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Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Transient DPF Pressure Drop under Cold Start Conditions in Diesel Engines

To monitor emission-related components/systems and to evaluate the presence of malfunctioning or failures that can affect emissions, current diesel engine regulations require the use of on-board diagnostics (OBD). For diesel particulate filters (DPF), the pressure drop across the DPF is monitored by the OBD as the pressure drop is approximately linear related to the soot mass deposited in a filter. However, sudden acceleration may cause a sudden decrease in DPF pressure drop under cold start conditions. This appears to be caused by water that has condensed in the exhaust pipe, but no detailed mechanism for this decrease has been established. The present study developed an experimental apparatus that reproduces rapid increases of the exhaust gas flow under cold start conditions and enables independent control of the amount of water as well as the gas flow rate supplied to the DPF.
Technical Paper

Semi-Premixed Diesel Combustion with Twin Peak Shaped Heat Release Using Two-Stage Fuel Injection

Characteristics of semi-premixed diesel combustion with a twin peak shaped heat release (twin combustion) were investigated under several in-cylinder gas conditions in a 0.55 L single cylinder diesel engine with common-rail fuel injection, super-charged, and with low pressure loop cooled EGR. The first-stage combustion fraction, the second injection timing, the intake oxygen concentration, and the intake gas pressure influence on thermal efficiency related parameters, the engine noise, and the exhaust gas emissions was systematically examined at a middle engine speed and load condition (2000 rpm, 0.7 MPa IMEP). The twin peak shaped heat release was realized with the first-stage premixed combustion with a sufficient premixing duration from the first fuel injection and with the second fuel injection taking place just after the end of the first-stage combustion.
Technical Paper

Development of a Micro-Reactor HC-SCR System and the Evaluation of NOx Reduction Characteristics

To reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines, the urea-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system has been introduced commercially. In urea-SCR, the freezing point of the urea aqueous solution, the deoxidizer, is −11°C, and the handling of the deoxidizer under cold weather conditions is a problem. Further, the ammonia escape from the catalyst and the generation of N2O emissions are also problems. To overcome these disadvantages of the urea-SCR system, the addition of a hydrocarbon deoxidizer has attracted attention. In this paper, a micro-reactor SCR system was developed and attached to the exhaust pipe of a single cylinder diesel engine. With the micro-reactor, the catalyst temperature, quantity of deoxidizer, and the space velocity can be controlled, and it is possible to use it with gas and liquid phase deoxidizers. The catalyst used in the tests reported here is Ag(1wt%)-γAl2O3.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Combustion and Emissions in a Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine with Natural Gas as the Main Fuel

Dual fuel combustion with premixed natural gas as the main fuel and diesel fuel as the ignition source was investigated in a 0.83 L, single cylinder, DI diesel engine. At low loads, increasing the equivalence ratio of natural gas to around 0.5 with intake throttling makes it possible to reduce the THC and CO emissions as well as to improve the thermal efficiency. At high loads, increasing the boost pressure moderates the combustion, but increases the THC and CO emissions, resulting in deterioration of the thermal efficiency. The EGR is essential to suppress the rapid combustion. As misfiring occurs with a compression ratio of 14.5 and there is excessively rapid combustion with 18.5 compression ratio, 16.5 is a suitable compression ratio.
Journal Article

Combustion Characteristics of Emulsified Blends of Water and Diesel Fuel in a Diesel Engine with Cooled EGR and Pilot Injection

Water and diesel fuel emulsions containing 13% and 26% water by volume were investigated in a modern diesel engine with relatively early pilot injection, supercharging, and cooled EGR. The heat release from the pilot injection with water emulsions is retarded toward the top dead center due to the poor ignitability, which enables larger pilot and smaller main injection quantities. This characteristic results in improvements in the thermal efficiency due to the larger heat release near the top dead center and the smaller afterburning. With the 26% water emulsion, mild, smokeless, and very low NOx operation is possible at an optimum pilot injection quantity and 15% intake oxygen with EGR at or below 0.9 MPa IMEP, a condition where large smoke emissions are unavoidable with regular unblended diesel fuel. Heat transfer analysis with Woschni's equation did not show the decrease in cooling loss with the water emulsion fuels.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Heat Release Analysis of Premixed Diesel Combustion with Various Fuel Ignitabilities and Oxygen Concentrations in a Constant Volume Combustion Vessel

