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Technical Paper

Synergies of Cooled External EGR, Water Injection, Miller Valve Events and Cylinder Deactivation for the Improvement of Fuel Economy on a Turbocharged-GDI Engine; Part 2, Engine Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0242
As CO2 legislation tightens, the next generation of turbocharged gasoline engines must meet stricter emissions targets combined with increased fuel efficiency standards. Recent studies have shown that the following technologies offer significant improvements to the efficiency of turbocharged GDI engines: Miller Cycle via late intake valve closing (LIVC), low pressure loop cooled EGR (LPL EGR), port water injection (PWI), and cylinder deactivation (CDA). While these efficiency-improving technologies are individually well-understood, in this study we directly compare these technologies to each other on the same engine at a range of operating conditions and over a range of compression ratios (CR). The technologies tested are applied to a boosted and direct injected (DI) gasoline engine and evaluated both individually and combined.
Technical Paper

Synergies of Cooled External EGR, Water Injection, Miller Valve Events and Cylinder Deactivation for the Improvement of Fuel Economy on a Turbocharged-GDI Engine; Part 1, Engine Simulation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0245
As CO2 legislation tightens, the next generation of turbocharged gasoline engines must meet stricter emissions targets combined with increased fuel efficiency standards. Promising technologies under consideration are: Miller Cycle via late intake valve closing (LIVC), low pressure loop cooled exhaust gas recirculation (LPL EGR), port water injection (PWI), and cylinder deactivation (CDA). While these efficiency improving options are well-understood individually, in this study we directly compare them to each other on the same engine at a range of operating conditions and over a range of compression ratios (CR). For this purpose we undertake a comprehensive simulation of the above technology options using a GT-Power model of the engine with a kinetics based knock combustion sub-model to optimize the fuel efficiency, taking into account the total in-cylinder dilution effects, due to internal and external EGR, on the combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study on Control Logic Design for Power Seat

2019-04-02
2019-01-0466
The large luxury sedan seat has a 22-way Movement. It offers a wide range of adjustments to enhance passenger comfort performance while it has many constraints on movement in constrained indoor space. In addition, the power seat is operated by a motor, which makes it difficult for the user to determine the amount of adjustment, unlike determining the amount of adjustment by the power and feel of a person, such as manual seat adjustment. IMS, one-touch mode, is also constrained by parameters such as indoor space package, user's lifestyle, etc. during function playback. This paper aims to design the seat control logic to achieve the best seat comfort while satisfying each constraint. The results of this study are as follows. Increase robustness of power seat control logic. Provide optimal adjustments and comfort at each location. Offer differentiated custom control and seating modes for each seat. Improve customer satisfaction and quality by upgrading software.
Technical Paper

Development of the Wireless Power Transfer Technology for a Sliding Door

2019-04-02
2019-01-0485
The sliding door’s movement is 3-dimensional unlike the conventional door. So the electric power and signal are exchanged via the long ‘Power Cable’. It has a quite complex structure in order to be suitable to connect the vehicle’s body and the sliding door even during it’s moving. As the result, it is more expensive than conventional door’s one and the quality could not be guaranteed easily. In this paper, I have developed new technology which could transfer electric power by ‘wireless transfer’ in order to resolve the problem from using ‘Power cable’. I would propose the proper structure to transfer the electric power at any position of the sliding door without any physical connection. To transfer the electric power which drives the window regulator and the actuators in door, I have applied the ‘inductive coupling’ system.
Technical Paper

In-Gear Slip Control Strategy of Dry-Clutch Systems Using a Sliding Mode Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-1305
This paper proposes a clutch control strategy during in-gear driving situations for Dual Clutch Transmissions (DCTs). The clutch is intentionally controlled to make small amount of a slip to identify the torque transfer capacity. The control objective of this phase is to ensure the clutch slip fairly remaining the specified value. To achieve this, the micro-slip controller is designed based on sliding mode control theory. Experimental verifications performed on onboard control system of the DCT equipped vehicle demonstrate that the proposed controller good tracking performance of the desired slip speed.
Technical Paper

