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Technical Paper

The Development of a NOx Reduction System during the Fuel Cut Period for Gasoline Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-1292
Generally, vehicles do not need power during deceleration. Therefore, the fuel efficiency can be improved by stopping the fuel injection in this period. However, when the fuel cut is activated, NOx is emitted immediately after fuel cut. During the fuel cut period, a large amount of fresh air flows into the catalytic converter installed on a vehicle since there is no combustion. Thus, the catalytic materials are converted into an oxidizing atmosphere. As a result, NOx purification performance of the catalyst deteriorates, and eventually NOx is emitted when combustion restarts. The quantity of NOx in this period is relatively small. However, in case of increasing fuel cuts, emission problem could arise. Therefore, in order to meet the stringent regulation such as LEV III-SULEV20 or 30, the number of fuel cuts need to be limited. The problem is that this strategy leads to a disadvantage of fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development of Ultra-Stable Cu-SCR Aftertreatment System for Advanced Lean NOx Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-0743
The integration of SCR catalyst into diesel-particulate filter (SDPF) may be one of most viable ways to meet upcoming stringent emission regulations with new test protocols such as Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycles (WLTC) and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) requirements. The chabazite-structured SSZ-13-based catalysts enabled the wide implementation of urea-SCR technology for mobile applications due to their robust thermal stability up to 750°C compared to the thermally unstable ZSM-5-based technologies. However, the thermally stable Cu-SSZ-13 catalyst starts losing its initial activity with the increase of aging time at 850°C, where the SCR catalyst on SDPF can possibly be exposed during filter regeneration under a drop-to-idle (DTI) condition. Therefore, more durable SCR catalysts that survive under higher temperatures have been strongly desired in automotive industry. Recently, we found Cu-exchanged high silica LTA revealed an excellent hydrothermal stability.
Technical Paper

Smart Engine Control Strategy for the Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Understanding the Unique Behavior of TWC

2019-03-25
2019-01-1406
The worldwide fuel economy compliance level has been tightening, at the same time, LEV-III/Euro-6d/China-6/BS-6 regulations for NMOG and NOx emissions are being introduced or already effective. Therefore, intensive research effort has been conducted in order to improve the fuel efficiency of passenger cars and reduce exhaust emission. In response to these demands, turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engine is being introduced for gasoline vehicles in consideration of fuel efficiency improvement, high output and driving performance compared to naturally aspirated (NA) engine. However, due to its larger thermal mass from the turbo hardware in the exhaust, it suffers from the cold-start emission. The main hazardous gases emitted from gasoline vehicles are CO, HC and NOx, and a three-way catalyst (TWC) is installed for the purification of these harmful emissions.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Half Order Modulation Control for Diesel Combustion Noise by Using Model Based Controller Design

2019-03-25
2019-01-1416
This model based investigation is carried out in order to control the half order modulation for diesel engines using by virtual calibration approach and proposes a feedback control strategy to mitigate cylinder to cylinder imbalance from asymmetric cylinders torque production. Combustion heat release analysis is performed on test data to understand the root cause of observed cylinder to cylinder pressure variations. The injected fuel variations are shown to cause the observed pressure variations between cylinders. A feedback control strategy based on measured crank shaft position is devised to control the half order modulation to balance the combustion pressure profile between cylinders. This control strategy is implemented in Simulink and is tested in closed-loop with the diesel engine model in AMESim. The closed-loop performance indicates that the half order modulation is considerably improved while having minimal impact on the fuel consumption.
Journal Article

Target Setting for the Stiffness of Local Mounting Area in the Vehicle Body for NVH and R&H

2019-03-25
2019-01-1418
Performance criterion of local stiffness in BIW(Body in White) for NVH(Noise, Vibration, and Harshness) and R&H (Ride and Handling) are presented in this study. A process to develop the local stiffness of the vehicle body has been established for the performances. For handling performance, not only suspension bush stiffness but local stiffness in BIW structure is important. However, there is no good standard to describe handling performance using BIW local stiffness. In this paper, a new evaluation standard for local stiffness in BIW is developed and verified considering actual vehicle driving condition for handling performance. Also, new evaluation process regarding local stiffness in BIW for vibration transmissibility is presented. The new process is developed considering optimal relation between connecting bush stiffness and BIW local stiffness. It is shown that the interior noise of the vehicle is reduced by applying the evaluation process, which is verified through several cases.
Technical Paper