Low NOx and soot free premixed diesel combustion can be realized by increasing ignition delays in low oxygen atmospheres, as well as the combustion here also depends on fuel ignitability. In this report single intermittent spray combustion with primary reference fuels and a normal heptane-toluene blend fuel under several oxygen concentrations in a constant volume combustion vessel was analyzed with high-speed color video and pressure data. Temperature and KL factor distributions are displayed with a 2-D two-color method. The results show that premixing is promoted with a decrease in oxygen concentration, and the local high temperature regions, above 2200 K, as well as the duration of their appearance decreases with the oxygen concentration. With normal heptane, mild premixed diesel combustion can be realized at 15 vol% oxygen and there is little luminous flame.
Journal Article

Combustion and Emissions with Bio-alcohol and Nonesterified Vegetable Oil Blend Fuels in a Small Diesel Engine

Combustion and exhaust gas emissions of alcohol and vegetable oil blends including a 20% ethanol + 40% 1-butanol + 40% vegetable oil blend and a 50% 1-butanol + 50% vegetable oil blend were examined in a single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, 0.83L direct injection diesel engine, with a supercharger and a common rail fuel injection system. A 50% diesel oil + 50% vegetable oil blend and regular unblended diesel fuel were used as reference fuels. The boost pressure was kept constant at 160 kPa (absolute pressure), and the cooled low pressure loop EGR was realized by mixing with a part of the exhaust gas. Pilot injection is effective to suppress rapid combustion due to the lower ignitability of the alcohol and vegetable oil blends. The effects of reductions in the intake oxygen concentration with cooled EGR and changes in the fuel injection pressure were investigated for the blended fuels.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Control by DME-Ethanol Binary Fuel and EGR

The HCCI engine offers the potential of low NOx emissions combined with diesel engine like high efficiency, however HCCI operation is restricted to low engine speeds and torques constrained by narrow noise (HCCI knocking) and misfiring limits. Gasoline like fuel vaporizes and mixes with air, but the mixture may auto-ignite at the same time, leading to heavy HCCI knocking. Retarding the CA50 (the crank angle of the 50% burn) is well known as a method to slow the maximum pressure rise rate and reduce HCCI knocking. The CA50 can be controlled by the fuel composition, for example, di-methyl ether (DME), which is easily synthesized from natural gas, has strong low temperature heat release (LTHR) characteristics and ethanol generates strong LTHR inhibitor effects. The utilization of DME-ethanol binary blended fuels has the potential to broaden the HCCI engine load-speed range.
Journal Article

Unsteady Vehicle Aerodynamics during a Dynamic Steering Action: 2nd Report, Numerical Analysis

Unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on vehicles during a dynamic steering action were investigated by numerical simulation, with a special focus on the vehicles' yaw and lateral motions. Two sedan-type vehicles with slightly different geometries at the front pillar, side skirt, under cover, and around the front wheel were adopted for comparison. In the first report, surface pressure on the body and total pressure behind the front wheel were measured in an on-road experiment. Then the relationships between the vehicles' lateral dynamic motion and unsteady aerodynamic characteristics during cornering motions were discussed. In this second report, the vehicles' meandering motions observed in on-road measurements were modeled numerically, and sinusoidal motions of lateral, yaw, and slip angles were imposed. The responding yaw moment was phase averaged, and its phase shift against the imposed slip angle was measured to assess the aerodynamic damping.
Technical Paper

