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Technical Paper

Development of Predictive Powertrain State Switching Control for Eco-Saving ACC

2017-03-28
2017-01-0024
In recent years, improvement of in-use fuel economy is required with tightening of exhaust emission regulation. We assume that one of the most effective solutions is ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control), which can control a powertrain accurately more than a driver. We have been developing a fuel saving ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) application named “Sailing-ACC”. Sailing-ACC system uses sailing stop technology which stops engine fuel injection, and disengages a clutch coupling a transmission when a vehicle does not need acceleration torque. This system has a potential to greatly improve fuel efficiency. In this paper, we present a predictive powertrain state switching algorithm using external information (route information, preceding vehicle information). This algorithm calculates appropriate switching timing between a sailing stop mode and an acceleration mode to generate a “pulse-and-glide” pattern.
Journal Article

Multi-Fidelity Total Integrated Simulation Technology for High Pressure Pump with Squeeze Film Effect

2017-03-28
2017-01-1325
Automotive fuel can be efficiently combusted by injecting it into the cylinders at high pressure to atomize it to pass the regulations for exhaust gas and fuel economy. For this reason, automotive companies have developed direct injection engines, which can inject gasoline into the cylinders directly. Furthermore, the demand for lower-noise high pressure pumps is also increasing from the viewpoint of automotive comfort. Since the valve velocity and noise level will increase as the pressure in fuel pumps increases, noise problems need to be solved under the high pressure conditions. Accordingly, the valve motion should be predicted with high accuracy under operating conditions to evaluate the noise caused by valve impingement. In addition, the squeeze film effect phenomenon will occur in the physical fuel pumps affect the prediction of the noise level caused by valve impingement.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Internal Combustion Engine using OpenFOAM®

2016-04-05
2016-01-1346
We developed the numerical simulation tool by using OpenFOAM® and in-house simulation codes for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine in order to carry out the precise investigation of the throughout process from the internal nozzle flow to the fuel/air mixture in engines. For the piston/valve motions, a mapping approach is employed and implemented in this study. In the meantime, the spray atomization including the liquid-columnbreakup region and the secondary-breakup region are simulated by combining the different numerical approaches applied to each region. By connecting the result of liquid-column-breakup simulation to the secondary-breakup simulation, the regions which have different physical phenomena with different length scales are seamlessly jointed; i.e., the velocity and position of droplets predicted by the liquid-column-breakup simulation is used in the secondary breakup simulation so that the initial velocity and position of droplets are transferred.
Technical Paper

Method for Determining Thermal Resistances in Coupled Simulator: For Electric Valve Timing Control System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1301
We developed a thermal calculation 1D simulator for an electric valve timing control system (VTC). A VTC can optimize the open and close timing of the intake and exhaust valves depending on the driving situation. Since a conventional VTC is driven hydraulically, the challenges are response speed and operation limit at low temperature. Our company has been developing an electric VTC for quick response and expansion of operating conditions. Currently, it is necessary to optimize the motor and reduction gear design to balance quicker response with downsizing. Therefore, a coupled simulator that can calculate electricity, mechanics, control, and thermo characteristics is required. In 1D simulation, a thermal network method is commonly used for thermal calculation. However, an electric VTC is attached to the end of a camshaft; therefore, determining thermal resistances is difficult. We propose a method of determining thermal resistances, using both theoretical and experimental approaches.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Control for Air-Fuel Ratio Cylinder Imbalance

2015-04-14
2015-01-1624
Recently emissions regulations are being strengthened. An air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance causes emissions to increase due to universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor error or exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor error. Various methods of reducing an air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance have been developed. It is preferable for a control system to operate over a wide range of conditions. Our target is to expand the operating conditions from idling to high load conditions. Our approach is to use both an UEGO sensor and a crank angle sensor. A two-revolution frequency component calculated from the UEGO sensor output signal and angular acceleration calculated from the crank angle sensor output signal are used to identify the cylinder where the air-fuel ratio error occurs.
Technical Paper

