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Technical Paper

An Investigation of a Reduction Method of the Body Vibration at a Situation of Engine Start-Stop

2019-04-02
2019-01-0785
In recent years, electrification of powertrains has been promoted to improve fuel efficiency and CO2 emissions. Along with electrification, it is possible to reduce engine usage frequency and improve the fuel efficiency in traveling. Especially in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the state changes from motor assist mode to engine firing mode. As a result, stay time in eigenvalue of a powertrain is shortened, and vibration of the vehicle body at the engine start situation is able to be reduced as compared with conventional engine-driven vehicle. However, since the HEV is equipped with a high compression ratio engine for improving fuel economy, there is cause for concern that excitation force generated by the powertrain at the time of engine start increases. Also, the vehicle body vibration at engine start situations requires further consideration, because the operation frequency of engine decreases.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Temperature Active Three Way Catalyst

2019-04-02
2019-01-1293
In recent years, fuel efficiency has been improved by using many technologies such as downsizing engine, turbocharger and direct injection to reduce CO2 emissions from vehicle. However, the temperature of the exhaust gas from the engines using these technologies becomes lower than that form conventional one. That increases the difficulty for three-way catalyst (TWC) to purify CO, HC and NOx enough because TWC is not warmed up just after engine starting. In order to reduce cold emission mentioned above, we have been studying the warmup strategy of which the key property is thermal mass of TWC. To achieve early warmup, thermal mass of TWC is reduced by lightening the weight of (1) substrate and (2) catalytic materials, namely washcoat amount. Along with the strategy, we have developed TWC with lightweight substrate and applied it from the 2016 model year CIVIC.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling Study of Detailed Gas Diffusivity into Catalyst Washcoat for Lean NOx Catalyst

2019-04-02
2019-01-0993
To evaluate the relationship between the exhaust gas purification performance and the catalyst pore properties related to gas diffusion, an elementary reaction model was combined with gas diffusion into catalyst pores, referred to as the pseudo-2D gas diffusion/reaction model. It was constructed for Pt/Al2O3 + CeO2 catalyst as lean NOx catalyst. The gas diffusion was described as macro pore diffusion between the catalyst particles and meso pore diffusion within the particle. The kinetic model was composed of 26 reactions of NO/CO/O2 chemistry including 17 Pt/Al2O3 catalyst reactions and 9 CeO2 reactions. Arrhenius parameters were optimized using activity measurement results from various catalysts with various pore properties, meso pore volume and diameter, macro pore volume and diameter, particle size, and washcoat thickness. Good agreement was achieved between the measured and calculated values.
Technical Paper

Design of High Performance Coated GPF with 2D/3D Structure Analysis

2019-04-02
2019-01-0977
In recent years along with stringent the regulations, vehicles equipped with gasoline particulate filter (GPF) have started to launch. Compared to bare GPF, coated GPF (cGPF) requires not only PN filtration efficiency, low pressure drop, but also purification performance. In the wall flow type cGPF having a complicated the pore shape, the pore structure further irregularly changes depending on the coated state of the catalyst, so it is difficult to understand the matter of in-wall. In order to advance of cGPF function, it was researched that revealing the relevance between pore structure change in the wall and GPF function. Therefore, to understand the catalyst coated state difference, cGPF of several coating methods were prepared, and their properties were evaluated by various analyses, and performance was tested.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Pressure Drop Increase Mechanism by Ash Accumulated of Coated GPF

2019-04-02
2019-01-0981
With accelerating exhaust gas regulations in recent years, not only CO / HC / NOx but also PN regulation represented by Euro 6 d, China 6 are getting stricter. PN reduction by engine combustion technology development also progresses, but considering RDE, PN reduction by after treatment technology is also indispensable. To reduce PN exhausted from the gasoline engine, it is effective to equip GPF with a filter structure. Considering the installation of GPF in limited space, we developed a system that so far replaces the second TWC with GPF for the TWC 2 bed system. In order to replace the second TWC with GPF, we chose the coated GPF with filtering and TWC functions. Since the initial pressure drop and the catalyst amount (purification performance) of coated GPF have a conflicting relationship, we developed the coated GPF that can achieve both the low initial pressure drop and high purification performance.
Technical Paper

