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Technical Paper

Robust Design on Adhesive Material and Bonding Process for Automotive Battery Pack

2019-04-02
2019-01-0160
Adhesive bonding is a key technology for the lighter weight of battery pack trays using aluminum material. A robust design method of adhesive bonding with the required strength for battery pack structure after degradation was developed to minimize variability of strength under various noise conditions. The parameter design based on Taguchi methods determined the optimum adhesive condition of the bonding process. To guarantee strength after degradation, it is essential to select a robust adhesive material and to minimize the strength variation derived from the adhesive material. The functional evaluation, which includes experimental design method, determined adhesive material with the minimum strength variation among material candidates. Then, robustness of the adhesive material itself has been evaluated as the result of collaboration with the adhesive material supplier. This analysis was able to regulate the compound ratio of raw materials without reducing the adhesive strength.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic and Microscopic Characteristics of Flash Boiling Spray with Binary Fuel Mixtures

2019-04-02
2019-01-0274
Flash boiling has drawn much attention recently for its ability to enhance spray atomization and vaporization, while providing better fuel/air mixing for gasoline direct injection engines. However, the behaviors of flash boiling spray with multi-component fuels have not been fully discovered. In this study, isooctane, ethanol and the mixtures of the two with three blend ratios were chosen as the fuels. Measurements were performed with constant fuel temperature while ambient pressures were varied to adjust the superheated degree. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray were investigated using Diffused Back-Illumination (DBI) imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). Comparisons between flash boiling sprays with single component and binary fuel mixtures were performed to study the effect of fuel properties on spray structure as well as atomization and vaporization processes.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0297
The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.
Technical Paper

Influence of Intake Valve Lift on Flow Capacity of Intake Port

2019-04-02
2019-01-0223
A three-dimensional model of a diesel engine intake port was established and was verified by steady-flow test. Based on this model, the influence of intake valve lift on the flow capacity of intake port was studied and a design method of maximum valve lift was put forward. The results show that, under different intake pressure and relative pressure difference conditions, the discharge coefficient increases first and then converges with the increase of valve lift. Under the same valve lift condition, with the increase of relative pressure difference, the discharge coefficient decreases slightly in subsonic state and decreases sharply from subsonic state to supersonic state, but the mass flow rate increases slightly. The optimum ratio of valve lift and valve seat diameter is related to relative pressure difference, it increases first and then keeps constant with the increase of relative pressure difference.
Technical Paper

Influence of Key Section Parameters of Exhaust Port on Flow Capacity

2019-04-02
2019-01-0200
A three-dimensional model of a diesel engine exhaust port was established. The reliability of modeling method and the exhaust port model were verified by the steady-flow test, PIV test and pressure field test. Based on the exhaust port model, the influence of the key section parameters such as inlet area S1, throat area S2, and outlet area S3 on the flow capacity of the exhaust port was studied. The results show that, under different pressure difference and exhaust back pressure conditions, the mass flow rate increases first and then converges with the increase of the area ratio of outlet and inlet or the area ratio of throat and inlet. With the increase of the relative pressure difference, the optimal area ratio of outlet and inlet decreases and converges to 1.02, but the optimal area ratio of throat and inlet increases and converges to 1.13.
Technical Paper

Development of High Appearance Water Born Primer Surfacer Coating for Short Process Body Paint

2019-04-02
2019-01-0189
4C3B (4 coat 3 bake) painting system (see Figure 1) which needs a bake process after the primer surfacer paint was very general and common process for the automotive body painting system. In the beginning of the 2000s, 4C2B painting system (Reference 1) was developed which changed the oven after the primer surfacer paint to a pre heat area, so it can reduce the carbon dioxide (Figure 1, and Figure 2). But unfortunately in this 4C2B painting system, the base coat will be painted on the primer surfacer paint wet-on-wet. By that reason, the appearance deterioration will occur often. The authors used a low temperature crosslinking agent “Polycarbodiimide” to a water born primer surfacer paint, to control the viscosity of primer surfacer paint at the pre heat area. Controlling the viscosity is important to avoid the layer mixing of the primer surfacer paint and the base coat which makes appearance deterioration.
Technical Paper

