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Technical Paper

Robust Design on Adhesive Material and Bonding Process for Automotive Battery Pack

2019-04-02
2019-01-0160
Adhesive bonding is a key technology for the lighter weight of battery pack trays using aluminum material. A robust design method of adhesive bonding with the required strength for battery pack structure after degradation was developed to minimize variability of strength under various noise conditions. The parameter design based on Taguchi methods determined the optimum adhesive condition of the bonding process. To guarantee strength after degradation, it is essential to select a robust adhesive material and to minimize the strength variation derived from the adhesive material. The functional evaluation, which includes experimental design method, determined adhesive material with the minimum strength variation among material candidates. Then, robustness of the adhesive material itself has been evaluated as the result of collaboration with the adhesive material supplier. This analysis was able to regulate the compound ratio of raw materials without reducing the adhesive strength.
Technical Paper

Life Estimation of Rolling Bearings Based on the Colors on Sliding Surfaces

2019-04-02
2019-01-0180
It is experimentally known that the surface color of bearing balls gradually becomes brown during long term operation of the bearings under appropriate lubrication conditions. That exhibits the possibility of an estimation method for residual life of ball bearings without any abnormal wear on the surfaces by precise color measurements. Therefore, we examined what set colors on bearing balls by surface observation using scanning electron microscopy and subsurface analysis using transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that an amorphous carbon layer had gradually covered ball surfaces during operation of the bearings. The layer not only changed ball color but also made overall ball shapes closer to a complete sphere. The report also introduces a uniquely developed color analyzer which enabled color measurements on metallic surfaces, such as the above-mentioned balls.
Technical Paper

A Study of Vibration Reducing Effect on Vehicle Dynamics by Hydraulic Damper on Body Structure

2019-04-02
2019-01-0171
This research investigated the mechanism of the effects of hydraulic dampers, which are attached to vehicle body structures and are known by experience to suppress vehicle body vibration and enhance ride comfort and steering stability. In investigating the mechanism, we employed quantitative data from riding tests, and analytical data from simplified vibration models. In our assessment of ride comfort in riding tests using vehicles equipped with hydraulic dampers, we confirmed effects reducing body floor vibration in the low-frequency range. We also confirmed vibration reduction in unsprung suspension parts to be a notable mechanical characteristic which merits close attention in all cases. To investigate the mechanism of the vibration reduction effect in unsprung parts, we considered a simplified vibration model, in which the engine and unsprung parts, which are rigid, are linked to the vehicle body, which is an elastic body equipped with hydraulic dampers.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Ductile Fracture Propagation of High Strength Steels in Automotive Structures

2019-04-02
2019-01-1097
Initiation and propagation of ductile fractures in crashed automotive components made from high strength steels are investigated in order to understand the mechanism of fracture propagation. Fracture of these components is often prone to occur at the sheet edge in a strain concentration zone under crash deformation. The fracture then extends intricately to the inside of the structure under the influence of the local stress and strain field. In this study, a simple tensile test and a 3-point bending test of high strength steels with tensile strengths of 590 MPa and 1180 MPa are carried out. In the tensile test, a coupon having a hole and a notch is deformed in a uniaxial condition. The effect of the notch type on the strain concentration and fracture behavior are investigated by using a digital imaging strain measurement system.
Technical Paper

Development of Intelligent Power Unit for 2018 Model Year Accord Hybrid

2019-04-02
2019-01-0592
A compact intelligent power unit capable of being installed under the rear seating was developed for the 2018 model year Accord Hybrid that is to be equipped with the SPORT HYBRID Intelligent Multi Mode Drive (i-MMD) system. The space under the rear seat features multiple constraints on dimensions. In the longitudinal direction, it is necessary to attempt to help ensure occupant leg room and to position the fuel tank; in the vertical direction, it is necessary to attempt to help ensure occupants comfort and a minimum ground clearance; and in the lateral direction, it is necessary to avoid the position of the body side frames and the penetrating section of the exhaust pipe. The technologies described below were applied in order to reduce the size of components, making it possible to position the IPU amid these constraint conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Joint Sheet Gasket with Reduced Amount of Aramid Fibers