Diesel CAI Combustion in Uniflow Scavenging 2-Stroke Engine Provided with Port Fuel Injection Device

2018-10-30
2018-32-0015
We studied a simple and cost effective controlled auto ignition (CAI) combustion engine in order to achieve simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot, which are issues in diffusion combustion. The engine type was a uniflow scavenging 2-stroke engine, and the fuel used was diesel, as is common in diesel engines. We examined the position of the injector that effectively forms the premixture and realized stable operation with diesel fuel by the low pressure fuel injection device for port fuel injection (PFI), and it was found that the CAI combustion ignition timing can be controlled through setting the air/fuel ratio that obtains the optimal ignition timing per operation conditions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rotational Vibration Mechanism of Camshaft at High Engine Speed in Engines with In-Line Four-Cylinder DOHC Configuration

2018-10-30
2018-32-0072
In engines having an inline four cylinder DOHC configuration, the rotational vibrations of camshaft increase at high engine speeds above 10000 rpm, causing an increase of tension in the cam chain. It is therefore difficult to realize an optimum designing of a cam chain system when the durability has to be taken into considerations. Using the simulation we analyzed in this research how the rotational vibrations and tension increase at high engine speeds in an inline four cylinder DOHC engine. As its consequent, it is understood that the increases of rotational vibrations and tension caused by the resonance of the spring mass vibration system in which the cam chain serves as springs and the camshafts as the equivalent masses. Also it is found out that the vibration system is of a unique non-linear type in which the resonance of the fourth order frequency is also excited by the crankshaft torque fluctuations of the second order frequency.
Technical Paper

Study of an Aftertreatment System for HLSI Lean-burn Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0945
Lean-burn is an effective means of reducing CO2 emissions. To date, Homogenous Lean Charge Spark Ignition (HLSI) combustion, which lowers emissions of both CO2 and NOx, has been studied. Although HLSI realizes lower emission, it is a major challenge for lean-burn engines to meet SULEV regulations, so we have developed a new aftertreatment system for HLSI engines. It consists of three types of catalysts that have different functions, as well as special engine control methods. As the first stage in achieving SULEV emissions, this study focused on enhancing performance under lean conditions. HLSI engine exhaust gases contain high concentrations of hydrocarbons, including a large amount of paraffin, which are difficult to purify, rather than low concentrations of NOx. Therefore, the key point in low emissions is to purify not only NOx, but also high concentrations of paraffin at the same time.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation Software for Prediction of Hydrogen Temperature and Pressure during Fueling Process

2018-04-03
2018-01-1304
In this study, in order to relax the pre-cooling regulations at hydrogen fueling stations, we develop a software algorithm to simulate an actual hydrogen fueling process to Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) tanks. The simulation model in the software consists of the same filling equipment found at an actual hydrogen fueling station. Additionally, the same supply conditions (pre-cooling temperature, pressure and mass flow rate) as at a hydrogen fueling station were set to the simulation model. Based on the supply conditions, the software simulates the temperature and pressure of hydrogen in each part of filling equipment. In order to verify the accuracy of the software, we compare the temperature and pressure simulated at each stage of the filling process with experimental data. We show that by using the software it is possible to accurately calculate the hydrogen temperature and pressure at each point during the fueling process.
Journal Article

Development of Electric Powertrain for CLARITY PLUG-IN HYBRID

2018-04-03
2018-01-0415
Honda has developed the 2018 model CLARITY PLUG-IN HYBRID. Honda’s new plug-in hybrid is a midsize sedan and shares a body platform with the CLARITY FUEL CELL and the CLARITY ELECTRIC. The vehicle’s electric powertrain boosts driving performance as an electric vehicle (EV) over Honda’s previous plug-in hybrid. The CLARITY PLUG-IN HYBRID’s electric powertrain consists of a traction motor and generator built into the transmission, a Power Control Unit (PCU) positioned above the transmission, an Intelligent Power Unit (IPU) fitted under the floor, and an onboard charger fitted below the rear trunk. The PCU integrates an inverter that drives the traction motor, an inverter that drives the generator, and a DC-DC converter to boost battery voltage (referred to as a “Voltage Control Unit (VCU)” below).
Journal Article