Development of Surfactant-Free Anti-Fogging Coating for Automotive Headlamps

2019-03-25
2019-01-1439
Recently, the design of automotive headlamps has become diversified and complicated according to customer needs. Hence, structural complexity of the headlamps has also increased. Complex structure of the headlamps inevitably causes a disturbance in air circulation. For this reason, inadvertent micro-sized water droplets, called fogging, are condensed on the inner surface of headlamp lens due to temperature difference between the inner and outer lens surfaces. To circumvent fogging inside of the headlamp lens, an anti-fogging coating is indispensable. Conventionally, diverse surfactants have been adopted as substantial material for the anti-fogging coating. However, the usage of the surfactants causes undesirable side effect such as water mark arising from vapor condensation, which is an important issue that must be fully resolved. In this study, we developed an innovative anti-fogging coating material without using conventional surfactant.
Technical Paper

Engine Sound Quality Development Using Engine Vibration

2018-06-13
2018-01-1487
Automotive companies are trying to enhance the customer’s impression by improving engine sound quality. The target of this sound quality is to create a brand sound that is preferred by their customers as well as quietness of interior noise. Over the past decade there have been many studies in the field of automotive sound quality. These have included the technologies such as tuning of intake orifice and exhaust orifice, tuning of structure-borne, intake feedback devices, active exhaust valves, ANC (Active Noise Cancellation) and ASD (Active Sound Design). The three elements of the sound that affect the feeling of the customer are known as engine order arrangement, frequency balance, and linearity. Here, the most important thing in sound quality development is the order arrangement.
Technical Paper

The CAE Analysis of a Cylinder Head Water Jacket Design for Engine Cooling Optimization

2018-04-03
2018-01-1459
Hyundai's new engine is developed which optimize the cooling efficiency for knocking improvement and friction reduction. The cooling concepts for this purpose are 1) equalizing the temperature among cylinders by flow optimization, 2) cooling the required area intensively, 3) adopting ‘active flow control’ and 4) enlarging fuel economy at high speed range. In order to realize the cooling concept, 1) cross-flow, 2) compact water jacket & exhaust cooling, 3) flow control valve and 4) cylinder head with integrated exhaust manifold are considered. Improvement of knocking and friction reduction by increased cooling water temperature makes fuel efficiency possible. On the other hand, in order to strengthen the cooling around the combustion chamber and to reduce the deviation among the combustion chamber of cylinders, it is required to design the head water jacket shape accordingly.
Technical Paper

Development of Multi-Functioning Lean NOx Trap Catalysts for the On-board NH3 Generation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1430
Improved Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts with enhanced NH3 generation feature were developed for the small diesel engine. The next generation LNT system needs to perform good NOx conversions over the wide temperature range including below 200°C for urban driving and above 400°C for motorway of real road driving. However, the extended use of BaO, a component of LNT known to be very effective for high temperature NOx storage, results in the decrease of low temperature NOx conversion due to the degradation of NO oxidation associating with sulfur over time. The improvement of the low-temperature LNT performance is a key requirement for the real driving emission control as the best operation temperature for urea-SCR is above ~250°C. In this study, our next generation LNT with new washcoat architecture has demonstrated improved NOx removal efficiencies under the wider operation temperature window than the current production technology.
Technical Paper

A Study of Low-Friction Road Estimation using an Artificial Neural-Network

2018-04-03
2018-01-0811
Road friction estimation algorithms had been studied for many years because it is very important factor for safety control and fuel efficiency of vehicle. But traditional solutions are hard to adapt in automotive industry because their performance is not sufficient enough and expensive to implement. Therefore, this paper proposes a road friction estimation algorithm based on a trained artificial neural-network which is low cost and robust. The suggested method doesn’t need expensive additional sensors such as optical or lidar sensor, also it shows better performance in real car environment compared to other algorithms based on vehicle dynamics. In this paper, we would describe this algorithm in detail and analyze the test results evaluated in real road conditions.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Method to Manage the Weight and Cost of a Vehicle by Adjusting the Parameters of Styling Profile

