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Technical Paper

Design of High Performance Coated GPF with 2D/3D Structure Analysis

2019-04-02
2019-01-0977
In recent years along with stringent the regulations, vehicles equipped with gasoline particulate filter (GPF) have started to launch. Compared to bare GPF, coated GPF (cGPF) requires not only PN filtration efficiency, low pressure drop, but also purification performance. In the wall flow type cGPF having a complicated the pore shape, the pore structure further irregularly changes depending on the coated state of the catalyst, so it is difficult to understand the matter of in-wall. In order to advance of cGPF function, it was researched that revealing the relevance between pore structure change in the wall and GPF function. Therefore, to understand the catalyst coated state difference, cGPF of several coating methods were prepared, and their properties were evaluated by various analyses, and performance was tested.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Pressure Drop Increase Mechanism by Ash Accumulated of Coated GPF

2019-04-02
2019-01-0981
With accelerating exhaust gas regulations in recent years, not only CO / HC / NOx but also PN regulation represented by Euro 6 d, China 6 are getting stricter. PN reduction by engine combustion technology development also progresses, but considering RDE, PN reduction by after treatment technology is also indispensable. To reduce PN exhausted from the gasoline engine, it is effective to equip GPF with a filter structure. Considering the installation of GPF in limited space, we developed a system that so far replaces the second TWC with GPF for the TWC 2 bed system. In order to replace the second TWC with GPF, we chose the coated GPF with filtering and TWC functions. Since the initial pressure drop and the catalyst amount (purification performance) of coated GPF have a conflicting relationship, we developed the coated GPF that can achieve both the low initial pressure drop and high purification performance.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Temperature Active Three Way Catalyst

2019-04-02
2019-01-1293
In recent years, fuel efficiency has been improved by using many technologies such as downsizing engine, turbocharger and direct injection to reduce CO2 emissions from vehicle. However, the temperature of the exhaust gas from the engines using these technologies becomes lower than that form conventional one. That increases the difficulty for three-way catalyst (TWC) to purify CO, HC and NOx enough because TWC is not warmed up just after engine starting. In order to reduce cold emission mentioned above, we have been studying the warmup strategy of which the key property is thermal mass of TWC. To achieve early warmup, thermal mass of TWC is reduced by lightening the weight of (1) substrate and (2) catalytic materials, namely washcoat amount. Along with the strategy, we have developed TWC with lightweight substrate and applied it from the 2016 model year CIVIC.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling Study of Detailed Gas Diffusivity into Catalyst Washcoat for Lean NOx Catalyst

2019-04-02
2019-01-0993
To evaluate the relationship between the exhaust gas purification performance and the catalyst pore properties related to gas diffusion, an elementary reaction model was combined with gas diffusion into catalyst pores, referred to as the pseudo-2D gas diffusion/reaction model. It was constructed for Pt/Al2O3 + CeO2 catalyst as lean NOx catalyst. The gas diffusion was described as macro pore diffusion between the catalyst particles and meso pore diffusion within the particle. The kinetic model was composed of 26 reactions of NO/CO/O2 chemistry including 17 Pt/Al2O3 catalyst reactions and 9 CeO2 reactions. Arrhenius parameters were optimized using activity measurement results from various catalysts with various pore properties, meso pore volume and diameter, macro pore volume and diameter, particle size, and washcoat thickness. Good agreement was achieved between the measured and calculated values.
Technical Paper

Diesel CAI Combustion in Uniflow Scavenging 2-Stroke Engine Provided with Port Fuel Injection Device

2018-10-30
2018-32-0015
We studied a simple and cost effective controlled auto ignition (CAI) combustion engine in order to achieve simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot, which are issues in diffusion combustion. The engine type was a uniflow scavenging 2-stroke engine, and the fuel used was diesel, as is common in diesel engines. We examined the position of the injector that effectively forms the premixture and realized stable operation with diesel fuel by the low pressure fuel injection device for port fuel injection (PFI), and it was found that the CAI combustion ignition timing can be controlled through setting the air/fuel ratio that obtains the optimal ignition timing per operation conditions.
Journal Article

Ag-Type PM Oxidation Catalyst with Nd Added to Increase Contact Property between PM and Catalyst