Life Estimation of Rolling Bearings Based on the Colors on Sliding Surfaces

2019-04-02
2019-01-0180
It is experimentally known that the surface color of bearing balls gradually becomes brown during long term operation of the bearings under appropriate lubrication conditions. That exhibits the possibility of an estimation method for residual life of ball bearings without any abnormal wear on the surfaces by precise color measurements. Therefore, we examined what set colors on bearing balls by surface observation using scanning electron microscopy and subsurface analysis using transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that an amorphous carbon layer had gradually covered ball surfaces during operation of the bearings. The layer not only changed ball color but also made overall ball shapes closer to a complete sphere. The report also introduces a uniquely developed color analyzer which enabled color measurements on metallic surfaces, such as the above-mentioned balls.
Technical Paper

A Study of Vibration Reducing Effect on Vehicle Dynamics by Hydraulic Damper on Body Structure

2019-04-02
2019-01-0171
This research investigated the mechanism of the effects of hydraulic dampers, which are attached to vehicle body structures and are known by experience to suppress vehicle body vibration and enhance ride comfort and steering stability. In investigating the mechanism, we employed quantitative data from riding tests, and analytical data from simplified vibration models. In our assessment of ride comfort in riding tests using vehicles equipped with hydraulic dampers, we confirmed effects reducing body floor vibration in the low-frequency range. We also confirmed vibration reduction in unsprung suspension parts to be a notable mechanical characteristic which merits close attention in all cases. To investigate the mechanism of the vibration reduction effect in unsprung parts, we considered a simplified vibration model, in which the engine and unsprung parts, which are rigid, are linked to the vehicle body, which is an elastic body equipped with hydraulic dampers.
Technical Paper

Designing for Turbine Housing Weight Reduction Using Thermal Fatigue Crack Propagation Prediction Technology

2019-04-02
2019-01-0533
Turbine housings in car engine turbochargers, which use costly stainless steel castings, account for nearly 50% of the parts cost of a turbocharger. They are also the component which controls the competitiveness of the turbocharger, in terms of both function and cost. In this research, focusing on thermal fatigue resistance which is one of the main functions demanded of a turbine housing, achieving reduction in wall thickness while securing sufficient thermal fatigue resistance, it is possible to reduce the amount of material used in the turbine housing and aimed for cost reduction. Therefore, we built a method to quantitatively predict, using 3D FEM, the lifespan from the initiation of thermal fatigue cracking to the formation of a penetrating crack which leads to gas leakage.
Technical Paper

Design of High Performance Coated GPF with 2D/3D Structure Analysis

2019-04-02
2019-01-0977
In recent years along with stringent the regulations, vehicles equipped with gasoline particulate filter (GPF) have started to launch. Compared to bare GPF, coated GPF (cGPF) requires not only PN filtration efficiency, low pressure drop, but also purification performance. In the wall flow type cGPF having a complicated the pore shape, the pore structure further irregularly changes depending on the coated state of the catalyst, so it is difficult to understand the matter of in-wall. In order to advance of cGPF function, it was researched that revealing the relevance between pore structure change in the wall and GPF function. Therefore, to understand the catalyst coated state difference, cGPF of several coating methods were prepared, and their properties were evaluated by various analyses, and performance was tested.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Pressure Drop Increase Mechanism by Ash Accumulated of Coated GPF