Development of Adaptive Powertrain Control Utilizing ADAS and GPS

2019-04-02
2019-01-0883
This paper introduces the advancement of Engine Idle Stop-and-Go (ISG, also known as Auto Engine Stop-Start) and Neutral Coasting Control (NCC) with utilizing Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and GPS. The ISG and the In-Neutral Coasting (also known as Sailing or Gliding) have been widely implemented in recent vehicles for improving their fuel economy. However, many drivers find them somewhat disturbing because they basically change behaviors of their cars from what they used to. This annoyance discourages usages of those functions and eventually undermines their benefit of fuel saving. In order to mitigate the problem, new ISG and NCC algorithms are proposed. As opposed to the conventional logics that rely only on driver’s pedal action, the new algorithms determine whether or not to enable those functions for the given driving condition, based on the traffic information obtained using ADAS sensors and the location data from GPS and navigation map.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Voice Recognition Performance in Response to Background Noise and Gender Based Frequency

2017-06-05
2017-01-1888
Voice Recognition (VR) systems have become an integral part of the infotainment systems in the current automotive industry. However, its recognition rate is impacted by external factors such as vehicle cabin noise, road noise, and internal factors which are a function of the voice engine in the system itself. This paper analyzes the VR performance under the effect of two external factors, vehicle cabin noise and the speakers’ speech patterns based on gender. It also compares performance of mid-level sedans from different manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Virtual NOx sensor for Transient Operation in Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0561
Currently, diesel engine-out exhaust NOx emission level prediction is a major challenge for complying with the stricter emission legislation and for control purpose of the after-treatment system. Most of the NOx prediction research is based on the Zeldovich thermal mechanism, which is reasonable from the physical point of view and for its simplicity. Nevertheless, there are some predictable range limitations, such as low temperature with high EGR rate operating conditions or high temperature with low EGR rates. In the present paper, 3 additional considerations, pilot burned gas mixing before the main injection; major NO formation area; concentration correction, were applied to the previously developed real-time NO estimation model based on in-cylinder pressure and data available from ECU. The model improvement was verified on a 1.6 liter EURO5 diesel engine in both steady and transient operation.
Technical Paper

Optimal Control of Integrated Starter and Generator for Maximum Energy Recovery during Engine Stop Transition in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1244
An integrated starter and generator (ISG) is a type of electric machine which is mechanically connected to an internal combustion engine (ICE). The ISG is intended to conduct important roles in the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) such as engine start and stop. Since the HEV has frequent electric vehicle (EV)/HEV mode transition, rapid engine cranking and vibration-free engine stop controls are necessary. In the case of the engine stop, the ISG provides the negative torque output to the ICE which can rapidly escape from its resonance speed. However, the ISG torque is determined by engineering intuition, the amount of energy recovery is hardly considered. Dynamic programming (DP) is an effective solution to find optimal ISG control strategy to maximize energy recovery during engine stop transition. Even though DP is an offline algorithm, the result can be used as a reference to evaluate and improve an existing on-line algorithm.
Technical Paper

A Study of Fuel Economy Improvement on US Fuel Economy Test Cycle by Model Based Cooled HP EGR System and Robust Logic through S-FMEA

2015-04-14
2015-01-1637
This paper focuses on the vehicle test result of the US fuel economy test cycles such as FTP75, HWY and US06 with model based Cooled EGR system. Cooled EGR SW function was realized by Model Based Development (internal rapid prototyping) using iRPT tool. With EGR, mixing exhaust gas with clean air reduces the oxygen concentration in the cylinder charge, as a result, the combustion process is slowed, and the combustion temperature drops. This experiment confirmed that the spark timing was more advanced without knocking and manifold pressure was increased in all cases with EGR. A positive potential of fuel economy improvement on FTP mode, US06 mode have seen in this experiment but not for HWY where the engine load is quite low and the spark advance is already optimized. As a result, fuel economy was increased by maximum 3.3% on FTP, 2.7% on US06, decreased by 0.3% on HWY mode respectively with EGR.
Journal Article