2018-04-03
2018-01-0328
Honda diesel engine vehicles that go on the market in 2018 will be equipped with a newly developed silver (Ag)-type catalyzed diesel particulate filter (cDPF). Ag has high particulate matter (PM) oxidation performance, but conventional catalyst-carrying methods cause weak contact property between PM and Ag; therefore, the newly Ag-type cDPF was developed on the concept of enhancing the property of contact between PM and the catalyst to realize contact property enhancement at the macro, meso, and nano scales. As a result, the newly developed catalyst showed an enhancement of T90 performance by a factor of approximately 2 relative to the conventional Ag-type catalyst in fresh condition. Durability in the environment of an automobile in use was examined through hydrothermal aging, lean-rich (L/R) aging, sulfur (S) poisoning, and ash deposition. The results have confirmed that hydrothermal aging is the greatest factor in deterioration.
Technical Paper

Study of an Aftertreatment System for HLSI Lean-burn Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0945
Lean-burn is an effective means of reducing CO2 emissions. To date, Homogenous Lean Charge Spark Ignition (HLSI) combustion, which lowers emissions of both CO2 and NOx, has been studied. Although HLSI realizes lower emission, it is a major challenge for lean-burn engines to meet SULEV regulations, so we have developed a new aftertreatment system for HLSI engines. It consists of three types of catalysts that have different functions, as well as special engine control methods. As the first stage in achieving SULEV emissions, this study focused on enhancing performance under lean conditions. HLSI engine exhaust gases contain high concentrations of hydrocarbons, including a large amount of paraffin, which are difficult to purify, rather than low concentrations of NOx. Therefore, the key point in low emissions is to purify not only NOx, but also high concentrations of paraffin at the same time.
Journal Article

Prediction of Wear Loss of Exhaust Valve Seat of Gasoline Engine Based on Rig Test Result

2018-04-03
2018-01-0984
The purpose of this research was to predict the amount of wear on exhaust valve seats in durability testing of gasoline engines. Through the rig wear test, a prediction formula was constructed with multiple factors as variables. In the rig test, the wear rate was measured in some cases where a number of factors of valve seat wear were within a certain range. Through these tests, sensitivity for each factor was determined from the measured wear data, and then a prediction formula for calculating the amount of wear was constructed with high sensitivity factors. Combining the wear amount calculation formula with the operation mode of the actual engine, the wear amount in that mode can be calculated. The calculated wear amount showed a high correlation with the wear amount measured in bench tests and the wear amount measured in vehicle tests.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations of Mixture Formation in Combustion Chambers of Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines Incorporating a Sub-Chamber

2017-10-08
2017-01-2280
The aim of this study is to clarify the mixture formation in the combustion chamber of our developed natural gas engine incorporating the sub-chamber injection system, in which natural gas is directly injected into a combustion sub-chamber in order to completely separate rich mixture in the sub-chamber, suitable for ignition, from ultra-lean mixture in the main chamber. Mixture distributions in chambers with and without sub-chamber were numerically simulated at a variety of operating conditions. The commercial software of Fluent 16.0 was used to conduct simulations based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations in an axial 2 dimensional numerical domain considering movements of piston. Non-reactive flow in the combustion chamber was simulated before the ignition timing at an engine speed of 2000 rpm. The turbulence model employed here is standard k-ε model. Air-fuel ratio is set with a lean condition of 30.
Journal Article

Development of Base Metal Catalyst and Its Compatibility Study for Motorcycle Applications

2016-11-08
2016-32-0071
We developed a copper catalyst using zero Platinum group metals (hereafter PGMs) to fit motorcycle specific emission gas environment. Though many research reports to develop catalyst without using PGMs that are precious and costly resources are available, no reports had proven Base Metal Catalyst development to meet actual emission regulation equivalent to PGM catalysts. Compared to conventional PGM catalysts, higher temperature is required to keep high catalytic conversion efficiency by utilizing properties of this Base Metal Catalyst. Thus, this Base Metal Catalyst is located in cross coupling position, though it is rare case in motorcycle. This catalyst location could cause negative impacts on engine knocking, engine performance and drivability. This time, to overcome such negative impacts we optimized whole exhaust system, including parts around catalyst.
Technical Paper

