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Technical Paper

Designing for Turbine Housing Weight Reduction Using Thermal Fatigue Crack Propagation Prediction Technology

2019-04-02
2019-01-0533
Turbine housings in car engine turbochargers, which use costly stainless steel castings, account for nearly 50% of the parts cost of a turbocharger. They are also the component which controls the competitiveness of the turbocharger, in terms of both function and cost. In this research, focusing on thermal fatigue resistance which is one of the main functions demanded of a turbine housing, achieving reduction in wall thickness while securing sufficient thermal fatigue resistance, it is possible to reduce the amount of material used in the turbine housing and aimed for cost reduction. Therefore, we built a method to quantitatively predict, using 3D FEM, the lifespan from the initiation of thermal fatigue cracking to the formation of a penetrating crack which leads to gas leakage.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rotational Vibration Mechanism of Camshaft at High Engine Speed in Engines with In-Line Four-Cylinder DOHC Configuration

2018-10-30
2018-32-0072
In engines having an inline four cylinder DOHC configuration, the rotational vibrations of camshaft increase at high engine speeds above 10000 rpm, causing an increase of tension in the cam chain. It is therefore difficult to realize an optimum designing of a cam chain system when the durability has to be taken into considerations. Using the simulation we analyzed in this research how the rotational vibrations and tension increase at high engine speeds in an inline four cylinder DOHC engine. As its consequent, it is understood that the increases of rotational vibrations and tension caused by the resonance of the spring mass vibration system in which the cam chain serves as springs and the camshafts as the equivalent masses. Also it is found out that the vibration system is of a unique non-linear type in which the resonance of the fourth order frequency is also excited by the crankshaft torque fluctuations of the second order frequency.
Technical Paper

Diesel CAI Combustion in Uniflow Scavenging 2-Stroke Engine Provided with Port Fuel Injection Device

2018-10-30
2018-32-0015
We studied a simple and cost effective controlled auto ignition (CAI) combustion engine in order to achieve simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot, which are issues in diffusion combustion. The engine type was a uniflow scavenging 2-stroke engine, and the fuel used was diesel, as is common in diesel engines. We examined the position of the injector that effectively forms the premixture and realized stable operation with diesel fuel by the low pressure fuel injection device for port fuel injection (PFI), and it was found that the CAI combustion ignition timing can be controlled through setting the air/fuel ratio that obtains the optimal ignition timing per operation conditions.
Technical Paper

Influence of Shock Absorber Friction on Vehicle Ride-Comfort Studied by Numerical Simulation Using Classical Single Wheel Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0692
Along with the suspension improvement in these two decades, it is well known that the suspension friction force became one of major parameters to affect ride comfort performance. However, it was difficult to carry out quantitative prediction on ride comfort improvement against friction force change with high correlation. It was difficult to analyze correlation between actual vehicle performance and simulation since there were difficulties in controlling damping force and friction individually. On the other hand, magneto-rheological shock absorber (MR Shock) has had several applications and widely spread to passenger vehicles. The large variation and high response of damping force especially in slow piston speed region contributes to achieve an excellent vehicle dynamics performance. However, MR Shock shows the high friction characteristics, due to the unique sliding regime of internal parts. It is said that this high friction characteristic is causing obstacles in ride-comfort.
Technical Paper

Non-Destructive Measurement of Residual Strain in Connecting Rods Using Neutrons

2018-04-03
2018-01-1063
Increasing the strength of materials is effective in reducing weight and boosting structural part performance, but there are cases in where the residual strain generated during the process of manufacturing of high-strength materials results in a decline of durability. It is therefore important to understand how the residual strain in a manufactured component changes due to processing conditions. In the case of a connecting rod, because the strain load on the connecting rod rib sections is high, it is necessary to clearly understand the distribution of strain in the ribs. However, because residual strain is generally measured by using X-ray diffractometers or strain gauges, measurements are limited to the surface layer of the parts. Neutron beams, however, have a higher penetration depth than X-rays, allowing for strain measurement in the bulk material.
Journal Article