Study on Simple and High-Speed Diesel Combustion Model with Wall Impingement

To design diesel engines adapted to future exhaust gas regulation, it would be advantageous to have a driving mode simulation for vehicle performance and exhaust emissions, including after-treatment systems. The combustion model for this objective must be able to simulate the engine performance in very short time. We have tried to develop such diesel engine combustion model by adding the improvements to the Hiroyasu model. In this paper, we detail the improvements that were added to this model and comparisons the calculated results by the improved model with experimental result.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Emulsified Blends of Aqueous Ethanol and Diesel Fuel in a Diesel Engine with High Rates of EGR and Split Fuel Injections

Silent, clean, and efficient combustion was realized with emulsified blends of aqueous ethanol and diesel fuel in a DI diesel with pilot injection and cooled EGR. The pilot injection sufficiently suppressed the rapid combustion to acceptable levels. The thermal efficiency with the emulsified fuel improved as the heat release with the pilot injection was retarded to near top dead center, due to poor ignitability and also due to a reduction in afterburning. With the emulsified fuel containing 40 vol% ethanol and 10 vol% water (E40W10), the smokeless operation range can be considerably extended even under low fuel injection pressure or low intake oxygen content conditions.
Journal Article

Improvement in DME-HCCI Combustion with Ethanol as a Low-Temperature Oxidation Inhibitor

Port injection of ethanol addition as an ignition inhibitor was implemented to control ignition timing and expand the operating range in DME fueled HCCI combustion. The ethanol reduced the rate of low-temperature oxidation and consequently delayed the onset of the high-temperature reaction with ultra-low NOx over a wide operating range. Along with the ethanol addition, changes in intake temperature, overall equivalence ratio, and engine speed are investigated and shown to be effective in HCCI combustion control and to enable an extension of operation range. A chemical reaction analysis was performed to elucidate details of the ignition inhibition on low-temperature oxidation of DME-HCCI combustion.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Trade-off between Soot and Nitrogen Oxides in Diesel-Like Combustion by Chemical Kinetic Calculation

This study makes use of the detailed mechanisms of n-heptane combustion, from gas reactions to soot particle formation and oxidation, and a two-stage model based on the CHEMKIN reactor network is developed and used to investigate the trade-off between soot and NOx emissions. The effects of the equivalence ratio, EGR, ambient pressure and temperature, and initial particle diameter are observed for various residence times. The results show that high rates of NOx formation are unavoidable under conditions where high reduction rates of soot particles are obtained. This suggests that suppression of the amount of soot during the formation stage is essential for simultaneous reductions in engine-out soot and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

HPC-LES for Unsteady Aerodynamics of a Heavy Duty Truck in Wind Gust - 2nd report: Coupled Analysis with Vehicle Motion

The effect of unsteady aerodynamics on the motion of a heavy duty truck subjected to sudden crosswinds was analyzed in vehicle-dynamics simulations. Large eddy simulation based on high-performance computing (LES-HPC) was applied to evaluate the effect of unsteady external forces on vehicle motion as a first step toward a more reliable vehicle motion analysis. Before the vehicle-dynamics simulations, the steady and unsteady aerodynamics of a simplified model of a heavy truck developed in our first report were analyzed by HPC-LES for various aerodynamic yaw angle conditions. On the basis of these aerodynamic analyses, two vehicle-dynamics simulations were conducted for transient crosswind conditions. One simulation was coupled with unsteady aerodynamic forces and the other applied a conventional approach with quasi-steady aerodynamics.
Technical Paper

Improvements to Premixed Diesel Combustion with Ignition Inhibitor Effects of Premixed Ethanol by Intake Port Injection

Premixed diesel combustion modes including low temperature combustion and MK combustion are expected to realize smokeless and low NOx emissions. As ignition must be delayed until after the end of fuel injection to establish these combustion modes, methods for active ignition control are being actively pursued. It is reported that alcohols including methanol and ethanol strongly inhibit low temperature oxidation in HCCI combustion offering the possibility to control ignition with alcohol induction. In this research improvement of diesel combustion and emissions by ethanol intake port injection for the promotion of premixing of the in-cylinder injected diesel fuel, and by increased EGR for the reduction of combustion temperature.
Technical Paper