2019-04-02
2019-01-0981
With accelerating exhaust gas regulations in recent years, not only CO / HC / NOx but also PN regulation represented by Euro 6 d, China 6 are getting stricter. PN reduction by engine combustion technology development also progresses, but considering RDE, PN reduction by after treatment technology is also indispensable. To reduce PN exhausted from the gasoline engine, it is effective to equip GPF with a filter structure. Considering the installation of GPF in limited space, we developed a system that so far replaces the second TWC with GPF for the TWC 2 bed system. In order to replace the second TWC with GPF, we chose the coated GPF with filtering and TWC functions. Since the initial pressure drop and the catalyst amount (purification performance) of coated GPF have a conflicting relationship, we developed the coated GPF that can achieve both the low initial pressure drop and high purification performance.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Ductile Fracture Propagation of High Strength Steels in Automotive Structures

2019-04-02
2019-01-1097
Initiation and propagation of ductile fractures in crashed automotive components made from high strength steels are investigated in order to understand the mechanism of fracture propagation. Fracture of these components is often prone to occur at the sheet edge in a strain concentration zone under crash deformation. The fracture then extends intricately to the inside of the structure under the influence of the local stress and strain field. In this study, a simple tensile test and a 3-point bending test of high strength steels with tensile strengths of 590 MPa and 1180 MPa are carried out. In the tensile test, a coupon having a hole and a notch is deformed in a uniaxial condition. The effect of the notch type on the strain concentration and fracture behavior are investigated by using a digital imaging strain measurement system.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of a Reduction Method of the Body Vibration at a Situation of Engine Start-Stop

2019-04-02
2019-01-0785
In recent years, electrification of powertrains has been promoted to improve fuel efficiency and CO2 emissions. Along with electrification, it is possible to reduce engine usage frequency and improve the fuel efficiency in traveling. Especially in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the state changes from motor assist mode to engine firing mode. As a result, stay time in eigenvalue of a powertrain is shortened, and vibration of the vehicle body at the engine start situation is able to be reduced as compared with conventional engine-driven vehicle. However, since the HEV is equipped with a high compression ratio engine for improving fuel economy, there is cause for concern that excitation force generated by the powertrain at the time of engine start increases. Also, the vehicle body vibration at engine start situations requires further consideration, because the operation frequency of engine decreases.
Technical Paper

Material and Damage Models of Randomly-Oriented Thermoplastic Composites for Crash Simulation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0814
This study developed a material model with a damage function that supports finite element analyses in crash strength analyses of beams manufactured using randomly-oriented long fiber thermoplastics composites. These materials are composites with randomly-oriented carbon tow having a fiber length of approximately one inch, and are isotropic in-plane from a macro perspective, but exhibit different damage properties for tension and compression. In the out-of-plane direction, the influence of the resin matrix properties increases, and the materials properties are similar to those of laminate materials. This means they are anisotropic materials with physical properties that differ from those in the in-plane direction. In order to verify the influence of these characteristics, the damage process was observed by three-point bending of a flat plate, which is a mixed mode that includes tension, compression, and out-of-plane shear.
Technical Paper

A Novel Dual Nonlinear Observer for Vehicle System Roll Behavior with Lateral and Vertical Coupling

2019-04-02
2019-01-0432
The study of vehicle coupling state estimation accuracy especially in observer-based vehicle chassis control for improving road handling and ride comfort is a challenging task for vehicle industry under various driving conditions. Due to a large amount of life safety arising from vehicle roll behavior, how to precisely acquire vehicle roll state and rapidly provide for the vehicle control system are of great concern. Simultaneously, uncertainty is unavoidable for various aspects of a vehicle system, e.g., varying sprung mass, moment of inertia and position of the center of gravity. To deal with the above issues, a novel dual observer approach, which combines adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter (AUKF) and Takagi-Sugeno (T-S), is proposed in this paper. A full-car nonlinear model is first established to describe vehicle lateral and vertical coupling roll behavior under various road excitation.
Technical Paper