2018-04-03
2018-01-1025
Since the fuel efficiency of vehicle has become one of the big issues due to environmental pollution problems, many studies have been conducted on various methods such as improving powertrain performance and aerodynamic performance, reducing the weight of the vehicle and so on. There have been many new attempts to reduce weight but mostly about improving material property. In the case of vehicles sharing the same platform, the weight and cost of vehicle are mainly changed by the exterior styling. But, there is no solution to control the exterior styling in terms of the weight and cost of vehicle, yet. The purpose of this study is to find the way to save the weight and cost of vehicle while achieving the various performance and requirements of vehicle (safety, aerodynamics, driver’s visibility and so on) from exterior styling point of view. We focused on the weight difference of the vehicles that shared the platform and were same overall dimensions.
Technical Paper

Development New Organic Composite Materials with Excellent Long-Term High-Temperature Durability and Reliability for Automotive Parts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0151
In recent years, the emerging technology competitions in automotive industry are improving engine efficiency and electronizing for coping with stringent fuel-economy regulations. However, fuel-economy technologies such as engine down-sizing and numerous electronic parts entrust burden plastic materials acing as mainly electric insulation and housing to have to be higher performance, especially temperature endurance. Engineering plastics (EPs) have critical limitations in terms of degradation by heat. Heat-resisting additives in EP are generally used to be anti-degradation as activating non-radical decomposition of peroxide. However, it could not be effective way to impede the degradation in long term heat aging over 1,000 hours at high temperature above 180 °C. In this study, we suggested the new solution called ‘shield effect’ that is purposeful oxidation at the surface and local crystallization of EP to stop prevent penetrating oxygen to inside of that.
Technical Paper

A Development of Aluminum EGR Cooler for Weight Reduction and Fuel Economy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0102
As environmental problems such as global warming are emerging, regulations on automobile exhaust gas are strengthened and various exhaust gas reduction technologies are being developed in various countries in order to satisfy exhaust emission regulations. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is a very effective way to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) at high combustion temperatures by using EGR coolers to lower the combustion temperature. This EGR cooler has been mass-produced in stainless steel, but it is expensive and heavy. Recently, high efficiency and compactness are required for the EGR cooler to meet the new emission regulation. If aluminum material is applied to the EGR cooler, heat transfer efficiency and light weight can be improved due to high heat transfer coefficient of aluminum compared to conventional stainless steel, but durability is insufficient. Therefore, the aluminum EGR cooler has been developed to enhance performance and durability.
Technical Paper

A Development of Fuel Saving Driving Technique for Parallel HEV

2018-04-03
2018-01-1006
This paper examines the effect of pulse-and-glide (PnG) driving strategies on the fuel efficiency when applied on parallel HEVs. Several PnG strategies are proposed, and these include the electrical, mechanical, and combined PnG strategies. The electrical PnG strategy denotes the hybrid powertrain control tactics in which the battery is charged or discharged according to the power demanded while maintaining the constant vehicle speed. On the other hand, the mechanical PnG strategy denotes the powertrain control tactics in which the vehicle accelerates or decelerates according to the power load while minimizing the battery usage. The combined PnG strategy involves both electrical and mechanical strategies to find a balanced point in between them. Here, a tradeoff relationship between the fuel efficiency and the vehicle drivability related to the tracking performance of the desired target speed is revealed.
Technical Paper

Development of High Efficiency Gasoline Engine with Thermal Efficiency over 42%

2017-10-08
2017-01-2229
The maximum thermal efficiency of gasoline engine has been improving and recently the maximum of 40% has been achieved. In this study, the potential of further improvement on engine thermal efficiency over 40% was investigated. The effects of engine parameters on the engine thermal efficiency were evaluated while the optimization of parameters was implemented. Parameters tested in this study were compression ratio, tumble ratio, twin spark configuration, EGR rate, In/Ex cam shaft duration and component friction. Effects of each parameter on fuel consumption reduction were discussed with experimental results. For the engine optimization, compression ratio was found to be 14, at which the best BSFC without knock and combustion phasing retardation near sweet spot area was showed. Highly diluted combustion was applied with high EGR rate up to 35% for the knock mitigation.
Journal Article