Multi-Swirl Type Injector for Port Fuel Injection Gasoline Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1436
The authors developed a multi-swirl type injector characterized by a short spray penetration length and fine atomization to improve exhaust emissions and fuel consumption for port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engines. In PFI gasoline engines, fuel adhesion to an intake manifold causes exhaust emission. In addition, good mixing of fuel and air causes high combustion efficiency, and as a result the fuel consumption improves. Injectors therefore require two improvements: first, a short spray penetration to avoid fuel adhesion to the intake manifold, and second, a fine atomization spray to generate a good mixture formation of fuel and air. In this study, the authors developed a multi-swirl type injector equipped with multiple orifice holes featuring swirl chambers upstream of each orifice. The key feature of the proposed injector is “involute curve-formed swirl chambers” for generating a uniform thin liquid-film in the orifices.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Knocking Suppression Effect of Cooled EGR in Turbo-Charged Gasoline Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1217
The cooled EGR system has been focused on as a method for knocking suppression in gasoline engines. In this paper, the effect of cooled EGR on knocking suppression that leads to lower fuel consumption is investigated in a turbo-charged gasoline engine. First, the cooled EGR effect is estimated by combustion simulation with a knock prediction model. It shows that the ignition timing at the knocking limit can be advanced by about 1 [deg. CA] per 1% of EGR ratio, combustion phasing (50% heat release timing) at the knocking limit can be advanced by about 0.5 [deg. CA] per 1% of EGR ratio, and the fuel consumption amount can be decreased by about 0.4% per 1% of EGR ratio. Second, the effect of cooled EGR is verified in an experimental approach. By adding inert gas (N2/CO2) as simulated EGR gas upstream of the intake pipe, the effect of EGR is investigated when EGR gas and fresh air are mixed homogeneously. As a result, the ignition timing at the knocking limit is advanced by 7 [deg.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Methodology for Air Charge Estimation and Control in Turbocharged Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1754
The purpose of this study is to develop model-based methodologies which employ thermo-fluid dynamic engine simulation and multiple-objective optimization schemes for engine control and calibration, and to validate the reliability of the method using a dynamometer test. In our technique, creating a total engine system model begins by first entirely capturing the characteristics of the components affecting the engine system's behavior, then using experimental data to strictly adjust the tuning parameters in physical models. Engine outputs over the full range of engine operation conditions as determined by design of experiment (DOE) are simulated, followed by fitting the provided dataset using a nonlinear response surface model (RSM) to express the causal relationship among engine operational parameters, environmental factors and engine output. The RSM is applied to an L-jetronic® air-intake system control logic for a turbocharged engine.
Technical Paper

Spray Atomization Study on Multi-Hole Nozzle for Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1596
We investigated the size of fuel spray droplets from nozzles for direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Our findings showed that the droplet size can be predicted by referencing the geometry of the nozzle. In a DIG engine, which is used as part of a system to reduce fuel consumption, the injector nozzle causes the fuel to spray directly into the combustion chamber. It is important that this fuel spray avoid adhesion to the chamber wall, so multi-hole injection nozzles are used to obtain spray shape adaptability. It is also important that spray droplets be finely atomized to achieve fast vaporization. We have developed a method to predict the atomization level of nozzles for fine atomization nozzle design. The multi-hole nozzle used in a typical DIG injector has a thin fuel passage upstream of the orifice hole. This thin passage affects the droplet size, and predicting the droplet size is quite difficult if using only the orifice diameter.
Technical Paper