Electro-Mechanical Brake for Front Wheel with Back-up Braking

2014-09-28
2014-01-2538
Electro-Mechanical Brake (EMB) is the brake system that is actuated by electrical energy and has a similar design with the Electric Parking Brake (EPB). It uses motor power and gears to provide the necessary torque and a screw & nut mechanism is used to convert the rotational movement into a translational one. The main difference of EMB compared with EPB is that the functional requirements of components are much higher to provide the necessary performance for service braking such as response time. Such highly responsive and independent brake actuators at each wheel lead to enhanced controllability which should result in not only better basic braking performance, but also improvements in various active braking functions such as integrated chassis control, driver assistance systems, or cooperative regenerative braking.
Technical Paper

Study on Optimization for LNT+SCR System of Diesel Vehicle to Comply with the LEV3 Regulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1529
This paper describes how to meet LEVII ULEV70 emission standards and minimize fuel consumption with the combined NOx after-treatment (LNT+SCR) system for diesel vehicles. Through analysis of LNT's functionality and characteristics in a LNT+SCR combined after-treatment system, allowed a new control strategy to be established, different from the existing LNT-only system. In the 200°C or higher condition where SCR can provide the most stable NOx conversion efficiency, rich regeneration of LNT was optimized to minimize LNT deterioration and fuel consumption. Optimized mapping between rapid heat up strategy and raw NOx reduction maximized LNT's NOx conversion efficiency during the intervals when it is not possible for SCR to purify NOx This study used bench aged catalysts which were equivalent to 150K full useful life.
Journal Article

Validation and Sensitivity Studies for SAE J2601, the Light Duty Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Standard

2014-04-01
2014-01-1990
The worldwide automotive industry is currently preparing for a market introduction of hydrogen-fueled powertrains. These powertrains in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) offer many advantages: high efficiency, zero tailpipe emissions, reduced greenhouse gas footprint, and use of domestic and renewable energy sources. To realize these benefits, hydrogen vehicles must be competitive with conventional vehicles with regards to fueling time and vehicle range. A key to maximizing the vehicle's driving range is to ensure that the fueling process achieves a complete fill to the rated Compressed Hydrogen Storage System (CHSS) capacity. An optimal process will safely transfer the maximum amount of hydrogen to the vehicle in the shortest amount of time, while staying within the prescribed pressure, temperature, and density limits. The SAE J2601 light duty vehicle fueling standard has been developed to meet these performance objectives under all practical conditions.
Journal Article

A Study on How to Utilize Hilly Road Information in Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy of FCHEVs

2014-04-01
2014-01-1827
This paper presents an adaptation method of equivalent factor in equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) using hilly road information. Instantaneous optimization approach such as ECMS is one of real-time controllers. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that ECMS achieves near-optimum results with the selection of the appropriate equivalent factor. However, a lack of hilly road information no longer guarantees near-optimum results as well as charge-sustaining of ECMS under hilly road conditions. In this paper, first, an optimal control problem is formulated to derive ECMS analytical solution based on simplified models. Then, we proposed updating method of equivalent factor based on sensitivity analysis. The proposed method tries to mimic the globally optimal equivalent factor trajectory extracted from dynamic programming solutions.
Technical Paper

Development of Valvetrain System to Improve Knock Characteristics for Gasoline Engine Fuel Economy