Development of Noise Propensity Index (NPI) for Robust Brake Friction

2017-09-17
2017-01-2529
A semi-empirical index to evaluate the noise propensity of brake friction materials is introduced. The noise propensity index (NPI) is based on the ratio of surface and matrix stiffness of the friction material, fraction of high-pressure contact plateaus on the sliding surface, and standard deviation of the surface stiffness of the friction material that affect the amplitude and frequency of the stick-slip oscillation. The correlation between noise occurrence and NPI was examined using various brake linings for commercial vehicles. The results obtained from reduced-scale noise dynamometer and vehicle tests indicated that NPI is well correlated with noise propensity. The analysis of the stick-slip profiles also indicated that the surface property affects the amplitude of friction oscillation, while the mechanical property of the friction material influences the propagation of friction oscillation after the onset of vibration.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injector Nozzle Hole Geometry on Particulate Emissions in a Downsized Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0111
In this study, the effect of the nozzle tip geometry on the nozzle tip wetting and particulate emissions was investigated. Various designs for the injector nozzle hole were newly developed for this study, focusing on the step hole geometry to reduce the nozzle tip wetting. The laser induced fluorescence technique was applied to evaluate the fuel wetting on the nozzle tip. A vehicle test and an emissions measurement in a Chassi-Dynamo were performed to investigate the particulate emission characteristics for injector nozzle designs. In addition, the in-cylinder combustion light signal measurement by the optical fiber sensor was conducted to observe diffusion combustion behavior during the vehicle test. Results showed that the step hole surface area is strongly related to nozzle tip wetting and particulate emissions characteristics. Injectors without the step hole and with a smaller step hole geometry showed significant reduction of nozzle tip wetting and number of particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Bushing Stiffness Using Numerical Approximation Model to Improve Automotive NVH Performance

2017-06-05
2017-01-1804
An efficient method to determine optimal bushing stiffness for improving noise and vibration of passenger cars is developed. In general, a passenger vehicle includes various bushings to connect body and chassis systems. These bushings control forces transferred between the systems. Noise and vibration of a vehicle are mainly caused by the forces from powertrain (engine and transmission) and road excitation. If bushings transfer less force to the body, levels of noise and vibration will be decreased. In order to manage the forces, bushing stiffness plays an important role. Therefore, it is required to properly design bushing stiffness when developing passenger vehicles. In the development process of a vehicle, bushing stiffness is decided in the early stage (before the test of an actual vehicle) and it is not validated until the test is performed.
Technical Paper

Minimizing the Rattling of Door Glass

2017-03-28
2017-01-0443
Significant effort has been expended to improve the sound made by a closing car door. This study focuses on reducing door glass rattle sounds, not only evaluating the rattle influence of door glass support but also introducing an approach to reduce glass rattle noise by using sealing components. The first part of the study is dedicated to minimizing vibration. A jig is constructed to evaluate the influence of a door glass support on the rattling. The jig is employed so that the glass meshing between the A and B pillars can be controlled; the glass holder moves in the x- and z-directions and the belt molding moves in the y-direction. An impact hammer test was adopted for investigating door glass rattle. The frequency response obtained via impact hammer testing is analyzed by varying the glass support points and important factors that should be considered in early design stages are obtained. The second study is about optimizing vibration absorption.
Journal Article

A Development of Energy Management System with Semi-Transparent Solar Roof and Off-Cycle Credit Test Methodology for Solar Power Assisted Automobile.

2017-03-28
2017-01-0388
CO2 emission is more serious in recent years and automobile manufacturers are interested in developing technologies to reduce CO2 emissions. Among various environmental-technologies, the use of solar roof as an electric energy source has been studied extensively. For example, in order to reduce the cabin ambient temperature, automotive manufacturers offer the option of mounting a solar cell on the roof of the vehicle [1]. In this paper, we introduce the semi-transparent solar cell mounted on a curved roof glass and we propose a solar energy management system to efficiently integrate the electricity generated from the solar roof into internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. In order to achieve a high efficiency solar system in different driving, we improve the usable power other than peak power of solar roof. Peak power or rated power is measured power (W) in standard test condition (@ 25°C, light intensity of 1000W/m2(=1Sun)).
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