HPC-LES for Unsteady Aerodynamics of a Heavy Duty Truck in Wind Gust - 1st report: Validation and Unsteady Flow Structures

Large eddy simulation based on high-performance computing technique was conducted to investigate the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a full-scale heavy duty truck subjected to sudden crosswind. The CFD results were applied to evaluate the effect of the unsteady external forces on a vehicle motion, as a first step toward a more reliable vehicle motion analysis. As the first report, the numerical method was validated on the DNW wind-tunnel data by comparing the time-averaged drag and lateral forces at various yawing angles up to 10 degrees. Then the method was applied to the case when the vehicle goes through the crosswind region. The time series of the aerodynamic forces were acquired and discussed through the visualization of instantaneous flow structures around the vehicle. It was observed that drastic undershooting and overshooting of the yawing moment acts on the vehicle during the rushing in and out process.
Technical Paper

Low Emission and Knock-Free Combustion with Rich and Lean Biform Mixture in a Dual-Fuel CI Engine with Induced LPG as the Main Fuel

Smokeless and ultra low NOx combustion without knocking in a dual-fuel diesel engine with induced LPG as the main fuel was established with a uniquely developed piston cavity divided by a lip in the sidewall. A small quantity of diesel fuel was directly injected at early compression stroke into the lower part of the cavity as an ignition source for this confined area, and this suppressed explosively rapid combustion just after ignition and spark-knock like combustion at later stage. A combination of the divided cavity, EGR, and intake air throttling was effective to simultaneously eliminate knocking, and reduce THC and NOx significantly.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Behavior of Unburned Hydrocarbon Components in Diesel Exhaust Under Transient Operations

Time resolved changes in unburned hydrocarbon emissions and their components were investigated in a DI diesel engine with a specially developed gas sampling system and gas chromatography. The tested transient operations include starting and increasing loads. At start-up with high equivalence ratios the total hydrocarbon (THC) at first increased, and after a maximum gradually decreased to reach a steady state value. Reducing the equivalence ratio of the high fueling at start-up and shortening the high fueling duration are effective to reduce THC emissions as long as sufficient startability is maintained. Lower hydrocarbons, mainly C1-C8, were the dominant components of the THC and mainly determined the THC behavior in the transient operations while the proportion of hydrocarbon (HC) components did not significantly change. The unregulated toxic substances, 1,3 butadiene and benzene were detected in small quantities.
Technical Paper

Ultra Low Emissions and High Performance Diesel Combustion with a Combination of High EGR, Three-Way Catalyst, and a Highly Oxygenated Fuel, Dimethoxy Methane (DMM)

Ultra low emissions and high performance combustion was achieved with a combination of high EGR, a three-way catalyst, and a highly oxygenated liquid fuel, neat dimethoxy methane (DMM), in an ordinary DI diesel engine. The smokeless nature of neat DMM effectively allowed stoichiometric diesel combustion by controlling BMEP with EGR. NOx, THC, and CO emissions were reduced with a three-way catalyst. At lower BMEP with excess air, the EGR effectively reduced NOx. High-speed video in a bottom view type engine revealed that luminous flame decreased with increased fuel oxygen content and almost disappeared with DMM.
Technical Paper

Analysis of car structures in future market and necessary policy for environment based on the vehicle performance and economic aspects

Increasing CO2 emissions from vehicles is becoming a major concern in automotive society, and variety of future types of cars are intensively investigated. However it is not clear which level of performance and cost must be achieved for the future cars to be available in a market and how much percentage of cars is necessary to be replaced by the future cars for the conservation of environment. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of market growth of future cars, as hybrid cars, electric vehicles and fuel cell cars, based on the performance and economic aspects. This paper investigates the emission reduction potential of these vehicles, and also compares the composition of vehicle types and emissions for a variety of scenarios of consumer characteristics, economic growth, fuel price, performance of cars, and carbon tax control measures. A model of user preference of cars was established from the statistic analysis of past data.