exhaust emissions and fuel consumption simultaneously, assuming the use of neat GTL fuels. The conversion efficiency of the NOx (oxides of nitrogen) reduction catalyst has also been improved.
Technical Paper

Nano Particle Emission Evaluation of State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI) and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, FAME, Aromatics and Distillation)

Newly designed laboratory measurement system, which reproduces particle number size distributions of both nuclei and accumulation mode particles in exhaust emissions, was developed. It enables continuous measurement of nano particle emissions in the size range between 5 and 1000 nm. Evaluations of particle number size distributions were conducted for diesel vehicles with a variety of emission aftertreatment devices and for gasoline vehicles with different combustion systems. For diesel vehicles, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (urea-SCR) system and catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) were evaluated. For gasoline vehicles, Lean-burn Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI), Stoichiometric DISI and Multi Point Injection (MPI) were evaluated. Japanese latest transient test cycles were used for the evaluation: JE05 mode driving cycle for heavy duty vehicles and JC08 mode driving cycle for light duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions Evaluation of Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI), State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, Aromatics and FAME)

In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs.
Technical Paper

The Study of NOx and PM Reduction Using Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction System for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

To reduce NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine, the effects of urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were studied. Proto type urea SCR system was composed of NO oxidation catalyst, SCR catalyst and ammonia (NH3) reduction catalyst. The NOx reduction performance of urea SCR system was improved by a new zeolite type catalyst and mixer for urea distribution at the steady state operating conditions. NOx and PM reduction performance of the urea SCR system with DPF was evaluated over JE05 mode of Japan. The NOx reduction efficiency of the urea SCR catalyst system was 72% at JE05 mode. The PM reduction efficiency of the urea SCR catalyst system with DPF was 93% at JE05 mode. Several kinds of un-regulated matters were detected including NH3 and N2O leak from the exhaust gas. It is necessary to have further study for detailed measurements for un-regulated emissions from urea solution.
Technical Paper

Impact of Oil-derived Sulfur and Phosphorus on Diesel NOx Storage Reduction Catalyst - JCAP II Oil WG Report

Emission regulations for diesel-powered vehicles have been gradually tightening. Installation of after-treatment devices such as diesel particulate filters (DPF), NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalysts, and so on is indispensable to satisfy rigorous limits of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Japan Clean Air Program II Oil Working Group (JCAPII Oil WG) has been investigating the effect of engine oil on advanced diesel after-treatment devices. First of all, we researched the impact of oil-derived ash on continuous regeneration-type diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF), and already reported that the less sulfated ash in oil gave rise to lower pressure drop across CR-DPF [1]. In this paper, impact of oil-derived sulfur and phosphorus on NSR catalyst was investigated using a 4L direct injection common-rail diesel engine with turbo-intercooler. This engine equipped with NSR catalyst meets the Japanese new short-term emission regulations.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Mechanism of Lubricating Oil Consumption of Diesel Engines - 4th Report: The Measurement of Oil Pressure Under the Piston Oil Ring -

Clarifying the mechanism of the oil consumption of engines is necessary for developing its estimation method. Oil moves upwards on the piston to the combustion chamber through ring sliding surfaces, ring backs and ring gaps. The mechanisms of oil upwards transport through the ring gaps are hardly analyzed. In this report, oil pressure just under the oil ring was successfully measured by newly developed method to clarify the oil transport mechanism at the ring gap. It was showed that the generated oil pressure pushed up the oil at the ring gap.
Technical Paper

Hino's Advanced Low-Emission Technologies Developed to Meet Stringent Emissions Standards