Development of Motor with Heavy Rare Earth-Free Magnet for Two-Motor Hybrid System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0600
Conventional HEV motors use neodymium magnets with added heavy rare earths, to realize high output and size reduction. However, deposits of heavy rare earths such as Dysprosium (Dy) and Terbium (Tb) are unevenly distributed, so it is important to reduce the amount used, because of supply issue and material cost. In this paper, the application of a heavy rare earth-free magnet is considered on the new motor for a two-motor hybrid system. Compared to conventional neodymium magnets, heavy rare earth free magnets tend to have low coercivity. Also, heavy rare earth-free magnet have low thermal durability, so it is not easy to apply them to motors for a two-motor hybrid system, which requires high output and small size. The motor requires twice as much torque and six times output than one-motor hybrid system. Increase demagnetization resistance and magnet cooling performance is studied by development of the new motor.
Technical Paper

Development of Intelligent Power Unit for 2018 Model Year Accord Hybrid

2019-04-02
2019-01-0592
A compact intelligent power unit capable of being installed under the rear seating was developed for the 2018 model year Accord Hybrid that is to be equipped with the SPORT HYBRID Intelligent Multi Mode Drive (i-MMD) system. The space under the rear seat features multiple constraints on dimensions. In the longitudinal direction, it is necessary to attempt to help ensure occupant leg room and to position the fuel tank; in the vertical direction, it is necessary to attempt to help ensure occupants comfort and a minimum ground clearance; and in the lateral direction, it is necessary to avoid the position of the body side frames and the penetrating section of the exhaust pipe. The technologies described below were applied in order to reduce the size of components, making it possible to position the IPU amid these constraint conditions.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics in a Constant Volume Chamber of Diesel Blended with HTL

2019-04-02
2019-01-0578
There are a few different ways in which biofuels can be sourced, with the most popular coming from agricultural sources. An alternative approach is to utilize biowaste. An estimated 20 million dry tons of volatile organic compounds, or biowaste, is annually deposited in US municipal wastewaters. Most of this biowaste energy content is not recovered and, as a result, the biowaste could be a massive potential source of renewable energy. Biocrude diesel is converted from wet biowaste via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Three types of feedstocks (algae, swine manure, and food processing waste) were converted into biocrude oil via HTL. From the previous experiments done in an AVL 5402 single-cylinder diesel engine, it was observed that the presence of 20% of HTL in the blend performed similarly during combustion to pure diesel. By studying these mixtures in a constant volume chamber, these observations could be compared to the results in the diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Research on Technique for Correction of Running Resistance with Focus on Tire Temperature and Tire Thermal Balance Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-0623
At present, measurements of running resistance are conducted outdoors as a matter of course. Because of this, the ambient temperature at the time of the measurements has a considerable impact on the measurement data. The research discussed in this paper focused on the temperature characteristic of the tires and developed a new correction technique using a special rolling test apparatus. Specifically, using a tire rolling test apparatus that made it possible to vary the ambient temperature, measurements were conducted while varying the levels of factors other than temperature that affect rolling resistance (load, inflation pressure, and speed). Next, a regression analysis was applied to the data for each factor, and coefficients for a relational expression were derived, making it possible to derive a quadratic equation for the tire rolling resistance correction formula.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Temperature Active Three Way Catalyst

2019-04-02
2019-01-1293
In recent years, fuel efficiency has been improved by using many technologies such as downsizing engine, turbocharger and direct injection to reduce CO2 emissions from vehicle. However, the temperature of the exhaust gas from the engines using these technologies becomes lower than that form conventional one. That increases the difficulty for three-way catalyst (TWC) to purify CO, HC and NOx enough because TWC is not warmed up just after engine starting. In order to reduce cold emission mentioned above, we have been studying the warmup strategy of which the key property is thermal mass of TWC. To achieve early warmup, thermal mass of TWC is reduced by lightening the weight of (1) substrate and (2) catalytic materials, namely washcoat amount. Along with the strategy, we have developed TWC with lightweight substrate and applied it from the 2016 model year CIVIC.
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