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Technical Paper

The Analysis of Relationship between Vehicle Drop & Dummy Injury

Given the importance of vehicle safety, OEMs are focused on ensuring the safety of passengers during car accidents. Injury is related to the passenger’s kinematics and interaction with airbag, seatbelt, and vehicle drop. However, the correlation between vehicle drop (vehicle pitch) and passengers’ injury is the main issue recently being discussed. This paper presents the definition of vehicle drop and analyzes the relationship through a dynamic sled test. This study defines the relationship between individual vehicle systems (body, chassis, tire, etc.) and vehicle drop, and how to control the amount of vehicle drop to minimize the injury of passengers.
Technical Paper

An Improved Methodology for Calculation of the Inertial Resistance of Automotive Latching Systems

This paper outlines an improved methodology to perform calculations to verify the compliance of automotive door latch systems to minimum legal requirements as well as to perform additional due diligence calculations necessary to comprehend special cases such as roll over crashes and locally high inertial loadings. This methodology builds on the calculation method recommended by SAE J839 and provides a robust and clear approach for application of this method to cable release systems, which were not prevalent at the time J839 was originally drafted. This method is useful in and of itself but its utility is further increased by the application of the method to a Computer Aided Design (CAD) template (in this case for Catia V5), that allows some automation of the calculation process for a given latch type. This will result in a savings of time, fewer errors and allows for an iterative concurrent analysis during the design process.
Technical Paper

Development of the Overmolding Instrument Panel

We developed the hard IP (Instrument Panel) that is integrally over molded with a soft layer (TPO, Thermo Plastic Olefin) for the soft feeling and cost reduction. And also we produced the cost-effective PAB(Passenger-side Airbag) door system that had an in-mold tearseam and avoided competitors' patents simultaneously. The development procedure of this technology is; ① Material for overmolding ② Design optimization ③ Solving tool challenges. The reduction of process through integrally molding with soft material helped to accomplish a soft feeling on the IP and cost reduction at the same time. The deployment, head impact and heat aging tests were conducted and 5 patents were applied such as the optimization of the mold structure and injection condition.
Technical Paper

Invisible PAB Door Development Using Two-shot Molding

Invisible Passenger-side Airbag (IPAB) door system must be designed with a weakened area such that the airbag will break through the Instrument Panel (IP) in the intended manner, with no flying debris at any temperature. At the same time, there must be no cracking or sharp edges at the head impact test (ECE 21.01). Needless to say, Head impact test must keep pace with the deployment test. In this paper, we suggested soft airbag door system that is integrally molded with a hard instrument panel by using Two-shot molding. First of all, we set up the design parameters of IPAB door for the optimal deployment and head impact performance by CAE analysis. And then we optimized the open-close time at each gate of the mold so that the soft and hard material could be integrally molded with the intended boundary. We could make the boundary of two materials more constant by controlling the open-close time of each gate with resin temperature sensor.
Technical Paper

Seat Common Frame Design Optimization

Due to technological evolutions and social demands, motor vehicles are requested to be enhanced in terms of occupant safety and comfort. As a result, many countries are reinforcing crash regulations and new car assessment programs. Automotive seats are essential parts for providing passenger safety and comfort and have become most important. Many automotive companies concentrate on optimization of the seat structure. This paper presents an overview of the recent evolution of the seat structures and gives a development procedure covering seat frame design, optimization and validation. Through the study, a competitive frame design is drawn as a case result and a design guideline and a standard development procedure is established
Technical Paper

Invisible Advanced Passenger-Side Airbag Door Design for Optimal Deployment and Head Impact Performance

Hard panel types of invisible passenger-side airbag (IPAB) door system must be designed with a weakened area such that the airbag will deploy through the Instrument Panel (IP) in the intended manner, with no flying debris at any required operating temperature. At the same time, there must be no cracking or sharp edges in the head impact test (ECE 21.01). If the advanced-airbag with the big difference between high and low deployment pressure ranges are applied to hard panel types of IPAB door system, it becomes more difficult to optimize the tearseam strength for satisfying deployment and head impact performance simultaneously. We introduced the ‘Operating Window’ idea from quality engineering to design the hard panel types of IPAB door applied to the advanced-airbag for optimal deployment and head impact performance. To accurately predict impact performance, it is important to characterize the strain rate.
Technical Paper

The Study of the Structure for the Head Protection on Front Pillar in Crash or Rollover of the Vehicle

In order to meet FMVSS 201 (U) requirements, the upper vehicle interior structures with trim in a vehicle need to be properly designed to minimize injuries when head impacts these components. This paper presents a study of countermeasures in pillars using FEA approach by considering some design factors. Optimal designs are then selected for interior head impact protection based on CAE analysis using LS-DYNA non-linear finite element code.
Technical Paper

The development of the autonomous driving system for a car-to-car crash test

To simulate the car-to-car crash accidents in the real field, the Autonomous Driving System was developed. This system consists of communicating, sensing, accelerating, braking, steering and data recording subsystems. All these were designed to be compact, light and collapsible, so that the crash characteristics of test vehicle were not affected. The velocity performance of the system covers from 10 kph to 100 kph within ± 0.5 kph error, and the lateral deviation is constrained within ± 20 mm. With this system, several frontal offset and side car-to-car crash tests were carried out successfully. Deformations, injury levels, deceleration signals and dynamic behaviors during crash were typically investigated. And the dynamic behaviors were compared with the simulation results of EDSMAC. Car-to-car crash tests between small and large vehicles with different masses were carried out and the effects on the compatibility were investigated.
Technical Paper

Development of finite element Euro-SID model

In contrast to the other types of crash simulations, integrated analysis is needed to perform the side impact simulation, and the acquired injury values are so sensitive that they are difficult to assess by the deformed vehicle structure itself. Accurate FE Euro-side impact dummy (EURO-SID) model is needed to predict the various injury values in Euro side-impact simulation. In the past, rigid body model and coarse FE model have been used. The advantage of these models is low computing power. By the way, they have lack of injury predictability in integrated simulations. The deviations are caused by inaccurate geometry and improper material characteristics expression for individual components. Therefore, new Euro side-impact dummy model is developed through mass (inertia), component and sled validation. In this paper, validation results are illustrated, and their application results in two kinds of full car simulations are introduced.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Crashworthiness of a Passenger Car Using Iterative Simulations

The paper describes an engineering project carried out to optimize the crashworthiness of an existing passenger car for frontal crash using a procedure relying on numerical simulation. An optimization target is defined in terms of an ideal acceleration pulse at the seats anchors. The acceleration time history and structural members are scanned in parallel to correlate the local acceleration peaks to specific structural members. Members details are iteratively modified in order to alter the accelerations and get closer to the target.
Technical Paper

A Predicting and Improvement of Side Impact Using the CC-CTP

Extensive researches are being performed on a world wide basis with the aim of enhancing occupant protection on the side impact. The test methodology for side impact can be divided into two general groups; Sub-System Tests Full Scale Tests. However, the advantages of full scale test is that it is possible to make an integrated statement on the protective potential of the structural stiffness of the struck vehicle and the padding for a selected collision speed and type of collision. The advantages of sub-system test methodology can be simulates more exactly for wide range of accident(i.e. collision directions, impact points etc.). The latter test procedure can be carried out at a relatively earlier stage in the development of a new vehicle, and also can be reduce the time and cost. The Computer Controlled Composite Test Procedure(CC-CTP) presented in this paper has been developed by CCMC (Committee of Common Market Automobile Constructors).