Ag-Type PM Oxidation Catalyst with Nd Added to Increase Contact Property between PM and Catalyst

2018-04-03
2018-01-0328
Honda diesel engine vehicles that go on the market in 2018 will be equipped with a newly developed silver (Ag)-type catalyzed diesel particulate filter (cDPF). Ag has high particulate matter (PM) oxidation performance, but conventional catalyst-carrying methods cause weak contact property between PM and Ag; therefore, the newly Ag-type cDPF was developed on the concept of enhancing the property of contact between PM and the catalyst to realize contact property enhancement at the macro, meso, and nano scales. As a result, the newly developed catalyst showed an enhancement of T90 performance by a factor of approximately 2 relative to the conventional Ag-type catalyst in fresh condition. Durability in the environment of an automobile in use was examined through hydrothermal aging, lean-rich (L/R) aging, sulfur (S) poisoning, and ash deposition. The results have confirmed that hydrothermal aging is the greatest factor in deterioration.
Journal Article

Prediction of Wear Loss of Exhaust Valve Seat of Gasoline Engine Based on Rig Test Result

2018-04-03
2018-01-0984
The purpose of this research was to predict the amount of wear on exhaust valve seats in durability testing of gasoline engines. Through the rig wear test, a prediction formula was constructed with multiple factors as variables. In the rig test, the wear rate was measured in some cases where a number of factors of valve seat wear were within a certain range. Through these tests, sensitivity for each factor was determined from the measured wear data, and then a prediction formula for calculating the amount of wear was constructed with high sensitivity factors. Combining the wear amount calculation formula with the operation mode of the actual engine, the wear amount in that mode can be calculated. The calculated wear amount showed a high correlation with the wear amount measured in bench tests and the wear amount measured in vehicle tests.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations of Mixture Formation in Combustion Chambers of Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines Incorporating a Sub-Chamber

2017-10-08
2017-01-2280
The aim of this study is to clarify the mixture formation in the combustion chamber of our developed natural gas engine incorporating the sub-chamber injection system, in which natural gas is directly injected into a combustion sub-chamber in order to completely separate rich mixture in the sub-chamber, suitable for ignition, from ultra-lean mixture in the main chamber. Mixture distributions in chambers with and without sub-chamber were numerically simulated at a variety of operating conditions. The commercial software of Fluent 16.0 was used to conduct simulations based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations in an axial 2 dimensional numerical domain considering movements of piston. Non-reactive flow in the combustion chamber was simulated before the ignition timing at an engine speed of 2000 rpm. The turbulence model employed here is standard k-ε model. Air-fuel ratio is set with a lean condition of 30.
Technical Paper

New 1.0L I3 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-1029
To comply with the environmental demands for CO2 reduction without compromising driving performance, a new 1.0 liter I3 turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine has been developed. This engine is the smallest product in the new Honda VTEC TURBO engine series (1), and it is intended to be used in small to medium-sized passenger car category vehicles, enhancing both fuel economy through downsizing, state-of-the-art friction reduction technologies such as electrically controlled variable displacement oil pump and timing belt in oil system, and also driving performance through turbocharging with an electrically controlled waste gate. This developed engine has many features in common with other VTEC TURBO engines such as the 1.5 liter I4 turbocharged engine (2) (3), which has been introduced already into the market.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Powertrain for New Model Hybrid Sports Utility Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1158
An electric powertrain has been developed for Honda’s 2017 model hybrid SUV. The electric powertrain developed for the hybrid model consists of a Twin Motor Unit (TMU), a high-output front motor mated to a 7-speed DCT for efficient power generation, a Power Control Unit (PCU), and an Intelligent Power Unit (IPU). The TMU is made up of two motor units able to drive the left and right wheels independently, as employed in Honda’s flagship sedan and high-end sports cars. The PCU delivers electric power to the motors, and the IPU stores drive torque and regenerative energy. The high-output front motor and TMU are equipped with sports hybrid SH-AWD components, as used in existing mass-production models, in order to realize handling performance equaling that of the base SUV. Positioned under the floor outside the passenger cabin, the PCU has a newly developed 3-in-1 inverter, motor control ECU, and 12V DC-DC converter built-in, and is housed in a fully waterproof structure.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell Boost Converter Using Coupled-Inductor for New FCV