Prediction of Wear Loss of Exhaust Valve Seat of Gasoline Engine Based on Rig Test Result

2018-04-03
2018-01-0984
The purpose of this research was to predict the amount of wear on exhaust valve seats in durability testing of gasoline engines. Through the rig wear test, a prediction formula was constructed with multiple factors as variables. In the rig test, the wear rate was measured in some cases where a number of factors of valve seat wear were within a certain range. Through these tests, sensitivity for each factor was determined from the measured wear data, and then a prediction formula for calculating the amount of wear was constructed with high sensitivity factors. Combining the wear amount calculation formula with the operation mode of the actual engine, the wear amount in that mode can be calculated. The calculated wear amount showed a high correlation with the wear amount measured in bench tests and the wear amount measured in vehicle tests.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations of Mixture Formation in Combustion Chambers of Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines Incorporating a Sub-Chamber

2017-10-08
2017-01-2280
The aim of this study is to clarify the mixture formation in the combustion chamber of our developed natural gas engine incorporating the sub-chamber injection system, in which natural gas is directly injected into a combustion sub-chamber in order to completely separate rich mixture in the sub-chamber, suitable for ignition, from ultra-lean mixture in the main chamber. Mixture distributions in chambers with and without sub-chamber were numerically simulated at a variety of operating conditions. The commercial software of Fluent 16.0 was used to conduct simulations based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations in an axial 2 dimensional numerical domain considering movements of piston. Non-reactive flow in the combustion chamber was simulated before the ignition timing at an engine speed of 2000 rpm. The turbulence model employed here is standard k-ε model. Air-fuel ratio is set with a lean condition of 30.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Analysis of Leakage Suppression of DLC Coating on Piston Ring

2017-03-28
2017-01-0457
Piston ring wear in gasoline engine induces deterioration of emissions performance due to leakage of blow-by gas, instability of idling caused by reduced compression in combustion chamber, and to generate early degeneration of engine oil. We examined anti-wear performance of DLC coating on piston ring, which had been recently reported as an effective method for improving the abrasion resistance. As a result, wear rate remained low under the condition of DLC existence on sliding surface, but once DLC was worn out completely, wear of the piston ring was accelerated and its life became shorter than piston ring without DLC. In this research, we designed reciprocating test apparatus that operates at much higher velocity range, and characterized the frictional materials of the piston ring and sleeve and the DLC as a protective film, a vapor phase epitaxy (VPE) was actively used as a means to form certain level of convex and concave shape on its surface.
Technical Paper

New 1.0L I3 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-1029
To comply with the environmental demands for CO2 reduction without compromising driving performance, a new 1.0 liter I3 turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine has been developed. This engine is the smallest product in the new Honda VTEC TURBO engine series (1), and it is intended to be used in small to medium-sized passenger car category vehicles, enhancing both fuel economy through downsizing, state-of-the-art friction reduction technologies such as electrically controlled variable displacement oil pump and timing belt in oil system, and also driving performance through turbocharging with an electrically controlled waste gate. This developed engine has many features in common with other VTEC TURBO engines such as the 1.5 liter I4 turbocharged engine (2) (3), which has been introduced already into the market.
Technical Paper

Research on Combustion Noise for Controlled Auto Ignition Engine Fueled with Natural Gas Effect of Stroke Bore Ratio and Ignition Timing

2016-11-08
2016-32-0044
One of the issues involved in compression ignition combustion is the increase in combustion noise from engine mechanical systems caused by rapid combustion. When the fuel used is natural gas, with its high ignition temperature, the compression is increased relative to gasoline, so that combustion becomes even more rapid. The present research pursues the issue of noise by clarifying the distinctive features of combustion noise through tests focused on the two topics of stroke-bore ratio (S/B ratio) and ignition timing for engine structures deformation mode. From these results, we verified combustion noise trend and occurrence factor.
Technical Paper

