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Journal Article

Effects of Cavitation and Hydraulic Flip in 3-Hole GDI Injectors

The performance of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines is governed by multiple physical processes such as the internal nozzle flow and the mixing of the liquid stream with the gaseous ambient environment. A detailed knowledge of these processes even for complex injectors is very important for improving the design and performance of combustion engines all the way to pollutant formation and emissions. However, many processes are still not completely understood, which is partly caused by their restricted experimental accessibility. Thus, high-fidelity simulations can be helpful to obtain further understanding of GDI injectors. In this work, advanced simulation and experimental methods are combined in order to study the spray characteristics of two different 3-hole GDI injectors.
Journal Article

Fretting Analysis of an Engine Bearing Cap Using Computer Simulation

The independent bearing cap is a cylinder block bearing structure that has high mass reduction effects. In general, this structure has low fastening stiffness compared to the rudder block structure. Furthermore, when using combination of different materials small sliding occurs at the mating surface, and fretting fatigue sometimes occurs at lower area than the material strength limit. Fretting fatigue was previously predicted using CAE, but there were issues with establishing a correlation with the actual engine under complex conditions, and the judgment criteria were not clear, so accurate prediction was a challenge. This paper reports on a new CAE-based prediction method to predict the fretting damage occurring on the bearing cap mating surface in an aluminum material cylinder block. First of all, condition a fretting fatigue test was performed with test pieces, and identification of CAE was performed for the strain and sliding amount.
Journal Article

Field Validation of the MC Default Fill Hydrogen Fueling Protocol

Appendix H of the SAE J2601 standard defines a development hydrogen fueling protocol named the MC Default Fill, which builds upon the foundation of the table based protocol, utilizing the same assumptions, boundary conditions, and process limits as the current standard. The MC Default Fill facilitates the following beyond the table based protocol: 1) the potential to provide faster, more consistent fueling times for fuel cell electric vehicle customers, and 2) the ability to continuously and dynamically adjust to a wide range of dispenser fuel delivery temperatures, allowing for more flexibility in station design. Computer simulations and laboratory bench tests were previously conducted and documented, validating the function and operation of the protocol.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Tire Model Concept - Applications to Vehicle Development

The tires are one of the most important parts of the vehicle chassis, as they significantly influence aspects such as vehicle's directional stability, braking performance, ride comfort, NVH, and fuel consumption. The tires are also a part whose size affects the vehicle's essential specifications such as wheelbase and track width. The size of the tires should therefore be determined in the initial stage of vehicle development, taking into account whether the size allows the vehicle to achieve the targeted overall performance. In estimations of vehicle performance, computer simulation plays more of an important role, and simulated tire models are designed to reproduce the measured tire characteristics of existing tires. But to estimate the chassis performance with various tire sizes or with tires of uncommon sizes, the prevailing modeling approach, “individual models for individual tires,” would not function well because of limited ability to expand tire models to unfamiliar sizes.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Simplified Vehicle Model that Can Reproduce Car-Pedestrian Collisions

Japanese accident statistics show that despite the decreasing trend of the overall traffic fatalities, more than 1,000 pedestrians are still killed annually in Japan. One way to develop further understanding of real-world pedestrian accidents is to reconstruct a variety of accident scenarios dynamically using computational models. Some of the past studies done by the authors' group have used a simplified vehicle model to investigate pedestrian lower limb injuries. However, loadings to the upper body also need to be reproduced to predict damage to the full body of a pedestrian. As a step toward this goal, this study aimed to develop a simplified vehicle model capable of reproducing pedestrian full-body kinematics and pelvis and lower limb injury measures. The simplified vehicle model was comprised of four parts: windshield, hood, bumper and lower part of the bumper. Several different models were developed using different combinations of geometric and stiffness representation.
Journal Article

Development of Estimation for Strain in Damages of Motorcycle Engine Parts When Tipped Over from Stationary State

In this research, a simulation method was developed in which it was able to estimate, in the early stage of design, the strains that potentially lead to damages to motorcycle engine parts when tipped over from a stationary state. Splitting a series of phenomena from the start of tilting of motorcycle from the upright position up to the end of collision of engine parts after the contact on the ground to two groups by before and after the contact of engine parts on the ground, we applied the multi body dynamics analysis to the first group, and the elastro-plastic FEM analysis to the latter one. In the computer simulation of collision using the elastro-plastic FEM analysis, we minimized the FEM models from the entire motorcycle models and treated others as a solid model to shorten the computation period. It is also realized that the strains occurring in the engine parts can be simulated by considering only the mass of the parts which are rigidly mounted on the engine.
Technical Paper