2017-03-28
2017-01-1224
A new fuel cell voltage control unit (FCVCU) has been developed for a new fuel cell vehicle (FCV). In order to simultaneously reduce the electric powertrain size and increase the driving motor power, the FCVCU is needed to boost the voltage supplied from the fuel cell (FC) stack to the driving motor. The FCVCU circuit configuration has four single-phase chopper circuits arranged in parallel to form a 4-phase interleaved circuit. The intelligent power module (IPM) is a full SiC IPM, the first known use to date in a mass production vehicle, and efficiency has been enhanced by making use of the effects of the increased frequency to reduce both the size of the unit and the loss from passive parts. In addition, a coupled inductor was used to reduce the inductor size. As a result, the inductor volume per unit power was reduced approximately 30% compared to the previous VCU inductor.
Journal Article

Development of GFRTP Crush Box with Consideration of Use Environment and Effect of Fiber Orientation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0498
Regulation of automotive CO2 emissions is becoming increasingly stringent throughout the world in response to global warming. For automakers, this means a focus not only on increasing the fuel economy of powertrains, but also on reducing automotive driving resistance. High expectations are held for thermoplastic fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) for the realization of automotive weight savings while also offering high levels of productivity and recyclability. Thermoplastic FRP crush boxes display a higher level of energy absorption performance than metal (steel, aluminum, etc.) crush boxes. This will contribute to automotive weight savings and improved package design. In the case of automotive front bumper beam systems, it is necessary to realize stable load characteristics irrespective of the use environment. It is therefore necessary to consider the effects of temperature and thermoplastic resin degradation.
Journal Article

Application of Model-Based Development to Engine Restart Vibration After Idling Stop

2017-03-28
2017-01-1053
Idling stop systems are being increasingly adopted in conventional engine vehicles as well as hybrid electric vehicles to increase fuel efficiency. When the engine starts, body vibration occurs that is caused by the rigid body eigenvalues of the power plant during initial combustion. Engine restart vibration after an idling stop is caused by the input force from the transmission, and the reaction force from the drive shaft as well as the input force from the engine. This phenomenon occurs frequently when the engine is restarted from the idling stop, the vibration is increasingly annoying to passengers. Usually, the vehicle development process is carried out in accordance with the V process. The V process divides the vehicle development process into two stages. The first stage is called the vehicle design stage to determine the characteristic. The second stage is called the vehicle verification stage to verify the performance.
Journal Article

Effects of Cavitation and Hydraulic Flip in 3-Hole GDI Injectors

2017-03-28
2017-01-0848
The performance of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines is governed by multiple physical processes such as the internal nozzle flow and the mixing of the liquid stream with the gaseous ambient environment. A detailed knowledge of these processes even for complex injectors is very important for improving the design and performance of combustion engines all the way to pollutant formation and emissions. However, many processes are still not completely understood, which is partly caused by their restricted experimental accessibility. Thus, high-fidelity simulations can be helpful to obtain further understanding of GDI injectors. In this work, advanced simulation and experimental methods are combined in order to study the spray characteristics of two different 3-hole GDI injectors.
Journal Article

Development of New Hydrogen Fueling Method for Fuel Cell Motorcycle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1184
A new hydrogen fueling protocol named MC Formula Moto was developed for fuel cell motorcycles (FCM) with a smaller hydrogen storage capacity than those of light duty FC vehicles (FCV) currently covered in the SAE J2601 standard (over than 2kg storage). Building on the MC Formula based protocol from the 2016 SAE J2601 standard, numerous new techniques were developed and tested to accommodate the smaller storage capacity: an initial pressure estimation using the connection pulse, a fueling time counter which begins the main fueling time prior to the connection pulse, a pressure ramp rate fallback control, and other techniques. The MC Formula Moto fueling protocol has the potential to be implemented at current hydrogen stations intended for fueling of FCVs using protocols such as SAE J2601. This will allow FCMs to use the existing and rapidly growing hydrogen infrastructure, precluding the need for exclusive dispensers or stations.
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