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Technical Paper

Improvement of Steering Performance Using Steering Rack Force Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-1234
Drivers continually require steering performance improvement, particularly in the area of feedback from the road. In this study, we develop a new electrically-assisted steering logic by 1) analyzing existing steering systems to determine key factors, 2) modeling an ideal steering system from which to obtain a desirable driver torque, 3) developing a rack force observer to faithfully represent road information and 4) building a feedback compensator to track the tuned torque. In general, the estimator uses the driver torque, assist torque and other steering system signals. However, the friction of the steering system is difficult to estimate accurately. At high speed, where steering feeling is very important, greater friction results in increased error. In order to solve this problem, we design two estimators generated from a vehicle model and a steering system model. The observer that uses two estimators can reflect various operating conditions by using the strengths of each method.
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid Power Steering System for Commercial Vehicle

2019-03-25
2019-01-1415
Future technology trends of commercial vehicle steering components can be divided into three types. Environment-friendly technologies for environment-related regulations such as reducing emissions and improving fuel efficiency, and technology for driving convenience using electric steering control systems, and safety technology to protect drivers, passengers, nearby vehicles and pedestrians. Heavy duty commercial vehicles require a high-power steering system that used engine-driven hydraulic pump systems (generally used min 120bar, 17Liter/min) compared to passenger cars. In recent technical trend, In order to improve fuel efficiency and realize autonomous driving technology, we designed EHPS and Motor driven electric control actuator with the same structure as C-EPS.
Technical Paper

The Factors Governing Corrosion Stiction of Brake Friction Materials to a Gray Cast Iron Disc

2018-10-05
2018-01-1899
Corrosion stiction at the contact interface between a brake friction material and a gray iron disc under the parking brake condition was investigated by evaluating the possible parameters that affect the shear force to detach the corroded interface. Using production brake friction materials, comprising non-steel and low-steel types, corrosion tests were carried out by pressing the brake pad onto the gray iron disc using a clamp at various conditions. Results showed that the shear force to detach the corroded interface tended to increase with applied pressure and corrosion time. On the other hand, porosity, acidity, and hydrophobicity of the friction material did not show a reliable correlation to the stiction force. The poor correlation of the stiction force with the friction material properties indicated that the stiction force was not determined by a single factor but governed by multiple parameters including surface contact areas and inhomogeneity of the ingredients.
Technical Paper

Optimal Design of EPB Caliper Using DOE

2017-09-17
2017-01-2519
An Electrical Parking Brake (EPB) system is a device that operates to park the vehicle automatically with the push of a button instead of using conventional hand or foot levers which in some ways makes it the first by wire type of brake system. As such, it is being considered in some vehicle architectures as an automatic redundant backup for vacuum-less brake systems or autonomous cars. The EPB system is generally divided into cable puller and motor on caliper (MOC) types. Recently, the MOC type EPB is being more widely applied in the global market due to product competitiveness and cost effectiveness. The MOC type EPB is composed of the caliper body, torque member, pad assembly, nut assembly and actuator. Among them, the caliper body and torque member play a main role in the robustness of the EPB system and occupy more than 80% of the total weight.
Technical Paper

Disc Brake Squeal vs. Disc Pad Compressibility-Caliper Stiffness Interactions: Low-Frequency Squeal and High-Frequency Squeal vs. Differential Pad Wear

2017-09-17
2017-01-2528
It is widely believed or speculated that higher pad compressibility leads to reduced brake squeal and that caliper design can affect brake squeal. After encountering anecdotal contradictory cases, this investigation was undertaken to systematically generate basic data and clarify the beliefs or speculations. In order to adjust pad compressibility, it is common to modify pad molding temperatures, pressures and times, which in addition to changing the compressibility, changes friction coefficient and physical properties of the pad at the same time. In order to separate these two effects, NAO disc pads were prepared under the same molding conditions while using different thicknesses of the underlayer to achieve different compressibilities, thus changing the compressibility only without changing the friction coefficient and physical properties of the pad.
Journal Article

A Study of Low-Frequency and High-Frequency Disc Brake Squeal

2016-09-18
2016-01-1944
When two identical brakes are simultaneously tested on a vehicle chassis dynamometer, very often the left hand brake is found to squeal more or less than the right hand brake, all at different frequencies. This study was performed to develop some understanding of this puzzling phenomenon. It is found that as the wear rate difference between the inner pad and the outer pad increases, low frequency (caliper and knuckle) squeals occur more and more, and as the differential wear becomes larger and larger, high frequency (disc) squeals occur less and less, finally disappearing all together. Discs and calipers are found to affect the differential pad wear, in turn affecting brake squeal generation.
Technical Paper

A Study on Design for Noise Reduction of hEMB

2015-09-27
2015-01-2702
EMB (Electro-Mechanical Brake) which converts electrical motor power to brake clamping force at each wheel is a system that has been investigated and developed by various automotive part suppliers through the years. In particular, as the number of electrically powered vehicles, such as hybrid electric vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles, has expanded, the EMB has received increased interest due to its fast response that is much suited for effective cooperative control with regenerative braking. However, issues such as cost competitiveness, reliability and regulations need to be solved for commercialization [1-2]. A new concept, the hybrid Electro-Mechanical Brake (hEMB) is characterized by a dual piston structure linked by hydraulics inside of the caliper. It is possible to reduce the required motor power and increase the level of emergency back-up braking through the amplification effect of the dual piston mechanism [3].
Journal Article

