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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Hitachi Electric Vehicle Combined Battery System Lifespan in India

We have developed a drive cycle (DC) to test Hitachi’s combined battery system (CBS) for electric vehicles (EVs) having battery lifespan enhancements. Conventionally EV batteries consist of high energy density cells, and we call them as energy cells (EC). A major issue with the EVs is high operational costs mainly due to short lifespan of the ECs. CBS almost doubles the EC and thus overall battery system lifespan, as per the evaluation over a WLTP based method. We want to test the CBS under Indian conditions which has predominantly hot weather, and traffic jam scenarios. Battery deterioration and thus its lifespan is sensitive to traffic conditions and ambient temperature. Hence, it was needed to evaluate the CBS over an Indian DC and use 40°C as ambient temperature. However, it was difficult to carry out the tests since there is no standard Indian DC for small / light weight four wheelers.
Technical Paper

Development of a Combined Battery System for Electric Vehicles with Battery Lifespan Enhancements

We propose a combined battery system (CBS) for low cost electric vehicles (EVs) to enhance battery life. The EVs popularly called as Neighborhood Electric Vehicle or Low-Speed-Electric-Vehicle are spreading in developing countries. Conventionally the EVs batteries consist of high energy density cells, and we call it as energy cells (EC). A major issue with the EVs is high operational costs mainly due to high battery cost and short lifespan of the ECs. In this study, we develop a CBS consisting of a combination of following two kinds of batteries: i) EC which is the main energy source for the EV, and ii) a battery having high power density also called as power cells (PC) which is more suitable to bear high charge-discharge currents. The key feature of the proposed system is to minimize the size of additional battery by using our high power lithium ion battery. We performed experiments to estimate EC life for several capacity values of the PC.
Technical Paper

A Virtual ECU and Its Application to Control System Analysis - Power Window System Demonstration

A virtual power window control system was built in order to look into and demonstrate applications of microcontroller models. A virtual ECU simulated microcontroller hardware operations. The microcontroller program, which was written in binary digital codes, was executed step-by-step as the virtual ECU simulation went on. Thus, production-ready codes of ECUs are of primary interest in this research. The mechanical system of the power window, the DC motor to lift the window glass, the H-bridge MOSFET drivers, and the current sensing circuit to detect window locking are also modeled. This means that the hardware system of the control system was precisely modeled in terms of mechanical and circuit components. By integrating these models into continuous and discrete co-simulation, the power window control system was analyzed in detail from the microscopic command execution of the microcontroller to the macroscopic motion of the window mechanism altogether.
Technical Paper

Development of Breath-Alcohol-Detection System

The problem of high fatal accident rates due to drunk driving persists, and must be reduced. This paper reports on a prototype system mounted on a car mock-up and a prototype portable system that enables the checking of the drivers’ sobriety using a breath-alcohol sensor. The sensor unit consists of a water-vapor-sensor and three semiconductor gas sensors for ethanol, acetaldehyde, and hydrogen. One of the systems’ features is that they can detect water vapor from human-exhaled breath to prevent false detection with fake gases. Each gas concentration was calculated by applying an algorithm based on a differential evolution method. To quickly detect the water vapor in exhaled breath, we applied an AC voltage between the two electrodes of the breath-water-vapor sensor and used our alcohol-detection algorithm. The ethanol level was automatically calculated from the three gas sensors as soon as the water vapor was detected.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Control for Air-Fuel Ratio Cylinder Imbalance

Recently emissions regulations are being strengthened. An air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance causes emissions to increase due to universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor error or exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor error. Various methods of reducing an air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance have been developed. It is preferable for a control system to operate over a wide range of conditions. Our target is to expand the operating conditions from idling to high load conditions. Our approach is to use both an UEGO sensor and a crank angle sensor. A two-revolution frequency component calculated from the UEGO sensor output signal and angular acceleration calculated from the crank angle sensor output signal are used to identify the cylinder where the air-fuel ratio error occurs.
Technical Paper

Method for Determining Thermal Resistances in Coupled Simulator: For Electric Valve Timing Control System

We developed a thermal calculation 1D simulator for an electric valve timing control system (VTC). A VTC can optimize the open and close timing of the intake and exhaust valves depending on the driving situation. Since a conventional VTC is driven hydraulically, the challenges are response speed and operation limit at low temperature. Our company has been developing an electric VTC for quick response and expansion of operating conditions. Currently, it is necessary to optimize the motor and reduction gear design to balance quicker response with downsizing. Therefore, a coupled simulator that can calculate electricity, mechanics, control, and thermo characteristics is required. In 1D simulation, a thermal network method is commonly used for thermal calculation. However, an electric VTC is attached to the end of a camshaft; therefore, determining thermal resistances is difficult. We propose a method of determining thermal resistances, using both theoretical and experimental approaches.
Technical Paper