2018-10-30
2018-32-0026
Gaskets made of joint sheet are widely used for mating surfaces in engines and transmissions. Before the regulation was issued for restrictions of asbestos usage as a hazardous substance, Honda had already developed non-asbestos joint sheets using aramid fibers substituting for asbestos and started applying them to the products sold worldwide. However, aramid fiber is significantly expensive but, on the other hand, the amount of aramid fiber mixed in a joint sheet will largely influence the sealing performance. Thus, when aramid fiber is applied, cost increase becomes a concern. With this background, a gasket material was designed for reducing the cost without sacrificing the required reliability as a joint sheet assuming the actual applications. The cost was reduced mainly by reducing the amount of aramid fibers used.
Technical Paper

Atomization in High-Pressure Die Casting - Step 2 Simulation of Atomized Flow of Molten Aluminum by LES-VOF Method

2018-04-03
2018-01-1393
The atomization of molten aluminum when injected during high-pressure die casting is analyzed to determine its effect in enhancing the strength of the product being cast. In the previously reported first step of this study, molten aluminum was injected into open space and its atomization was observed photographically. Now in the second step of the study, a simulation is conducted to determine how the molten aluminum becomes atomized at the injection nozzle (gate) and how this atomized material flows and fills the cavity. A new simulation method is developed based on large-eddy simulation coupled with the volume-of-fluid method. The simulation system is verified by comparing its output with photographs taken in the first step of the study. Simulations are then conducted using an approximation of a real cavity to visualize how it is filled by the atomized molten aluminum.
Technical Paper

Research of Atomization Phenomena in HPDC-Step 1 Feature of Gas Porosity Dispersion and Photography of Atomized Flow

2018-04-03
2018-01-1392
In recent years, studies have been conducted on the relationship between the J factor, which indicates flow of molten aluminum at the time of injection, and the quality of HPDC products. The flow of molten metal at a high J factor is referred to as “Atomized Flow.” The authors and others conducted studies on the relationship between the J factor and the strength of HPDC products. An area exceeding 300MPa was found in the product produced at a high J factor corresponding to the “Atomized Flow.” The defect was less in the above-mentioned position because the gas porosity was finely dispersed. Considering that the fine dispersion of gas porosity is related to the “Atomized Flow”, pictures were taken to analyze “Atomized Flow.” The molten aluminum was ejected into an open space at a high speed and the splashed conditions were photographed. From the images taken by the pulse laser permeation, the conditions of microscopic atomized flow were observed precisely.
Technical Paper

Non-Destructive Measurement of Residual Strain in Connecting Rods Using Neutrons

2018-04-03
2018-01-1063
Increasing the strength of materials is effective in reducing weight and boosting structural part performance, but there are cases in where the residual strain generated during the process of manufacturing of high-strength materials results in a decline of durability. It is therefore important to understand how the residual strain in a manufactured component changes due to processing conditions. In the case of a connecting rod, because the strain load on the connecting rod rib sections is high, it is necessary to clearly understand the distribution of strain in the ribs. However, because residual strain is generally measured by using X-ray diffractometers or strain gauges, measurements are limited to the surface layer of the parts. Neutron beams, however, have a higher penetration depth than X-rays, allowing for strain measurement in the bulk material.
Technical Paper

Integrated Cooling System for Underfloor High Voltage Devices in PHEV

2018-04-03
2018-01-1184
Compared to conventional hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles have a larger-capacity battery and an onboard charger. These devices are mounted in functionally optimal locations, so it is a challenge to provide a thermal management system that achieves a good balance between high cooling performance and low cost. The battery should be operated at required temperature to secure safety and durability at high temperatures, and to mitigate the decrease in output power and capacity. However, setting separate cooling systems suited for each device leads to both an increased cost and weight. Therefore, an integrated water cooling system was devised for the battery, charger, and DC-DC converter, and the cooling performance was verified through simulations and tests. A valve installed before the battery in the cooling circuit allows it to be bypassed when coolant temperature rises due the charger or low-speed engine operation, helping to preserve battery life.
Journal Article