Thermal Performance of Disc Brake and CFD Analysis

2014-09-28
2014-01-2497
In this paper an effective technology of virtual thermal test of disc brake with several advanced analytic techniques was presented. With the virtual thermal test process, thermal performance of brake system could be easily evaluated without any possibility of great errors that used to happen in the past. In addition to the classical result of CFD, this virtual thermal test produced several valuable applications such as thermal deformation of rotor, optimization of thermal performance and estimation of braking distance.
Journal Article

Study on the Vehicle Cabin Noise Employing the Interfacial Friction in Double Layered Frames Used in Electric Vehicle Traction Motors

2013-10-14
2013-01-2590
Electric vehicles are considered not only eco-friendly but also quieter than vehicles with conventional internal combustion engines. However, less noisy environments in cabins make passengers feel uncomfortable to moderate noise. This paper discusses noise reduction for electric vehicles radiated from traction motors. In the analysis of the noise generation mechanisms it is demonstrated that frequency ranges of the highest level in the noise spectrum of electromagnetic harmonic orders of the induction motor coincide with structural resonances of the motor housing. Interfacial friction between the inner and outer housings of the motor is employed in reducing structural vibration of the motor. Measured noise in the cabin and vibration at the motor housing indicates that slip damping presented from interfacial friction between the inner and outer housing is effective in reducing noise from the traction motor and in the cabin.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Method to Make the Flux Table Considering Temperature Dependence of IPMSM

2013-10-14
2013-01-2497
This paper proposes a simplified method to make the flux table considering the magnetic flux variation of the IPMSM (Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine) caused by temperature change in vehicle traction applications. Nowadays, normally an IPMSM with a rare-earth magnet is used for HEV traction applications. But because the flux density of the magnet varies with temperature, the optimal operating points, such as MTPA (Maximum Torque Per Ampere) and MTPV (Maximum Torque Per Voltage) of the motor drift according to temperature change. Those operating points can be expressed in a lookup table, that is, a flux table obtained by off-line experiment, which produces the DQ-axis current command with respect to the torque and flux reference. To reflect this temperature dependence in control, usually flux tables are generated at high, medium and low temperatures. Conventionally, all the three tables are constructed by experiment, which takes a great deal of time.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Influence of Pad Properties and Disc Coning on High Speed Judder

2012-09-17
2012-01-1815
The effects of pad properties and thermal coning of discs on high speed judder were investigated using dynamometer and vehicle tests. The friction materials of different thermal conductivities were manufactured and the discs were design-modified to control the thermal coning during braking under high speed conditions. Brake Torque Variation(BTV) was measured to evaluate the judder propensity in the dynamometer tests and the vibration on steering wheel and brake pedal was measured in the vehicle tests. The results showed that the increase of thermal conductivity of pad could not affect the judder propensity during high speed braking below 350°C of disc temperature, however better disc design reduced judder propensity due to the lower thermal deformation. Moreover, the increase of pad compressibility can reduce judder propensity due to the increase of damping capacity.
Technical Paper

Research on the Development of the Bio Composites for Automotive Interior Parts

2011-10-06
2011-28-0006
Since the environmental problems and new stricter regulations are forcing the industries to introduce more ecological materials for their products, biodegradable materials have attracted increasing attention. Among these materials, Polylactic acid (PLA) is remarkable for its modulus, strength, chemical resistance. However, PLA could not be used for automobile industries for its low heat resistance and impact strength. Therefore, in this study natural fiber was introduced as reinforcements in order to improve the properties of PLA. And for various experiments, Polypropylene (PP) was used as matrix resin instead of PLA. Especially for improving the properties of PLA composites, surface treatments, annealing, and adding rubber elements were performed. With surface treatments, we found that the mechanical properties of composite were improved. And with annealing treatment, we found the remarkable increase of heat resistance of PLA composite.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Low-Weigt BMC for Headlamp Reflector

2011-10-06
2011-28-0010
Optimal Composition of Light-weight BMC (Bulk molding compound) for automotive headlamp reflector using Glass bubble was investigated. Glass bubble (G/B) normally has low heat conductivity which has a bad influence on cycle time making products like reflectors. It was very important to improve the productivity of Light-weight BMC by means of finding optimal composition of base resin, curing agent and other additives. This study focused on the ideal ratio of each component of BMC, unsaturated polyester resin, glass bubble, inorganic filler, glass fiber and additives. Mechanical and environmental properties of the product which was made of optimized light-weight BMC were evaluated to compare with the properties of the product which was made of existing BMC.
Journal Article