A New Diagnosis Method for an Air-Fuel Ratio Cylinder Imbalance

2012-04-16
2012-01-0718
A new diagnosis method for an air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance has been developed. The developed diagnosis method is composed of two parts. The first part detects an occurrence of an air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance by using a two revolution frequency component of an EGO sensor output signal or an UEGO sensor output signal upstream from a catalyst. The two revolution frequency component is from a cycle where an engine rotates twice. The second part of the diagnosis method detects an increase of emissions by using a low frequency component which is calculated from the output of an EGO sensor downstream from the catalyst. When the two revolution frequency component calculated using the upstream sensor output is larger than a certain level and the low frequency component calculated using the downstream sensor output is shifted to a leaner range, the diagnosis judges that the emissions increase is due to an air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Technique for Air-Intake-System Control Using Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Simulation of SI Engines and Multiple-Objective Optimization

2011-10-06
2011-28-0119
We have developed a model-based control for the air intake system in a variable valve engine, employing total engine simulation, the response surface method and multi-objective optimization scheme. In our technique, we performed the simulation model tuning and validation, followed by the creation of a dataset for the polynomial regression analysis of the charging efficiency. A D-optimal design, robust least squares method, and likelihood-ratio test were demonstrated to yield a robust and accurate control model. Coupling the total engine simulator with a genetic algorithm, model based calibration for optimal valve timing stored in lookup table was carried out under multiple objectives and restrictions. The reliability of the implementation control model, which considers the effect of gas dynamics in the intake system, was confirmed using a model-in-the-loop simulation.
Technical Paper

An Air-Fuel Ratio and Ignition Timing Retard Control Using a Crank Angle Sensor for Reducing Cold Start HC

2009-04-20
2009-01-0588
Emission regulations continue to be strengthened, and it is important to decrease cold start hydrocarbon concentrations in order to meet them, now and in the future. The HC concentration in engine exhaust gas is reduced by controlling the air-fuel ratio to the low HC range and retarding the ignition timing as much as possible until the engine stability reaches a certain deterioration level. Conventionally however, the target air-fuel ratio has been set at a richer range than the low HC range and the target ignition timing has been more advanced than the engine stability limit, in order to stabilize the engine for various disturbances. As a result, the HC concentration has not been minimized. To solve this problem, a new engine control has been developed. This control uses a crank angle sensor to simultaneously control the air-fuel ratio and the ignition timing so that the HC concentration can be minimized.
Journal Article

Virtual Engine System Prototyping with High-Resolution FFT for Digital Knock Detection Using CPU Model-Based Hardware/Software Co-simulation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0532
We have developed a full virtual engine system prototyping platform with 4-cylinder engine plant model, SH-2A CPU hardware model, and object code level software including OSEK OS. The virtual engine system prototyping platform can run simulation of an engine control system and digital knock detection system including 64-pt FFT computations that provide required high-resolution DSP capability for detection and control. To help the system design, debugging, and evaluation, the virtual system prototyping consists of behavior analyzer which can provide the visualization of useful CPU internal information for control algorithm tuning, RTOS optimization, and CPU architecture development. Thus the co-simulation enables time and cost saving at validation stage as validation can be performed at the design stage before production of actual components.
Journal Article

A Study of a Multiple-link Continuously Variable Valve Event and Lift (VVEL) System

2008-06-23
2008-01-1719
A new variable valve event and lift (VVEL) system has been developed by applying a multiple-link mechanism. This VVEL system can continuously vary the valve event angle and lift over a wide range from an exceptional small event angle and small lift and to a large event angle and large lift. This capability offers the potential to improve fuel economy, power output, emissions and other parameters of engine performance. The valve lift characteristics obtained with the VVEL system consist of a synthesis of the oscillatory motion characteristics of the multiple-link mechanism and the oscillating cam profile. With the multiple-link mechanism, the angular velocity of the oscillating cams varies during valve lift, but the valve lift characteristics incorporate both gentle ramp sections and sharp lift sections, the same as a conventional engine.
Journal Article

