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Technical Paper

Biofidelity Improvements to the Polar-II Pedestrian Dummy Lower Extremity

2007-04-16
2007-01-0757
Experimental tests were performed on the modified Polar-II pedestrian dummy lower extremity components to evaluate their biofidelity in lateral impact loading corresponding to a 40 km/h pedestrian-car collision. The bending moment-angle response from a newly developed knee joint, dynamically loaded in four-point valgus bending, was compared against previously published postmortem human subject (PMHS) response corridors. In addition to the stiffness characteristics of the knee joint, individual ligament forces were also recorded during the bending tests. The evaluated force-relative elongation response of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) in the new knee was compared against PMHS data on MCL tensile stiffness. Lower extremity long bones developed for improved anthropometrical accuracy and deformability were dynamically loaded in latero-medial three-point bending.
Technical Paper

Lateral Injury Criteria for the 6-year-old Pedestrian - Part I: Criteria for the Head, Neck, Thorax, Abdomen and Pelvis

2004-03-08
2004-01-0323
Pediatric pedestrians are frequently involved in Pedestrian versus Motor Vehicle Collisions (PMVCs). While in recent years, the automotive industry has worked towards making cars less aggressive to pedestrians, the efforts have mainly focused on adult pedestrian safety. When they have included considerations for children, only head injuries have been evaluated. The development of automotive counter-measures that provide protection for both adult and pediatric pedestrians requires access to injury criteria for the entire body that specifically account for both the age-dependent tissue properties and the pedestrian's size. The objective of the present study is to derive lateral injury criteria for the head, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis that can be used in finite element and multi-body simulations of PMVCs involving the 6-year-old pedestrian (corresponding injury criteria for the upper and lower extremities are derived in part II of this study).
Technical Paper

Lateral Injury Criteria for the 6-year-old Pedestrian - Part II: Criteria for the Upper and Lower Extremities

2004-03-08
2004-01-1755
Pediatric pedestrians are frequently involved in Pedestrian versus Motor Vehicle Collisions (PMVCs). While in recent years, the automotive industry has worked towards making cars less aggressive to pedestrians, the efforts have mainly focused on adult pedestrian safety. When they have included considerations for children, only head injuries have been evaluated. The development of automotive countermeasures that provide protection for both adult and pediatric pedestrians requires access to injury criteria for the entire body that specifically account for both the age-dependent tissue properties and the pedestrian's size. The objective of the present study is to derive lateral injury criteria for the upper and lower extremities that can be used in finite element and multi-body simulations of PMVCs involving the 6-year-old pedestrian (corresponding injury criteria for the head, neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis are derived in part I of this study).
Technical Paper

A STUDY OF THE UPPER LEG COMPONENT TESTS COMPARED WITH PEDESTRIAN DUMMY TESTS

2001-06-04
2001-06-0235
The upper leg component test proposed by EEVC WG17 is one of the tools for the evaluation of upper leg injuries in pedestrian accidents. Meeting the injury criteria set by EEVC for the upper legform impact test is one of the biggest challenges we can find in the reports. This problem was studied in previous papers using simulation models or reconstruction of pedestrian accidents. The POLAR pedestrian dummy was constructed by HONDA R&D and GESAC INC., and some crash tests were conducted with it. The object of this study is to compare EEVC WG17 upper legform impact test conditions for utility vehicles with the full dummy test results. To reconstruct the deformation resulting from tests using the POLAR, the impact energy for the EEVC upper legform impact test should be decreased. Even the upper limit of 700J is too high. Accident data analysis shows that the pelvis is the body part injured by the bonnet leading edge of the utility vehicle.
Technical Paper

BIOFIDELITY OF TEST DEVICES AND VALIDITY OF INJURY CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING KNEE INJURIES TO PEDESTRIANS

2001-06-04
2001-06-0021
In the current test procedure proposed by the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC)/WG17 for evaluating leg injuries to pedestrians, a legform impactor with a rigid bony structure is used. The risk of damages to knee ligaments is evaluated with the shearing displacement and the bending angle at the knee joint. A recent study has focused on evaluating biofidelity of the legform. However, it was not possible to obtain a local deformation at the knee joint from published experiments with Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHSs). In addition, past PMHS experiments have suggested that the height of a bumper significantly affects the risk of ligamentous damages.
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