Development of Evaluation Method for Low-Cycle Fatigue Breakdown on HSDI Diesel Cylinder Head

With a growing demand for high-power diesel engines, a key issue in engine development is to create efficient methods for developing highly durable cylinder heads, without having to repeat trial-and-error testing. Especially, it was difficult to accurately predict the occurrence and origin of cracks on the surfaces of cylinder heads in hot and cold cycle engine operation. This paper describes a thermal fatigue evaluation method developed by analyzing areas around the glow plug hole where cracks often occur during hot and cold cycle engine operation. To reveal the conditions of edges from which cracks were formed under engine durability tests, we used two procedures. One was estimating local temperature of edge areas based on material hardness determination, in order to compensate for the accuracy of the thermal analysis. The other was analyzing the strain amplitudes on the cylinder head surface using computer simulation.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction Improvement Using New Simulation Technologies

Springback is a major concern in stamping of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The existing computer simulation technology has difficulty predicting this phenomenon accurately even though it is well developed for formability simulations. Great efforts made in recent years to improve springback predictions have achieved noticeable progress in the computational capability and accuracy. In this work, springback simulation studies are conducted using FEA software LS-DYNA®. Various parametric sensitivity studies are carried out and key variables affecting the springback prediction accuracy are identified. Recently developed simulation technologies in LS-DYNA® are implemented including dynamic effect minimization, smooth tool contact and newly developed nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material models. Case studies on lab-scale and full-scale industrial parts are provided and the predicted springback results are compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
Journal Article

Strength Analysis of a Cylinder Head Gasket Using Computer Simulation

The properties sought in a multi-layer steel cylinder head gasket include cylinder pressure sealing and fatigue strength in order for there to be no damage while the engine is in operation. Diesel engines, in particular, have high cylinder pressure and a high axial tension by the cylinder head bolt demanding severe environment to the gaskets. As engine performance is enhanced, there are cases when cracks develop in the gasket plate, necessitating countermeasures. The cause of cracking in a flat center plate, in particular, has not yet been explained, and no method for evaluation had previously existed. Three-dimensional non-linear finite element calculation was therefore performed to verify the cause. First, a static pressurization rig test was used and the amount of strain was measured to confirm the validity of the calculations. Then the same method of calculation was used to verify the distribution of strain, with a focus on the plate position.
Journal Article

A Scientific Approach for Designing Conservative Tests in Vehicle Development

This paper suggests a scientific approach to designing conservative tests based on computer simulation of the influence of the sources of variations. The idea is to design the conservative test so that, even in the presence of variation, there is a high probability that a random test will have a better result than the conservative test. Therefore, if the conservative test meets the requirement, one has a scientific reason to believe that any random test would have a high probability of meeting it. This new approach is illustrated for FMVSS301 80 kph 70% rear offset deformable barrier impact.
Technical Paper

Integrated Simulation of the Engine and Control System of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine

Over the last decade significant efforts have been made in the automotive industry to move into a math-based control development approach where much of the development could be done off-line using computer simulations. High-fidelity simulation of an engine and control system helps to shorten controller development time with reduced risk. This requires the integration of a detailed engine model with a representative controller model. This paper describes the development and validation of an integrated engine and controller model of a turbocharged diesel engine. The integrated model incorporates a detailed engine model in GT-Power and a comprehensive controller model in Simulink with functionalities like the production ECM. The focus of this study is a non-real time simulation and analysis of the control of EGR, turbocharger, and fueling with engine performance.
Technical Paper

Design of a Full-Scale Impact System for Analysis of Vehicle Pedestrian Collisions

The complexity of vehicle-pedestrian collisions necessitates extensive validation of pedestrian computational models. While body components can be individually simulated, overall validation of human pedestrian models requires full-scale testing with post mortem human surrogates (PMHS). This paper presents the development of a full-scale pedestrian impact test plan and experimental design that will be used to perform PMHS tests to validate human pedestrian models. The test plan and experimental design is developed based on the analysis of a combination of literature review, multi-body modeling, and epidemiologic studies. The proposed system has proven effective in testing an anthropometrically correct rescue dummy in multiple instances. The success of these tests suggests the potential for success in a full-scale pedestrian impact test using a PMHS.
Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation for Motorcycle Rider–Motion in Collision