Japan's new 2005 long-term emissions regulation was implemented in October 2005. Both NOx and PM emissions standards were reduced to 2 g/kWh and 0.027 g/kWh, which were 40 and 85 percent lower than the 2003 new short-term emissions standards, respectively. These emissions standards are as stringent as the Euro5 standards that are scheduled for implementation in 2008. In addition, the transient-cycle test procedure for emissions compliance, labeled JE05, was introduced to replace the D13-mode steady-state test procedure. This paper describes exhaust emissions reduction technologies developed for Hino's 13-liter heavy-duty diesel engine so that it meets the above standards. A production catalyzed wall-flow DPF was employed to reduce PM emissions in both mass and small particles. NOx emissions were reduced by improving combustion with cooled EGR and without use of a NOx aftertreatment device.
Technical Paper

Study of 2-LEG NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst System for HD Diesel Engine

A 2-LEG NOx Storage-Reduction (NSR) catalyst system is one of potential after-treatment technology to meet stringent NOx and PM emissions standards as Post New Long Term (Japanese 2009 regulation) and US'10. Concerning NOx reduction using NSR catalyst, a secondary fuel injection is necessary to make fuel-rich exhaust condition during the NOx reduction, and causes its fuel penalty. Since fuel injected in the high-temperature (∼250 degrees Celsius) exhaust instantly reacts with oxygen in common diesel exhaust, the proportion of fuel consumption to reduce the NOx stored on NSR catalyst is relatively small. A 2-LEG NSR catalyst system has the decreasing exhaust flow mechanism during NOx reduction, and the potential to improve the NOx reduction and fuel penalty. Therefore, this paper studies the 2-LEG NSR catalyst system. The after-treatment system consists of NSR catalysts, a secondary fuel injection system, flow controlled valves and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF).
Technical Paper

The Wear Mechanism of Piston Rings and Cylinder Liners Under Cooled-EGR Condition and the Development of Surface Treatment Technology for Effective Wear Reduction

The superior fuel economy of diesel engines compared to gasoline engines is favorable in reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. On the other hand, the reductions in nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions are technically difficult, thus the improvement in the emission reduction technologies is important. Although the cooled exhaust gas recirculation (cooled-EGR) is the effective method to reduce NOx emissions, it is known to have durability and reliability problems, especially of the increased wear of piston rings and cylinder liners. Therefore, the degree of cooling and amount of EGR are both limited. To apply the cooled-EGR more effectively, the wear reduction technology for such components are indispensable. In this study, the negative effects of cooled-EGR on the wear are quantified by using a heavy-duty diesel engine, and its wear mechanism is identified.
Technical Paper

The Hino E13C: A Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Developed for Extremely Low Emissions and Superior Fuel Economy

The Hino E13C was developed for heavy-duty truck application to meet Japan's 2003 NOx and 2005 particulate emissions standards simultaneously with significant fuel economy improvement. A combined EGR system consisting of an external EGR system with a highly efficient EGR cooler and an internal EGR system with an electronically controlled valve actuation device was newly developed to reduce NOx emissions for all operating conditions without requiring a larger engine coolant radiator. A Hino-developed DPR was installed to achieve extremely low particulate emissions at the tail pipe. Increased strength of engine structural components and a ductile cast iron piston enabled high BMEP operation at lower engine speeds and reductions of both engine size and weight. This paper describes key technologies developed for the E13C as well as the development results.
Technical Paper

Hino J-Series Diesel Engines Developed for The U.S. 2004 Regulations with Superior Fuel Economy

Hino Motors developed J-series 4.7-liter inline-four cylinder and 7.7-liter inline-six cylinder engines for complying with the 2004 U.S. exhaust emissions regulations. Several technologies were incorporated in the development process to accomplish simultaneous reductions in both exhaust emissions and fuel consumption while the engine performance, reliability, and durability were maintained at the levels acceptable for truck application. Newly developed technologies include a cooled EGR system, a common-rail fuel injection system, a VNT system, and an engine control system for harmonized control of EGR valve and VNT. This paper reports the development approaches and results.
Technical Paper