1-D Simulation Model Developed for a General Purpose Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0030
In recent years, improvements in the fuel economy and exhaust emission performance of internal combustion engines have been increasingly required by regulatory agencies. One of the salient concerns regarding general purpose engines is the larger amount of CO emissions with which they are associated, compared with CO emissions from automobile engines. To reduce CO and other exhaust emissions while maintaining high fuel efficiency, the optimization of total engine system, including various design parameters, is essential. In the engine system optimization process, cycle simulation using 0-D and 1-D engine models are highly useful. To define an optimum design, the model used for the cycle simulation must be capable of predicting the effects of various parameters on the engine performance. In this study, a model for predicting the performance of a general purpose SI (Spark Ignited) engine is developed based on the commercially available engine simulation software, GT-POWER.
Technical Paper

Effect of Mixture Stratification and Fuel Reactivity on Dual-Fuel Compression Ignition Combustion Process for SI-Based Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2304
Compression ignition combustion with a lean mixture has high potential in terms of high theoretical thermal efficiency and low NOx emission characteristics due to low combustion temperatures. In particular, a Dual-Fuel concept is proposed to achieve high ignition timing controllability and an extended operation range. This concept controls ignition timing by adjusting the fraction of two fuels with different ignition characteristics. However, a rapid combustion process after initial ignition cannot be avoided due to the homogenous nature of the fuel mixture, because the combustion process depends entirely on the high reaction rate of thermal ignition. In this study, the effect of mixture stratification in the cylinder on the combustion process after ignition based on the Dual-Fuel concept was investigated. Port injection of one fuel creates the homogeneous mixture, while direct injection of the other fuel prepares a stratified mixture in the cylinder at the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Piston Skirt Scuffing via 3D Piston Motion Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1044
This paper describes the establishment of a new method for predicting piston skirt scuffing in the internal combustion engine of a passenger car. The authors previously constructed and reported a method that uses 3D piston motion simulation to predict piston slap noise and piston skirt friction. However, that simulation did not have a clear index for evaluation of scuffing that involves piston skirt erosion, and it impressed shortage of the predictive accuracy of a scuffing. Therefore, the authors derived a new evaluation index for piston skirt scuffing by actually operating an internal combustion engine using multiple types of pistons to reproduce the conditions under which scuffing occurs, and comparing with the results of calculating the same conditions by piston motion simulation.
Journal Article

Fretting Analysis of an Engine Bearing Cap Using Computer Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1083
The independent bearing cap is a cylinder block bearing structure that has high mass reduction effects. In general, this structure has low fastening stiffness compared to the rudder block structure. Furthermore, when using combination of different materials small sliding occurs at the mating surface, and fretting fatigue sometimes occurs at lower area than the material strength limit. Fretting fatigue was previously predicted using CAE, but there were issues with establishing a correlation with the actual engine under complex conditions, and the judgment criteria were not clear, so accurate prediction was a challenge. This paper reports on a new CAE-based prediction method to predict the fretting damage occurring on the bearing cap mating surface in an aluminum material cylinder block. First of all, condition a fretting fatigue test was performed with test pieces, and identification of CAE was performed for the strain and sliding amount.
Journal Article

In-Situ Measurement and Numerical Solution of Main Journal Bearing Lubrication in Actual Engine Environment

2016-04-05
2016-01-0894
A simple method is frequently used to calculate a reciprocating engine’s bearing load from the measured cylinder pressure. However, it has become apparent that engine downsizing and weight reduction cannot be achieved easily if an engine is designed based on the simple method. Because of this, an actual load on a bearing was measured, and the measured load values were compared with a bearing load distribution calculated from cylinder pressure. As a result, it was found that some of actual loads were about half of the calculated ones at certain crank angles. The connecting rod’s elastic deformation was focused on as a factor behind such differences, and the rod’s deformation due to the engine’s explosion load was studied. As a result, it was found that the rod part of the engine’s connecting rod was bent by 0.2 mm and became doglegged. Additional investigation regarding these findings would allow further engine downsizing.
Technical Paper

