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Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Internal Combustion Engine using OpenFOAM®

2016-04-05
2016-01-1346
We developed the numerical simulation tool by using OpenFOAM® and in-house simulation codes for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine in order to carry out the precise investigation of the throughout process from the internal nozzle flow to the fuel/air mixture in engines. For the piston/valve motions, a mapping approach is employed and implemented in this study. In the meantime, the spray atomization including the liquid-columnbreakup region and the secondary-breakup region are simulated by combining the different numerical approaches applied to each region. By connecting the result of liquid-column-breakup simulation to the secondary-breakup simulation, the regions which have different physical phenomena with different length scales are seamlessly jointed; i.e., the velocity and position of droplets predicted by the liquid-column-breakup simulation is used in the secondary breakup simulation so that the initial velocity and position of droplets are transferred.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Detecting Technology of Combustion Conditions Using the Ion-Current Sensor

2015-09-01
2015-01-1983
In previous study, a method of combustion detection for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) using a crank angle sensor and a knock sensor has been estimated [1]. In addition, an ion-current sensor has been used as a countermeasure against abnormal combustion with downsizing and higher compression ratio engines. An ion-current sensor has been newly adopted in engine systems. In this study, detection performance of combustion conditions in HCCI and spark ignition (SI) using with the ion-current sensor was estimated. The purpose of this study was to confirm detectable combustion conditions using with the ion-current sensor, and to confirm a requirement of applied voltage for the ion-current sensor. A detection signal of the ion-current sensor was changed by combustion style (HCCI,SI). Experimental results showed a heat release rate increased with ion signals increasing approximately at the same time in HCCI and SI.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Control for Air-Fuel Ratio Cylinder Imbalance

2015-04-14
2015-01-1624
Recently emissions regulations are being strengthened. An air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance causes emissions to increase due to universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor error or exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor error. Various methods of reducing an air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance have been developed. It is preferable for a control system to operate over a wide range of conditions. Our target is to expand the operating conditions from idling to high load conditions. Our approach is to use both an UEGO sensor and a crank angle sensor. A two-revolution frequency component calculated from the UEGO sensor output signal and angular acceleration calculated from the crank angle sensor output signal are used to identify the cylinder where the air-fuel ratio error occurs.
Technical Paper

Multi-Swirl Type Injector for Port Fuel Injection Gasoline Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1436
The authors developed a multi-swirl type injector characterized by a short spray penetration length and fine atomization to improve exhaust emissions and fuel consumption for port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engines. In PFI gasoline engines, fuel adhesion to an intake manifold causes exhaust emission. In addition, good mixing of fuel and air causes high combustion efficiency, and as a result the fuel consumption improves. Injectors therefore require two improvements: first, a short spray penetration to avoid fuel adhesion to the intake manifold, and second, a fine atomization spray to generate a good mixture formation of fuel and air. In this study, the authors developed a multi-swirl type injector equipped with multiple orifice holes featuring swirl chambers upstream of each orifice. The key feature of the proposed injector is “involute curve-formed swirl chambers” for generating a uniform thin liquid-film in the orifices.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Robustness Control for Practical Use of Gasoline HCCI Engine- An Investigation of a Detecting Technology of Conditions of HCCI Using an Ion Current Sensor -