Development of a New Metal Substrate for Lean NOx Trap

2008-04-14
2008-01-0806
This paper presents a new substrate for Lean NOx Traps (LNT) which enables high NOx conversion efficiency, even after long-term aging, when using alkali metals as the NOx adsorber. When a conventional metal honeycomb is used as the LNT substrate, the chromium in the metal substrate migrates into the washcoat and reacts with the alkali metals after thermal aging. In order to help prevent this migration, we have developed a new substrate where a fine -alumina barrier is precipitated to the surface of the metal substrate. The new substrate is highly capable of preventing migration of chromium into the washcoat and greatly enhances the NOx conversion. The durability of the new substrate and emission test using a test vehicle are also examined.
Technical Paper

An Accurate Torque-based Engine Control by Learning Correlation between Torque and Throttle Position

2008-04-14
2008-01-1015
In recent years, integrated vehicle control systems have been developed to improve fuel economy and safety. As a result, engine control is shifting to torque-based systems for throttle / fuel / ignition control, to realize an engine torque demand from the system. This paper describes torque-based engine control technologies for SI (Spark Ignition) engine to improve torque control accuracy using a feedback control algorithm and an airflow sensor.
Technical Paper

Computer-Aided Calibration Methodology for Spark Advance Control Using Engine Cycle Simulation and Polynomial Regression Analysis

2007-10-29
2007-01-4023
The increasing number of controllable parameters in modern engine systems has led to increasingly complicated and enlarged engine control software. This in turn has created dramatic increases in software development time and cost. Model-based control design seems to be an effective way to reduce development time and costs and also to enable engineers to understand the complex relationship between the many controllable parameters and engine performance. In the present study, we have developed model-based methodologies for the engine calibration process, employing engine cycle simulation and regression analysis. The reliability of the proposed method was investigated by validating the regression model predictions with measured data.
Technical Paper

CPU Model-based Hardware/Software Co-design for Real-Time Embedded Control Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-0776
This paper proposes a new development method for highly reliable real-time embedded control systems using a CPU model-based hardware/software co-simulation. We take an approach that allows the full simulation of the virtual mechanical control system including CPU and object code level software. In this paper, Renesas SH-2A microcontroller model was developed on CoMET™ platform from VaST Systems Technology. A ETC (Electronic Throttle Control) system and engine control system were chosen to prove this concept. The ETB (Electronic Throttle Body) model on Saber® simulator from Synopsys® or engine model on MATLAB®/Simulink® simulator from MathWorks can be simulated with the SH-2A model. To help the system design, debug and evaluation, we developed an integrated behavior analyzer, which can display CPU behavior graphically during the simulation without affecting the simulation result, such as task level CPU load, interrupt statistics, software variable transition chart, and so on.
Technical Paper

Controller Grid: Real-Time Load Balancing of Distributed Embedded Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1615
The concept of a “controller grid”, which makes effective use of computational resources distributed on a network while guaranteeing real-time operation, is proposed and applied to realize highly advanced control. It facilitates the total optimization of a plant control and achieves the high efficiency that is not acquired by individual plant optimization. To realize this concept, migration of a control task customized to be executed on one particular microcontroller to another microcontroller is necessary while strictly observing the required response time. Two techniques to meet this requirement are proposed: “task migration” for a control system and “real-time guaranteed scheduling of task migration and execution”. The effectiveness of the controller grid is assessed by applying it in experiments with electronic-throttle-body (ETB) advanced control.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Calibration Process for Producing Optimal Spark Advance in a Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Variable Valve Train

2006-10-16
2006-01-3235
The increasing number of controllable parameters in modern engine systems leads to complicated and enlarged engine control software. This in turn has led to dramatic increases in software development time and costs in recent years. Model-based control design seems to be an effective way to reduce development time and costs. In the present study, we have developed model-based methodologies for the engine calibration process using an engine cycle simulation technique combined with a regression analysis of engine responses. From the results it was clear that the engine cycle simulation technique was useful in the engine calibration process, if the empirical parameters included in physical models were adjusted at typical sampling-points in several engine speeds and loads. The cycle simulation produced a multi-dimensional MBT map, and a response surface method was employed in the modeling of the engine map dataset using a polynomial equation.
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