Development of Electric Powertrain for CLARITY PLUG-IN HYBRID

2018-04-03
2018-01-0415
Honda has developed the 2018 model CLARITY PLUG-IN HYBRID. Honda’s new plug-in hybrid is a midsize sedan and shares a body platform with the CLARITY FUEL CELL and the CLARITY ELECTRIC. The vehicle’s electric powertrain boosts driving performance as an electric vehicle (EV) over Honda’s previous plug-in hybrid. The CLARITY PLUG-IN HYBRID’s electric powertrain consists of a traction motor and generator built into the transmission, a Power Control Unit (PCU) positioned above the transmission, an Intelligent Power Unit (IPU) fitted under the floor, and an onboard charger fitted below the rear trunk. The PCU integrates an inverter that drives the traction motor, an inverter that drives the generator, and a DC-DC converter to boost battery voltage (referred to as a “Voltage Control Unit (VCU)” below).
Technical Paper

Development of Traction Motor for New Fuel Cell Vehicle and New Electric Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0450
Honda’s purpose is to realize the joy and freedom of mobility and a sustainable society in which people can enjoy life. As such, three series of environmental vehicles-FCVs, BEVs, and PHEVs-have been developed so that users in communities around the world can select the ones best suited to their local energy circumstances and individual lifestyles. This paper discusses a structure that enhances both the motive power performance and quietness of a newly developed FCV/BEV traction motor. To enhance motive power performance, the research focused on the stator lamination technique. As for methods of affixing the stator’s layers, the practice with previous models has been adhesion lamination, using electric steel sheets that come pre-made with adhesive layers. Having adhesive layers, however, lowers the ratio (space factor) of steel sheet layers. The new motor uses electric steel sheets without an adhesive layer in order to enhance motive power performance.
Technical Paper

Development of High-Power-Density DC-DC Converter Using Coupled Inductors for Clarity Plug-In Hybrid

2018-04-03
2018-01-0458
Honda has developed an electric powertrain for a 2017 plug-in hybrid vehicle using its second-generation SPORT HYBRID i-MMD powertrain system as a base. The application of the newly developed powertrain system realizes a long all-electric range (AER), allowing operation as an EV for almost all everyday driving scenarios, with dynamic performance making it possible for the vehicle to operate as an EV across the entire speed range, up to a maximum speed of 100 mph. The amount of assist provided by power from the batteries during acceleration has been increased, helping to downsize the engine while also balancing powerful acceleration with quietness achieved by controlling racing of the engine. In order to realize this EV performance with the second-generation SPORT HYBRID i-MMD system as the base, it was necessary to increase the power output of the DC-DC converter, taking restrictions on space into consideration.
Technical Paper

Study of 450-kW Ultra Power Dynamic Charging System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1343
This research sought to develop a dynamic charging system, achieving an unlimited EV cruising range by charging the EV at high power during cruising. This system would help make it possible to finish battery charging in a short time by contact with the EV while cruising and enable drivers to freely cruise their intended routes after charging. A simulation of dynamic charging conditions was conducted for ordinary autonomous cruising (i.e., ordinary EV cruising) when dynamically charging at a high power of 450-kW (DC 750 V, 600 A). This report discusses the study results of a method of building the infrastructure, as well as looking at the cruise test results and future outlook. In particular, the research clarified the conditions for achieving an unlimited vehicle cruising range with a 450-kW dynamic charging system. It also demonstrated that this system would allow battery capacities to be greatly reduced and make it possible to secure the battery supply volume and resources.
Journal Article

Prediction of Wear Loss of Exhaust Valve Seat of Gasoline Engine Based on Rig Test Result

2018-04-03
2018-01-0984
The purpose of this research was to predict the amount of wear on exhaust valve seats in durability testing of gasoline engines. Through the rig wear test, a prediction formula was constructed with multiple factors as variables. In the rig test, the wear rate was measured in some cases where a number of factors of valve seat wear were within a certain range. Through these tests, sensitivity for each factor was determined from the measured wear data, and then a prediction formula for calculating the amount of wear was constructed with high sensitivity factors. Combining the wear amount calculation formula with the operation mode of the actual engine, the wear amount in that mode can be calculated. The calculated wear amount showed a high correlation with the wear amount measured in bench tests and the wear amount measured in vehicle tests.
Journal Article