2014-04-01
2014-01-1279
The robustness control for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) using a crank angle sensor and a knock sensor has been estimated. On the other hand, an ion current sensor is used as a countermeasure against abnormal combustion with downsized and higher compression ratio engines. This sensor can generally be adopted in engine systems. Therefore, we examined the application of an ion current sensor to robustness control for HCCI. The purpose of this research was to develop a method of detecting combustion conditions to make HCCI engines more robust. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of the ion current sensor. Experimental results comparing ion intensity detection in HCCI. The detection value of the ion current sensor changed based on the form of combustion. Experimental results showed that the heat release rate increased with an increase in ion signals appear during the same time at approximately in both spark ignition (SI) and HCCI.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Knocking Suppression Effect of Cooled EGR in Turbo-Charged Gasoline Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1217
The cooled EGR system has been focused on as a method for knocking suppression in gasoline engines. In this paper, the effect of cooled EGR on knocking suppression that leads to lower fuel consumption is investigated in a turbo-charged gasoline engine. First, the cooled EGR effect is estimated by combustion simulation with a knock prediction model. It shows that the ignition timing at the knocking limit can be advanced by about 1 [deg. CA] per 1% of EGR ratio, combustion phasing (50% heat release timing) at the knocking limit can be advanced by about 0.5 [deg. CA] per 1% of EGR ratio, and the fuel consumption amount can be decreased by about 0.4% per 1% of EGR ratio. Second, the effect of cooled EGR is verified in an experimental approach. By adding inert gas (N2/CO2) as simulated EGR gas upstream of the intake pipe, the effect of EGR is investigated when EGR gas and fresh air are mixed homogeneously. As a result, the ignition timing at the knocking limit is advanced by 7 [deg.
Technical Paper

Improved Thermal Efficiency Using Hydrous Ethanol Reforming in SI Engines

2013-09-08
2013-24-0118
The internal combustion engines waste large amounts of heat energy, which account for 60% of the fuel energy. If this heat energy could be converted to the output power of engines, their thermal efficiency could be improved. The thermal efficiency of the Otto cycle increases as the compression ratio and the ratio of specific heat increase. If high octane number fuel is used in engines, their thermal efficiency could be improved. Moreover, thermal efficiency could be improved further if fuel could be combusted in dilute condition. Therefore, exhaust heat recovery, high compression combustion, and lean combustion are important methods of improving the thermal efficiency of SI engines. These three methods could be combined by using hydrous ethanol as fuel. Exhaust heat can be recovered by the steam reforming of hydrous ethanol. The reformed gas including hydrogen can be combusted in dilute condition. In addition, it is cooled by directly injecting hydrous ethanol into the engine.
Technical Paper

A New Diagnosis Method for an Air-Fuel Ratio Cylinder Imbalance

2012-04-16
2012-01-0718
A new diagnosis method for an air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance has been developed. The developed diagnosis method is composed of two parts. The first part detects an occurrence of an air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance by using a two revolution frequency component of an EGO sensor output signal or an UEGO sensor output signal upstream from a catalyst. The two revolution frequency component is from a cycle where an engine rotates twice. The second part of the diagnosis method detects an increase of emissions by using a low frequency component which is calculated from the output of an EGO sensor downstream from the catalyst. When the two revolution frequency component calculated using the upstream sensor output is larger than a certain level and the low frequency component calculated using the downstream sensor output is shifted to a leaner range, the diagnosis judges that the emissions increase is due to an air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Thermal Efficiency Using Fuel Reforming in SI Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0584
Hydrogen produced from regenerative sources has the potential to be a sustainable substitute for fossil fuels. A hydrogen internal combustion engine has good combustion characteristics, such as higher flame propagation velocity, shorter quenching distance, and higher thermal conductivity compared with hydrocarbon fuel. However, storing hydrogen is problematic since the energy density is low. Hydrogen can be chemically stored as a hydrocarbon fuel. In particular, an organic hydride can easily generate hydrogen through use of a catalyst. Additionally, it has an advantage in hydrogen transportation due to its liquid form at room temperature and pressure. We examined the application of an organic hydride in a spark ignition (SI) engine. We used methylcyclohexane (MCH) as an organic hydride from which hydrogen and toluene (TOL) can be reformed. First, the theoretical thermal efficiency was examined when hydrogen and TOL were supplied to an SI engine.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Technique for Spark Timing Control in an SI Engine Using Polynomial Regression Analysis