Application of Model Checking to Automotive Control Software with Slicing Technique

To detect difficult-to-find defects in automotive control systems, we have proposed a modeling method with a program slicing technique. In this method, a verifier adjusts the boundaries of source code to be extracted on a variable dependence graph, in a kind of data flow. We have developed software tools for this method and achieved a 35% decrease in total verification time on model checking. This paper provides some consideration on effective cases of the method from verification practices. There are two types of malfunction causes: one is the timing of processes (race conditions), and the other is complex logics. Each type requires different elements in external environment models. Furthermore, we propose regression verification based on the modeling method above, to further reduce verification time on model checking. The paper outlines tool extensions needed to realize regression verification.
Technical Paper

An Accurate Torque-based Engine Control by Learning Correlation between Torque and Throttle Position

In recent years, integrated vehicle control systems have been developed to improve fuel economy and safety. As a result, engine control is shifting to torque-based systems for throttle / fuel / ignition control, to realize an engine torque demand from the system. This paper describes torque-based engine control technologies for SI (Spark Ignition) engine to improve torque control accuracy using a feedback control algorithm and an airflow sensor.
Technical Paper

CPU Model-based Hardware/Software Co-design for Real-Time Embedded Control Systems

This paper proposes a new development method for highly reliable real-time embedded control systems using a CPU model-based hardware/software co-simulation. We take an approach that allows the full simulation of the virtual mechanical control system including CPU and object code level software. In this paper, Renesas SH-2A microcontroller model was developed on CoMET™ platform from VaST Systems Technology. A ETC (Electronic Throttle Control) system and engine control system were chosen to prove this concept. The ETB (Electronic Throttle Body) model on Saber® simulator from Synopsys® or engine model on MATLAB®/Simulink® simulator from MathWorks can be simulated with the SH-2A model. To help the system design, debug and evaluation, we developed an integrated behavior analyzer, which can display CPU behavior graphically during the simulation without affecting the simulation result, such as task level CPU load, interrupt statistics, software variable transition chart, and so on.
Technical Paper

Controller Grid: Real-Time Load Balancing of Distributed Embedded Systems

The concept of a “controller grid”, which makes effective use of computational resources distributed on a network while guaranteeing real-time operation, is proposed and applied to realize highly advanced control. It facilitates the total optimization of a plant control and achieves the high efficiency that is not acquired by individual plant optimization. To realize this concept, migration of a control task customized to be executed on one particular microcontroller to another microcontroller is necessary while strictly observing the required response time. Two techniques to meet this requirement are proposed: “task migration” for a control system and “real-time guaranteed scheduling of task migration and execution”. The effectiveness of the controller grid is assessed by applying it in experiments with electronic-throttle-body (ETB) advanced control.
Technical Paper

Engine Application of a Battery Voltage-Driven DI Fuel Injection System

Every fuel injection system for DI gasoline engines has a DC-DC converter to provide high, stabile voltage for opening the injector valve more quickly. A current control circuit for holding the valve open is also needed, as well as a large-capacity capacitor for pilot injection. Since these components occupy considerable space, an injector drive unit separate from the ECU must be used. Thus, there has been a need for a fuel injection system that can inject a small volume of fuel without requiring high voltage. To meet that need, we have developed a dual coil injector and an opening coil current control system. An investigation was also made of all the factors related to the dynamic range of the injector, including static flow rate, fuel pressure, battery voltage and harness resistance. Both efforts have led to the adoption of a battery voltage-driven fuel injector.
Technical Paper

Effects of Small Disturbances Caused by Changes of Surrounding Conditions on the Small Positive Pressure Control System of the CEEF

The closed ecology experiment facility (CEEF) has a small positive pressure control system consisting of rubber buffers and a mechanical subsystem. In the present study, effects of small temperature disturbances caused by changes of surrounding conditions on the pressure control system are investigated experimentally and in numerical simulations. Though solar radiation causes a pressure disturbance in the facility, choosing the proper diameter of ducts which connect the rubber buffers to the modules, the rubber buffers can follow fluctuations of low frequency, like daily atmospheric fluctuations and pressure changes caused by temperature control of the facility’s air conditioners, and can cut off those of high frequency due to changes of environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

EMERALDS-OSEK: A Small Real-Time Operating System for Automotive Control and Monitoring