2014-04-01
2014-01-1639
It is difficult to reach higher compression ratios of the gasoline engine even though higher compression ratios improve thermal efficiency. One of the barriers is large torque drop led by knocking. Extensive researches to suppress knocking of the gasoline engine have been conducted. It is focused on lowering the temperature of fuel mixture in combustion chamber at compression top dead center (TDC). This paper covers the new valvetrain system to decrease the temperature of exhaust valve bottom (combustion) side. Hollow head and stem sodium filled valve (HHSV) have shown more heat transfer from combustion chamber to valve seat insert and valve guide, and higher thermal conductivity valve seat insert (HVSI) and valve guide (HVG) help to decrease valve temperature lower by higher heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Development of Nu 2.0L CVVL Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1635
Hyundai Motor Group launched a Continuously Variable Valve Lift (CVVL) engine in 2012. The engine is equipped with HMG's unique CVVL mechanism and is characterized by low fuel consumption, high performance and its responsiveness. The CVVL mechanism is based on a six-linkage mechanism and has advantages of compactness and durability. The engine is a 4 cylinder In-Line, 2.0L gasoline engine and is designed for a mid-sized passenger car. The engine increases fuel efficiency by 7.7% and the peak engine power by 4.2%. One of the most challenging issues in producing a CVVL engine is the valve lift deviations throughout the engine cylinders. The valve cap shim and set screw were designed to adjust the valve lift deviations. Cap shim thickness is chosen by measuring the valve top height, and shoe lift of the cam carrier assembly. The set screw is an auxiliary device to adjust the valve lift deviation.
Technical Paper

Development of Vibration Suppression Control Strategy for Motor System of Eco-Friendly Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1874
Development of eco-friendly vehicles have risen in importance due to fossil fuel depletion and the strengthened globalized emission control regulatory requirements. A lot of automotive companies have already developed and launched various types of eco-friendly vehicles which include hybrid vehicles (HEVs) or electric vehicles (EVs) to reduce fuel consumption. To maximize fuel economy Hyundai-Kia Motor Company has introduced eco-friendly vehicles which have downsized or eliminated vibration damping components such as a torque converter. Comparing with Internal Combustion Engine(ICE) powered vehicles, one issue of the electric motor propulsion system with minimized vibration damping components is NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness). The NVH problem is caused by output torque fluctuation of the motor system, resulting in the degradation of ride comfort and drivability.
Technical Paper

Development of Two Oil Pumping System for Automatic Transmission

2014-04-01
2014-01-1766
The efforts to improve automatic transmission (AT) efficiency for vehicle fuel economy are constantly continuing. In an AT the oil pump is the largest power loss factor. Therefore the effect on fuel economy is very high. The AT oil pump system has structural contradictions (high pressure × high flow), and the efforts to improve these areas are concentrated. In this paper, a two oil pumping system was designed to improve the efficiency and performance of a 6 speed AT installed in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) [1], and the improvement was confirmed by a prototype experiment. As a result of the experiment, two pumping system was shown to improve vehicle fuel economy while reducing noise and oil pressure vibration.
Technical Paper

Learning Slip Control of an Engine Clutch in a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Linear Vehicle Launch

2014-04-01
2014-01-1745
This work studied the control technique for the engine clutch engagement at launch for the TMED parallel HEV for the improved drivability and dynamic performance. Analysis are done on the speed synchronization of the clutch plates, the speed control using the starter motor (ISG), and the fluid pressure control for the clutch. Possible external factors such as changes in the friction coefficient of transmission fluid, temperature variation, auxiliary power and pressure losses are identified and their effects on the targeted dynamic performance are examined. The targeted system performance was achieved with a learning control technique using fluid pressure as the only control input. This involves the compensation for the effect of external factors on the fluid pressure profile and this effect is memorized for the subsequent slip-launch application.
Technical Paper

Improved Cyclic Performances of Li-Sulfur Batteries with Sulfone-Based Electrolyte

2014-04-01
2014-01-1844
The effects of electrolyte on the cyclability of Li/S battery were investigated in this work. The electrochemical properties of single component ether solvents and a binary mixture of ether solvents were studied. These ether-based electrolytes have polysulfide shuttle problems which result in severe low Coulombic efficiency. To overcome these issues, sulfone-based solvent which forms a stable passivation film at the anode surface were used. As a result, the proper composition of sulfone-based electrolyte were obtained. Its capacity and reversible capacity retention were improved to 715 mAh/g and 72.6% which were increased by 52.1% and 63.1%, respectively, compared to those of ether-based electrolyte.
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