2009-04-20
2009-01-0933
Model-based methodologies for the engine calibration process, employing engine cycle simulation and polynomial regression analysis, have been developed and the reliability of the proposed method was confirmed by validating the model predictions with dynamometer test data. From the results, it was clear that the predictions by the engine cycle simulation with a knock model, which considers the two-stage hydrocarbon ignition characteristics of gasoline, were in good agreement with the dynamometer test data if the model tuning parameters were strictly adjusted. Physical model tuning and validation were done, followed by the creation of a dataset for the regression analysis of charging efficiency, EGR mass, and MBT using a 4th order polynomial equation. The stepwise method was demonstrated to yield a logarithm likelihood ratio and its false probability at each term in the polynomial equation.
Technical Paper

An Air-Fuel Ratio and Ignition Timing Retard Control Using a Crank Angle Sensor for Reducing Cold Start HC

2009-04-20
2009-01-0588
Emission regulations continue to be strengthened, and it is important to decrease cold start hydrocarbon concentrations in order to meet them, now and in the future. The HC concentration in engine exhaust gas is reduced by controlling the air-fuel ratio to the low HC range and retarding the ignition timing as much as possible until the engine stability reaches a certain deterioration level. Conventionally however, the target air-fuel ratio has been set at a richer range than the low HC range and the target ignition timing has been more advanced than the engine stability limit, in order to stabilize the engine for various disturbances. As a result, the HC concentration has not been minimized. To solve this problem, a new engine control has been developed. This control uses a crank angle sensor to simultaneously control the air-fuel ratio and the ignition timing so that the HC concentration can be minimized.
Technical Paper

Cold Start HC Reduction with Feedback Control Using a Crank Angle Sensor

2008-04-14
2008-01-1010
Emission regulations continue to be strengthened, and it is important to decrease cold start hydrocarbon concentrations in order to meet them, now and in the future. The HC concentration in engine exhaust gas can be reduced by optimizing the air-fuel ratio. However, a conventional air-fuel ratio feedback control does not operate for the first ten seconds after the engine has started because the air-fuel ratio sensor has not yet been activated. In this paper, we report on a study to optimize the air-fuel ratio using a crank angle sensor until the air-fuel ratio sensor has been activated. A difference in fuel properties was used as a typical disturbance factor. The control was applied to both a direct-injection engine (DI) and a port-injection engine (MPI). It was evaluated for two fuel types: one which evaporates easily and one which does not. The experimental results show the air-fuel ratio is optimized for both types of fuel.
Technical Paper

A Urea-Dosing Device for Enhancing Low-Temperature Performance by Active-Ammonia Production in an SCR System

2008-04-14
2008-01-1026
A new urea-dosing device with an active-ammonia production function was developed. This function is achieved by an electrically heated bypass passage with a hydrolysis catalyst for urea-to-ammonia conversion. The new device also has the function of mixing ammonia and exhaust gas. It is compact and has low-pressure loss by using the vortex occurring at the back of a static vane. We built a trial device for a small diesel engine and obtained steady state and transient data. The heated-bypass concept can be used in the aftertreatment system of passenger cars. Although active-ammonia production consumes electric power, a predictive calculation of power consumption (based on experimental results) shows that the developed bypass heater can suppress the energy consumption enough not to harm the high-energy efficiency of diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Fractal Dimension Growth Model for SI Engine Combustion

2004-06-08
2004-01-1993
Time-resolved continuous images of wrinkling flame front cross-sections were acquired by a laser-light sheet technique in an optically accessible spark ignition engine. The test engine was operated at various engine speeds and compression ratios. The fractal dimension of the curve, D2, was measured in a time series for each cycle. Analysis of the data shows that as the flame propagates the fractal dimension, D2, is close to unity a short time after spark ignition and then increases. Examination of the relationship between the growth rate of the fractal dimension, ΔD2/Δt, and D2 reveals that the higher D2 is, the lower ΔD2/Δt becomes. An Empirical equation for ΔD2/Δt was derived as a function of the ratio of the turbulence intensity to the laminar burning velocity and pressure. This model was tested in an SI engine combustion simulation, and results compared favorably with experimental data.
Technical Paper