Increasingly, microcontrollers are being used in automotive systems to handle sophisticated control and monitoring activities. As applications become more sophisticated, their design and development becomes complex, necessitating the use of an operating system to manage the complexity and provide an abstraction for improving portability of code. This paper presents EMERALDS-OSEK, an operating system we have designed and implemented based on OSEK/VDX, an open industry standard. We present some of the features and optimizations that make EMERALDS-OSEK appropriate for small, low-cost microcontrollers typically found in automotive applications. We also present measurements of operating system performance. We find EMERALDS-OSEK to be efficient, both in terms of processing overheads and memory usage. However, we also find some parts of the OSEK standard that may be improved, and present our ideas for such improvements.
Technical Paper

A New RISC Microcontroller with On-Chip FPU to Introduce Adaptive Control into Powertrain Management

Gasoline engine control continues to become more sophisticated and so the amount of software has reached 10 to 20 times that of early control systems. By changing the embedded microcomputer from 8bit CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) to 32bit RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer), processing performance has been improved 100 times. This paper evaluates quantitative performance of the RISC CPU having a FPU (Floating Point Processing Unit) and describes an example application to adaptive control.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis for the Small Positive Pressure Control System of CEEF

It is necessary to develop a small positive pressure control system for the closed ecology experiment facility (CEEF) to protect against over-differential pressure loading. In the present study, a numerical method was developed to calculate the quantity of state of the closed module, which is fitted with rubber buffers, for the small positive pressure control system. Experiments to examine the pressure change of the closed module were carried out at CEEF. Comparison of calculated and experimental results showed that the present dynamic simulation is suited to estimating the quantity of state of the closed module.
Technical Paper

Development of Smooth Shift Control System with Output Torque Estimation

Most automatic transmissions are controlled in compliance with a predetermined program. Transient control during gear shift is also carried out according to a predetermined process. In this method a lot of labor is required to tune data tables. So we developed a tuning free system by feedback control using torque estimation technology and the experimental result is reported. Torque fluctuation during shift is detected and fed back to compare the torque reference, which is generated from the estimated torque itself. The engine torque is decreased by means of retarding the ignition spark advance, according to the comparison deviation. As a consequence of the feedback, the transient torque control is carried out without any tuning trouble, and better than usual torque fluctuation is obtained.
Technical Paper

Smooth Gear Shift Control System Using Estimated Torque

An automotive powertrain total control system using estimated output shaft torque has been investigated in order to enhance drivability and improve fuel economy. The system provides efficient control for both the engine and transmission which leads to an enhancement in drivability by reducing shocks during gear shifts. This paper describes a new smooth gear shift control method using the total control system. By use of the estimated output shaft torque, it is possible to detect accurately the fluctuation condition and the start time of the inertia phase, which are important factors affecting shock occurrence. Torque feedback, got from estimated torque, was applied to the control of engine output shaft torque during shifts. The optimum hydraulic pressure, also got from estimated torque, was applied to the clutch of the transmission during shifts.
Technical Paper

The Role of Sensors and Sensing Technology for Future Automotive Systems

The role of sensors and sensing technologies for the next generation vehicle systems are discussed. The control systems for engines and power-train are expected to realize high efficiency with low pollution and comfort drivability. Vehicular safety and chassis control systems are expected to avoid many kinds of traffic accidents caused by the human errors of drivers. Vehicular information systems will help the drivers to get the information to manage their vehicles economically and efficiency. In every system mentioned above, sensors and sensing technologies are playing an increasingly important role. This paper introduces and discusses essential technologies for sensors and sensing which can be expected to bring the solutions to the future automotive systems.
Technical Paper

Development of an On-Board Class A Local Area Network System

The growing number of electronic components used in automobiles lately has given rise to problems concerning the increasing number, size and weight of the wiring harnesses. As one approach to resolving these problems, the authors proposed a multiplex method based on the direction of signal flow in 1988 (SAE880589). However, the need to reduce the number of wiring harnesses circuits further made it necessary to develop a more sophisticated system. This paper presents an on-board Class A local area network (LAN) system that overcomes the problems in conventional multiplexing systems through the use of a master-slave configuration, a polling selection method and a system that integrates of electronic circuits with switch modules.
Technical Paper

A Totally Integrated Vehicle Electronic Control System

A totally integrated vehicle electronic control system is described, which optimizes vehicle performance through use of electronics. The system implements efficient coordination of functions of the engine, drive-train, brakes, steering, and suspension control subsystems to give a smoother ride, better handling and greater safety. The principles of the system are based on control and stability augmentation strategies. Each subsystem has two observers which control the force of the actuators according to the vehicle dynamics. The system features a driver support system which allows the average driver to employ the full performance potential of the vehicle in exceptional situations, and an artificial response control system to ensure optimum response and comfort. Application of the system allows the driver to experience a new level of performance and a marked improvement in handling quality and ride comfort.