Development of GFRTP Crush Box with Consideration of Use Environment and Effect of Fiber Orientation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0498
Regulation of automotive CO2 emissions is becoming increasingly stringent throughout the world in response to global warming. For automakers, this means a focus not only on increasing the fuel economy of powertrains, but also on reducing automotive driving resistance. High expectations are held for thermoplastic fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) for the realization of automotive weight savings while also offering high levels of productivity and recyclability. Thermoplastic FRP crush boxes display a higher level of energy absorption performance than metal (steel, aluminum, etc.) crush boxes. This will contribute to automotive weight savings and improved package design. In the case of automotive front bumper beam systems, it is necessary to realize stable load characteristics irrespective of the use environment. It is therefore necessary to consider the effects of temperature and thermoplastic resin degradation.
Journal Article

Development of New Hydrogen Fueling Method for Fuel Cell Motorcycle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1184
A new hydrogen fueling protocol named MC Formula Moto was developed for fuel cell motorcycles (FCM) with a smaller hydrogen storage capacity than those of light duty FC vehicles (FCV) currently covered in the SAE J2601 standard (over than 2kg storage). Building on the MC Formula based protocol from the 2016 SAE J2601 standard, numerous new techniques were developed and tested to accommodate the smaller storage capacity: an initial pressure estimation using the connection pulse, a fueling time counter which begins the main fueling time prior to the connection pulse, a pressure ramp rate fallback control, and other techniques. The MC Formula Moto fueling protocol has the potential to be implemented at current hydrogen stations intended for fueling of FCVs using protocols such as SAE J2601. This will allow FCMs to use the existing and rapidly growing hydrogen infrastructure, precluding the need for exclusive dispensers or stations.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Powertrain for New Model Hybrid Sports Utility Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1158
An electric powertrain has been developed for Honda’s 2017 model hybrid SUV. The electric powertrain developed for the hybrid model consists of a Twin Motor Unit (TMU), a high-output front motor mated to a 7-speed DCT for efficient power generation, a Power Control Unit (PCU), and an Intelligent Power Unit (IPU). The TMU is made up of two motor units able to drive the left and right wheels independently, as employed in Honda’s flagship sedan and high-end sports cars. The PCU delivers electric power to the motors, and the IPU stores drive torque and regenerative energy. The high-output front motor and TMU are equipped with sports hybrid SH-AWD components, as used in existing mass-production models, in order to realize handling performance equaling that of the base SUV. Positioned under the floor outside the passenger cabin, the PCU has a newly developed 3-in-1 inverter, motor control ECU, and 12V DC-DC converter built-in, and is housed in a fully waterproof structure.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell Boost Converter Using Coupled-Inductor for New FCV

2017-03-28
2017-01-1224
A new fuel cell voltage control unit (FCVCU) has been developed for a new fuel cell vehicle (FCV). In order to simultaneously reduce the electric powertrain size and increase the driving motor power, the FCVCU is needed to boost the voltage supplied from the fuel cell (FC) stack to the driving motor. The FCVCU circuit configuration has four single-phase chopper circuits arranged in parallel to form a 4-phase interleaved circuit. The intelligent power module (IPM) is a full SiC IPM, the first known use to date in a mass production vehicle, and efficiency has been enhanced by making use of the effects of the increased frequency to reduce both the size of the unit and the loss from passive parts. In addition, a coupled inductor was used to reduce the inductor size. As a result, the inductor volume per unit power was reduced approximately 30% compared to the previous VCU inductor.
Journal Article

Effects of Cavitation and Hydraulic Flip in 3-Hole GDI Injectors

2017-03-28
2017-01-0848
The performance of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines is governed by multiple physical processes such as the internal nozzle flow and the mixing of the liquid stream with the gaseous ambient environment. A detailed knowledge of these processes even for complex injectors is very important for improving the design and performance of combustion engines all the way to pollutant formation and emissions. However, many processes are still not completely understood, which is partly caused by their restricted experimental accessibility. Thus, high-fidelity simulations can be helpful to obtain further understanding of GDI injectors. In this work, advanced simulation and experimental methods are combined in order to study the spray characteristics of two different 3-hole GDI injectors.
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