Integrated Internal EGR and Compression Braking System for Hino's E13C Engine

An integrated engine subsystem incorporating Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation (IEGR) or alternatively referred to as Pulse EGR™ and Compression Release Retarding (CRR) functions has been developed and introduced to production with the new E13C engine from Hino Motors Ltd. This new system provides the nitrous oxide (NOX) reduction benefit of IEGR and the vehicle control and brake saving benefits of CRR in a single integrated package, without the need for increased vehicle cooling capacity or additional components external to the engine. The product is a result of a close cooperation between two companies, Hino Motors Ltd. of Japan and Jacobs Vehicle Systems, Inc. of the U.S.A.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Diesel Exhaust Emission of Advanced Emission Control Technologies using various Diesel Fuels, and Sulfur Effect on Performance after Mileage Accumulation. -JCAP Diesel WG (fuel) Report for Step II study-

To investigate the future direction of diesel emission control technologies and fuel technologies, exhaust emissions tests of diesel vehicles/engines with advanced after-treatments such as NSR catalyst, CR-DPF, and Urea-SCR or a combination of these, were conducted using various fuels, and fuel sulfur effect on performance of the after-treatments after mileage accumulation was also evaluated in step II study of JCAP Diesel WG. Overall results shows that the after-treatments have significant effects on reducing emission and reducing fuel sulfur have significant effects on function of the after-treatments in term of decrease of sulfate and SOF, and less deterioration of function of after-treatments after mileage accumulation.
Technical Paper

Novel Analysis Approach for Better Understanding of Fuel and Engine Effects on Diesel Exhaust Emission - JCAP Combustion Analysis Working Group Report Part II

1 A novel analysis approach called “Regression Density method” was developed for better understanding of fuel property effects on exhaust emission. The approach was applied to diesel emission data obtained in JCAP programs and emission models were conducted to analyze the effects of fuel properties and engine conditions on emissions. By introducing this analysis method, the relationship between density factor and aromatics factor (chemical composition factor) was identified, however, they have been reported previously as dominant factors in fuel properties. The effects of engine conditions and fuel properties on emissions were investigated quantitatively based on the statistically conducted emission models to clarify universal ways to emission reduction. The mechanism of emission formation of vehicles and engines with characteristic behavior was also examined.
Technical Paper

The Reduction of Diesel Engine Emissions by Using the Oxidation Catalysts of Japan Diesel 13 Mode Cycle

To reduce emissions from diesel engines, the effects of oxidation catalysts on the emissions reductions were studied. The effectiveness of several oxidation catalysts on both the regulated and unregulated emissions was evaluated. The oxidation activity of the catalysts was varied by changing Pt loading. The regulated emissions include particulate (PM), hydrocarbon (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO), and the unregulated emissions include benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). An 8 litter, turbocharged and aftercooled diesel engine was operated under the Japan Diesel 13 (D13) mode cycle for the evaluations. As the first step, evaluations were conducted with a commercially available JIS #2 diesel fuel (0.046 wt% sulfur). All the regulated and unregulated emissions except PM were reduced as the Pt loading (i.e. oxidation activity) increased. However, PM emissions were increased by the generation of sulfate when the Pt loading exceeded 0.2 g/l.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Fuel Consumption, High Durability, and Low Emissions J-Series Engines

Environmental protection is now one of the most important social concerns in the world. In 1998, emission controls in the US required the reduction of NOx by 20% from the 1994 limit. Hino Motors has developed new J-series medium-duty diesel engines for trucks that meet the US 1998 emissions regulations. The engines comprise turbocharged and aftercooled 4- and 6-cylinder engines of the same cylinder bore and stroke. The engines feature a 4-valve system, OHC valve train design, centered nozzle arrangement, and an optimum combustion chamber design, which achieved uniform combustion. With these features, the maximum combustion temperature was decreased, and hence reduced the NOx, smoke, and PM emissions. A muffler integrated with a catalytic converter (catalytic muffler) was adopted to reduce PM emissions further. The engines with the catalytic muffler have successfully met the US 1998 emissions regulations.