A computer simulation method for motorcycle rider motion in a collision on a passenger car has been developed. The computer simulation results were in two cases of collision, at 45 degree and 90 degree angles against the side of a passenger car. The simulated results were compared to the test results for validation. The simulation software of explicit finite element method (FEM) has been used, because of its capability for expressing accurate shape and deformation. The mesh size was determined with consideration for simulation accuracy and calculation time, and an FEM model of a motorcycle, an airbag, a dummy, a helmet and a passenger car were built. To shorten the calculation time, a part of the model was regarded as a rigid body and eliminated from the contact areas. As a result, highly accurate dummy posture and head velocity at the time of contact on the ground were simulated in the two cases of collision.
Technical Paper

Analysis of upper extremity response under side air bag loading

Computer simulations, dummy experiments with a new enhanced upper extremity, and small female cadaver experiments were used to analyze the small female upper extremity response under side air bag loading. After establishing the initial position, three tests were performed with the 5th percentile female hybrid III dummy, and six experiments with small female cadaver subjects. A new 5th percentile female enhanced upper extremity was developed for the dummy experiments that included a two-axis wrist load cell in addition to the existing six-axis load cells in both the forearm and humerus. Forearm pronation was also included in the new dummy upper extremity to increase the biofidelity of the interaction with the handgrip. Instrumentation for both the cadaver and dummy tests included accelerometers and magnetohydrodynamic angular rate sensors on the forearm, humerus, upper and lower spine.
Technical Paper

Development of the 2002 Buick Rendezvous Body Structure

This paper documents the development of the 2002 Buick Rendezvous body structure for optimum noise & vibration performance. Accelerated vehicle development timing demanded clearly defined body structure vibration performance targets, with critical dependence on math based modeling. The 2002 Buick Rendezvous was truly a fast-to-math program enabled partially by borrowing some of its structural features from the recently launched Pontiac Aztek Competitive performance data collected for the Aztek was tailored to the Rendezvous for setting major global body structure targets. Architectural differences in overall vehicle size and body opening configuration led to adjustments in body matchboxing, bending and torsional requirements. The frequency domain “mode map” was modified to these requirements taking into account the Buick Brand Character. Computer simulation models were used exclusively to predict body structural performance.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of the Finite Element Model for the Human Lower Limb of Pedestrians

An impact test procedure with a legform addressing lower limb injuries in car-pedestrian accidents has been proposed by EEVC/WG17. Although a high frequency of lower limb fractures is observed in recent accident data, this test procedure assesses knee injuries with a focus on trauma to the ligamentous structures. The goal of this study is to establish a methodology to understand injury mechanisms of both ligamentous damages and bone fractures in car-pedestrian accidents. A finite element (FE) model of the human lower limb was developed using PAM-CRASH™. The commercially available H-Dummy™ lower limb model developed by Nihon ESI for a seated position was modified to represent the standing posture of pedestrians. Mechanical properties for both bony structures and knee ligaments were determined from our extensive literature survey, and were carefully implemented in the model considering their strain rate dependency in order to simulate the dynamic response of the lower limb accurately.
Technical Paper

Computer simulation process for pedestrian protection structures

Research into pedestrian protection has been carried out since the 1960s, in recent years there have been proposals in Europe to legislate requirements in this area and therefore the research is becoming more focused. In the draft regulation, impactor tests have been proposed as a method for evaluating the impact caused by vehicles'' body for pedestrians. This paper introduces impactor model and actual vehicle analysis as a means for simulating impactor testing. Three types of impactors for vehicle tests are presented. It is necessary that the models are first matched with the results of the calibration tests, then matched with the results of the tests on actual vehicles.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Compatibility - Analysis of the Factors Influencing Side Impact Occupant Injury

This paper discusses a study conducted by GM to better understand the factors that influence injury potential in vehicle-to-vehicle side impacts. A number of other studies have been done which focus primarily on frontal vehicle-to-vehicle compatibility. GM focused on side impact compatibility in this study due to the risk of harm generally associated with this type of crash. Real world field performance was studied through an extensive six-state field analysis of recent model year (‘94+) vehicles. Of particular interest in this study was an efficacy analysis of the MVSS 214 dynamic side impact standard, which was phased-in starting with some 1994 model year passenger cars. Physical side impact crash testing of a 1997 passenger car was used to investigate the relationship of impacting mass, speed, geometric profile and stiffness on side impact intrusion and occupant injury.
Technical Paper

Study on Roadway NMHC Concentrations Around Clean Air Vehicles

An ambient air quality study was carried out in the South Coast Air Basin in California in the summer of 1997. Non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations in the air to which clean air vehicles were exposed on roadways were studied by both computational simulations and experiments. Compared with conventional technologies of air quality simulations, a micro-scale model of ambient pollutants on roadways was used. Experimental observations showed that proposed model gave improved level of roadway concentrations.