Development of New 3.5 L V6 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1012
This paper introduces the newly developed super sports car engine mounted in the new model NSX. A super sports car engine was newly developed to satisfy the high power performance required by the body package. Higher power and compactness were simultaneously achieved by selecting an engine displacement of 3.5 L and by using a V6 layout and a turbocharger. This enabled to mount a power train that combines a hybrid motor with a newly developed transmission in the rear of the body. The lubrication system uses a dry sump system capable of maintaining reliable lubrication in all possible super sports car driving scenarios. The combustion system uses high tumble-flow ports, a direct injection and a port injection system that increase power performance and thermal efficiency, emission reduction. To support the increased heat load due to higher power, a 3-piece water jacket is used around the combustion chamber and the exhaust ports.
Technical Paper

New Approaches for Reducing Crankshaft Vibrations in a Lightweight and Fuel-Efficient Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1057
To achieve lightweight, low friction and fuel efficient engine, the crankshaft is required to be designed lightweight, small-diameter shaft, long stroke. In this case, vibration of the crankshaft is increased by reduction of shaft stiffness. The conventional way of dealing with this increased vibration used to be to add an inertia mass ring or a double mass damper. Such an approach, however, increases weight, making the balance of weight reduction and vibration reduction less readily achieved. This paper therefore reports on how the main factors causing crankshaft vibration to increase in the shaft with reduced stiffness were clarified. Based on that clarification, efforts were made to reduce crankshaft vibration without increasing the weight of the crankshaft system. Measurement and analysis were used to analyze crankshaft vibration during operation.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 1.5L I4 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1020
A 1.5 L downsizing turbocharged engine was developed to achieve both driving and environmental performance. The engine is intended to replace 1.8 - 2.4 L class NA engines. In downsizing turbocharged engines, mixture homogeneity is important for suppressing knocking and emission reduction. Particularly under high load, creating rapid combustion and a homogeneous mixture are key technologies. The authors used a long-stroke direct injection engine, which has outstanding rapid combustion and thermal efficiency, as a base engine meeting these requirements. They combined this with a high-tumble port and shallow-dish piston intended to support tumble flow. The combination enhanced flow within the cylinder. The combustion system was built to include a sodium-filled exhaust valve to reduce knocking and a multi-hole injector (six holes) for mixture homogeneity and to reduce the fuel wall wetting.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 2.0L I4 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1017
It is important to take action regarding environmental issues on a global scale, and automakers are adding downsized turbocharged engines to their line-ups as a means of reducing CO2 emissions, particularly in Europe. Honda has recently announced a next-generation powertrain series that realizes a good balance between environmental performance and driving pleasure. As part of this series, the company has developed a downsized and turbocharged 2.0L gasoline direct injection engine. This is a high-powered sports car engine positioned in the European “hot hatch” category. The development balanced engine power with good environmental performance.
Journal Article

New Theoretical Approach for Weight Reduction on Cylinder Head

2015-04-14
2015-01-0495
Designing a lightweight and durable engine is universally important from the standpoints of fuel economy, vehicle dynamics and cost. However, it is challenging to theoretically find an optimal solution which meets both requirements in products such as the cylinder head, to which various thermal loads and mechanical loads are simultaneously applied. In our research, we focused on “non-parametric optimization” and attempted to establish a new design approach derived from the weight reduction of a cylinder head. Our optimization process consists of topology optimization and shape optimization. In the topology optimization process, we explored an optimal structure with the theoretically-highest stiffness in the given design space. This is to provide an efficient structure for pursuing both lightweight and durable characteristics in the subsequent shape optimization process.
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