Estimation of Lateral Force due to Lateral Disturbance for Application to an MDPS-Based Driving Assistant System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0977
This paper describes a lateral disturbance estimator for an application to a Motor Driven Power Steering (MDPS)-based driving assistant system. A vehicle motion can be disturbed laterally by wind force or load from bank angle acting on the vehicle in the lateral direction. An MDPS-based driving assistant system can be used to reduce steering effort of a human driver in a driving situation with lateral disturbance. In designing the MDPS-based driving assistant system, the lateral wind disturbance should be estimated to determine an assistant torque. An estimator for the vehicle lateral disturbance estimation has been developed. The proposed estimator consists of two parts: a tire self-aligning torque estimator and the lateral disturbance estimator. The lateral disturbance estimator has been designed on the basis of a 2-DOF bicycle model with available sensor signals from the MDPS module. A numerical simulation has been conducted in order to evaluate the proposed estimator.
Journal Article

An Investigation into Multi-Core Architectures to Improve a Processing Performance of the Unified Chassis Control Algorithms

2010-04-12
2010-01-0662
This paper describes an investigation into multi-core processing architecture for implementation of a Unified Chassis Control (UCC) algorithm. The multi-core architecture is suggested to reduce the operating load and maximization of the reliability to improve of the UCC system performance. For the purpose of this study, the proposed multi-core architecture supports distributed control with analytical and physical redundancy capabilities. In this paper, the UCC algorithm embedded in electronic control unit (ECU) is comprised of three parts; a supervisor, a main controller, and fault detection/ isolation/ tolerance control (FDI/FTC). An ECU is configured by three processors, and a control area network (CAN) is also implemented for hardware-in-the-loop (HILS) evaluation. Two types of multi-core architectures such as distributed processing, and triple voting are implemented to investigate the performance and reliability.
Technical Paper

Alternative Approach to Design ESC and MDPS Integrated Control System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0101
The integrated control system of Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Motor-Driven Power Steering (MDPS) improves vehicle performance and extends functions via CAN network without any hardware modification. Although the ESC and MDPS integrated system does not improve vehicle behavior directly, it can inspire drivers to steer to the right direction by changing steering torque assistance characteristics. There are two different ways to control both ESC and MDPS systems: Top-down and Parallel control mode. First, the Top-down control mode, which is already widely used on the market, imposes ESC on the additional functions of ESC+MDPS integrated system. On the contrary, the Parallel control mode distributes the functions to ESC and MDPS, therefore each system does their own role and cooperates on special events. In this study, the parallel control mode controller is proposed and compared with the Top-down control mode.
Technical Paper

Development of the Virtual Test Technology for Evaluating Thermal Performance of Disc Brake

2009-04-20
2009-01-0857
There have been many kinds of simplifications and limitations in evaluating the thermal performance of disc brake when using the analytic technologies which were established before. But now new technology of virtual test with several advanced analytic techniques was developed to evaluate the thermal performance without any possibility of great errors that used to happen for the earlier time-consuming analyses. As a result, it was estimated that the new virtual test technology could afford to replace the physical dynamo test since the reliability of virtual test technology was reasonably verified with the existing data measured in dynamo test.
Journal Article

A Study on Fracture Characteristics of Plastics and Application to Head Impact Simulation for Instrument Panels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1116
The instrument panels are made to meet stiffness requirements and also interior safety regulation such as head impact test. Nowadays, CAE is widely used to predict the test results in advance. However, considering fracture phenomena, the characteristics of material takes a significant role for the simulation of the real tests. In this paper, high speed tensile tests and fracture tests of specimens representing typical stress-states were performed to make a fracture criterion of a plastic material (PC/ABS). The suggested method was validated by comparing simulation with test results.
Technical Paper

Reducing Brake Squeal through FEM Approach and Parts Design Modifications

2006-10-08
2006-01-3206
Nowadays, brake squeal noise is one of the most difficult problems and is a big issue in the automobile industry. Finite element analysis is a useful tool in predicting the noise occurrence of a conventional brake system during the design stage. This paper explains the technical procedure and method to resolve the squeal noise with commercial software programs. Friction coefficient under the operating conditions of the brake system was considered as a variable with respect to disc velocity and there was a dynamic behavior within the pad assembly during brake action. First of all, our Finite Element (FE) model was verified using the results of the parts and assembly's FRF measurements and an inertia noise dynamometer, followed by complex eingen value analysis to detect unstable frequencies. Subsequently, mode analysis was conducted for each part of the brake system through the MAC values.
Technical Paper

Development of Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator and Vehicle Dynamic Model for Testing ABS

2003-03-03
2003-01-0858
In-vehicle driving tests for evaluating performance of vehicle control devices are often time-consuming, expensive, and not reproducible. Using hardware-in-the-loop simulation scheme, actual control devices can be easily tested in real time in a closed loop with a virtual vehicle. This advantage has made HILS systems popular as testbench lately in automotive industries. This paper describes a PC-based HILS system for ABS that has been developed in Matlab environment with real-time rapid prototyping tools. Also presented in this paper is a semi-empirical vehicle dynamic model that has been designed to account for kinematic and compliant characteristics of the suspension system from rig tests.
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