On Demand Octane Number Enhancement Technology by Aerobic Oxidation

2016-10-17
2016-01-2167
For the purpose of developing onboard gasoline reforming technology for higher octane number fuel on demand, octane number enhancement of gasoline surrogate by aerobic oxidation using N-hydroxyphthalimide catalyst was investigated. At first, octane numbers of the oxygen-containing products from alkane and aromatic compound were estimated using a fuel ignition analyzer. As a result, not only alcohol but also ketones and aldehydes have higher octane numbers than the original alkanes and aromatic compound. Next, gasoline surrogate was oxidized aerobically with N-hydroxyphthalimide derivative catalyst and cobalt catalyst at conditions below 100 °C. As a result, fuel molecules were oxidized to produce alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids. N-hydroxyphthalimide derivative catalyst with higher solubility in gasoline surrogate has higher oxidation ability. Furthermore, the estimated octane number of the oxidized gasoline surrogate improves 17 RON.
Technical Paper

Development of New 3.5 L V6 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1012
This paper introduces the newly developed super sports car engine mounted in the new model NSX. A super sports car engine was newly developed to satisfy the high power performance required by the body package. Higher power and compactness were simultaneously achieved by selecting an engine displacement of 3.5 L and by using a V6 layout and a turbocharger. This enabled to mount a power train that combines a hybrid motor with a newly developed transmission in the rear of the body. The lubrication system uses a dry sump system capable of maintaining reliable lubrication in all possible super sports car driving scenarios. The combustion system uses high tumble-flow ports, a direct injection and a port injection system that increase power performance and thermal efficiency, emission reduction. To support the increased heat load due to higher power, a 3-piece water jacket is used around the combustion chamber and the exhaust ports.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 1.5L I4 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1020
A 1.5 L downsizing turbocharged engine was developed to achieve both driving and environmental performance. The engine is intended to replace 1.8 - 2.4 L class NA engines. In downsizing turbocharged engines, mixture homogeneity is important for suppressing knocking and emission reduction. Particularly under high load, creating rapid combustion and a homogeneous mixture are key technologies. The authors used a long-stroke direct injection engine, which has outstanding rapid combustion and thermal efficiency, as a base engine meeting these requirements. They combined this with a high-tumble port and shallow-dish piston intended to support tumble flow. The combination enhanced flow within the cylinder. The combustion system was built to include a sodium-filled exhaust valve to reduce knocking and a multi-hole injector (six holes) for mixture homogeneity and to reduce the fuel wall wetting.
Technical Paper

Analysis for Influence of Inhomogeneity of Air-Fuel Mixture to Super-Knock Caused by Pre-ignition in Supercharged Direct-Injected SI Engine Based on Numerical Calculation

2015-09-01
2015-01-1866
Nowadays, highly super charging is required corresponded to downsizing concept for improving thermal efficiency in direct-injected spark ignition (DISI) engine. However, highly super charging increases the possibility of super-knock caused by pre-ignition. Recently, in many studies, the reason of pre-ignition has been investigated but the reason why pre-ignition leads such strong knocking called super-knock has not been investigated. In DISI engine, it is estimated that there is more inhomogeneity of equivalence ratio and temperature of air-fuel mixture than it in port injection SI engine. In this study, factors which decide self-ignition timing was reviewed and the influence of inhomogeneity of air-fuel mixture to super-knock was investigated based on numerical calculation.
Technical Paper

Influences of Turbulence Scale on Development of Spherically Propagating Flame under High EGR Conditions

2015-09-01
2015-01-1868
EGR (Exhaust gas recirculation) can reduce the pumping loss and improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines. The techniques for combustion enhancement under high EGR rate condition has been required for further improvement of the thermal efficiency. In order to develop the technique of combustion enhancement by turbulence, the influences of turbulence scale on combustion properties, such as probability of flame propagation, EGR limit of flame propagation, flame quenching and combustion duration were investigated under the condition of same turbulence intensity. Experiments were carried out for stoichiometric spherically propagating turbulent i-C8H18/Air/N2 flames using a constant volume vessel. It was clarified that all of these combustion properties were affected by the turbulence scale. The development of spherically propagating turbulent flame during flame propagation was affected by the turbulence scale.
Technical Paper