NOx Conversion Properties of a Mixed Oxide Type Lean NOx Catalyst

2000-03-06
2000-01-1197
Development is proceeding on catalysts which separate the NOx in lean exhaust gas by adsorption and then reduce the adsorbed NOx in combustion exhaust gas with the stoichiometric or a slightly richer air fuel ratio, as well as exhaust conversion technology that uses these catalysts. Amidst this research it has been found that catalysts containing mixed metal oxides exhibit superior NOx adsorption performance, so the authors prepared a mixed metal oxide catalyst by adding precious metals and promoters, etc. The resulting catalyst has high heat resistance and also offers excellent SOx durability. These properties were presumed to be due to an adsorbent including the mixed metal oxide, and the relation between the physical properties and NOx conversion properties of the catalyst was investigated.
Technical Paper

Air/Fuel Ratio Control Using Upstream Models in the Intake System

1999-03-01
1999-01-0857
Generalized models of the air/fuel ratio control using estimated air mass in the cylinder were presented to obtain highly accurate control during transient conditions in high supercharged direct injection systems with a complex air induction system. The air mass change was estimated by using upstream models which estimated the pressure of the intake manifold by introducing the output of the air flow meter and the differential of the output into aerodynamic equations of the intake system. The air mass into the cylinders was estimated at the beginning of the intake stroke under a wide range of driving conditions, without compensating for changes in the downstream parameters of the intake system and engine. Therefore, the upstream models required relatively minor calibration changes for each engine modification to be able to estimate the air mass on a cylinder-by-cylinder basis.
Technical Paper

Effect of Spray Characteristics on Combustion in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1998-02-23
980156
Meeting the future exhaust emission and fuel consumption standards for passenger cars will require refinements in how the combustion process is carried out in spark ignition engines. A direct injection system decrease fuel consumption under road load cruising conditions, and stratified charge of the fuel mixture is particularly effective for ultra lean combustion. On the other hands, there are requirements for higher output power of gasoline engines. A direct injection system for a spark ignition engine is seen as a promising technique to meet these requirements. To get higher output power at wide open throttle conditions, spray characteristics and in-cylinder air flow must be optimized. In this paper, the engine system, which has a side injection type engine and flat piston, was investigated. We tried some injectors, which have different spray characteristics, and examined effects of spray characteristics on combustion of the direct injection gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

A Single-chip RISC Microcontroller Boarding on MY1998

1997-02-24
970863
This paper presents a single-chip 32bit RISC microcontroller boarding on MY1998 dedicated to highly complicated powertrain management. The high performance 32bit RISC CPU provides the only solution to meet requirements of drastic CPU performance enhancement and integration. Furthermore, a 32bit counter, based on a 20 MHz clock, and a 32bit multiplier make possible misfire detection and precise analysis of the engine management strategy, especially cylinder individual air-fuel ratio control.
Technical Paper

Air Fuel Ratio Sensor and Its Signal Processing Module

1993-03-01
930232
This report describes the development of an air fuel ratio sensor with a linear voltage output, and its signal processing module that is able to calibrate the sensor output function on the measuring point of the 20.9% oxygen concentration in atmospheric air and the zero diffusion current at stoichiometry as the reference. This sensing system is effective when applied to air fuel ratio PID feed back engine control and it is able to realize the reduction of initial variability of sensors, interchangeability of sensors, and long term output change of the sensor.
Technical Paper

Development of a Highly Accurate Air-Fuel Ratio Control Method Based on Internal State Estimation

1992-02-01
920290
A fuel injection control method is developed in which the transient air-fuel ratio is accurately controlled by an internal state estimation method with dynamic characteristics. With conventional methods the air-fuel ratio control precision is limited, because the air measurement system, the air and the fuel dynamic characteristics lack precision. In this development, the factors disturbing the air-fuel ratio under transient conditions are determined by analysis of the control mechanisms. The disturbance factors are found to be (1) the hot wire sensor has a delay time, (2) manifold air charging causes an overshoot phenomenon, (3) there is a dead time between sensing and fuel flow into the cylinder and (4) there is a delay of fuel flow into the cylinder caused by the fuel film. Compensation schemes are constructed for each of these technical problems.
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