Study of Ethanol-Gasoline Onboard Separation System for Knocking Suppression

2015-09-01
2015-01-1954
Bio-ethanol is used worldwide in fuel mixtures such as E10 gasoline. In this study, an onboard fuel system employing a pervaporation membrane was investigated to separate E10 into high-octane-number fuel (high-concentration ethanol fuel) and low-octane-number fuel (low-concentration ethanol fuel). The optimal operation conditions and size of the membrane unit for the separation system were determined in consideration of the separation rate and vehicle installation. This system can supply separated ethanol with sufficient speed and quantity to improve engine performance under practical driving conditions. In addition, the study was conducted to confirm that separated fuels have properties sufficient for use in automobiles. This separation rate enabled 5-cycle-mode driving without temporary shortage of permeated fuel.
Journal Article

NOx Trap Three-Way Catalyst (N-TWC) Concept: TWC with NOx Adsorption Properties at Low Temperatures for Cold-Start Emission Control

2015-04-14
2015-01-1002
A new concept for trapping NOx and HC during cold start, the NOx Trap Three-Way Catalyst (N-TWC), is proposed. N-TWC adsorbs NOx at room temperature, and upon reaching activation temperature under suitable air-fuel ratio conditions, it reduces the adsorbed NOx. This allows a reduction in NOx emissions during cold start. N-TWC's reduction mechanism relies on NOx adsorption sites which are shown to be highly dispersed palladium on acid sites in the zeolite. Testing on an actual vehicle equipped with N-TWC confirmed that N-TWC is able to reduce emissions of NOx and HC during cold start, which is a challenge for conventional TWCs.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling Study of Catalyst Surface Reactivity and Gas Diffusivity with Lean NOx Catalyst

2015-04-14
2015-01-1058
Catalyst simulation, which can analyze the complicated reaction pathway of exhaust gas purifications and identify the rate-determining step, is an essential tool in the development of catalyst materials. This requires an elementary reaction model which describes the detailed processes, i.e. adsorption, decomposition, and others. In our previous work, the elementary reaction model on Pt/CeO2 catalyst was constructed. In this study, we focused on extending the Zeolite catalyst and including the gas diffusivity through the catalyst layer. The reaction rate of a Zeolite catalyst was expressed by an Arrhenius equation, and the elementary reaction model was composed of 17 reactions. Each Arrhenius parameter was optimized by the catalytic activity measurements. The constructed model was validated with NOx conversion in cyclic experiments which were repeated with Lean phase (NOx adsorption) and Rich phase (NOx reduction).
Technical Paper

Study of Knocking Damage Indexing Based on Optical Measurement

2015-04-14
2015-01-0762
Attempts were made to measure knocking phenomenon by an optical method, which is free from influences of mechanical noises and is allowing an easy installation to an engine. Using a newly developed high durability optical probe, the light intensity of hydroxyl radical component, which is diffracted from the emitted light from combustion, was measured. The intensity of this emission component was measured at each crank angle and the maximum intensity in a cycle was identified. After that, the angular range in which the measured intensity exceeded 85% of this maximum intensity was defined as “CA85”. When a knocking was purposely induced by changing the conditions of the engine operation, there appeared the engine cycles that included CA85 less than a crank angle of 4 degrees. The frequency of occurrence of CA85 equal to or less than 4 degrees within a predetermined number of engine cycles, which can be interpreted as a knocking occurrence ratio, was denoted as “CA85-4”.
Technical Paper

Validation of Turbulent Combustion and Knocking Simulation in Spark-Ignition Engines Using Reduced Chemical Kinetics

2015-04-14
2015-01-0750
Downsizing or higher compression ratio of SI engines is an appropriate way to achieve considerable improvements of part load fuel efficiency. As the compression ratio directly impacts the engine cycle thermal efficiency, it is important to increase the compression ratio in order to reduce the specific fuel consumption. However, when operating a highly boosted / downsized SI engine at full load, the actual combustion process deviates strongly from the ideal Otto cycle due to the increased effective loads requiring ignition timing delay to suppress abnormal combustion phenomena such as engine knocking. This means that for an optimal design of an SI engine between balances must be found between part load and full load operation. If the knocking characteristic can be accurately predicted beforehand when designing the combustion chamber, a reduction of design time and /or an increase in development efficiency would be possible.
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