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Technical Paper

Optimization of Diesel Engine and After-treatment Systems for a Series Hybrid Forklift Application

This paper investigates an optimal design of a diesel engine and after-treatment systems for a series hybrid electric forklift application. A holistic modeling approach is developed in GT-Suite® to establish a model-based hardware definition for a diesel engine and an after-treatment system to accurately predict engine performance and emissions. The used engine model is validated with the experimental data. The engine design parameters including compression ratio, boost level, air-fuel ratio (AFR), injection timing, and injection pressure are optimized at a single operating point for the series hybrid electric vehicle, together with the performance of the after-treatment components. The engine and after-treatment models are then coupled with a series hybrid electric powertrain to evaluate the performance of the forklift in the standard VDI 2198 drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Close-Coupled SCR Concepts to Meet Future Cold Start Requirements for Heavy-Duty Engines

The low-NOx standard for heavy-duty trucks proposed by the California Air Resources Board will require rapid warm-up of the aftertreatment system (ATS). Several different aftertreatment architectures and technologies, all based on selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are being considered to meet this need. One of these architectures, the close-coupled SCR (ccSCR), was evaluated in this study using two different physics-based, 1D models; the simulations focused on the first 300 seconds of the cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP). The first model, describing a real, EuroVI-compliant engine equipped with series turbochargers, was used to evaluate a ccSCR located either i) immediately downstream of the low-pressure turbine, ii) in between the two turbines, or iii) in a by-pass around the high pressure turbine.
Technical Paper

Electrification and Automation of Manual Gearbox Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and CO2-Emissions of Passenger Cars

To meet the targets of Indian future emission legislation, an electrification and automation of today’s manual transmission technology is necessary. For this reason, IAV invented an electrified automated transmission family, based on well-known manual transmission technology. This low-cost automated manual transmission (AMT) approach is equipped with a 48 V electric machine and can be used as pure electric or hybrid drivetrain. Furthermore, it is possible to realize power shifts by using just one dry friction element. A small number of standard components combined with a low voltage electric machine and an electromechanical actuation system is sufficient to create a maximum of flexibility to meet future emission fleet targets, without having the disadvantageous high costs for a high-voltage electric system. To detect the optimal powertrain configuration, IAV used a unique advance development tool called Powertrain Synthesis.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion and Control Using a Novel Ignition Delay Model

The future emission standards, including real driving emissions (RDE) measurements are big challenges for engine and after-treatment development. Also for development of a robust control system, in real driving emissions cycles under varied operating conditions and climate conditions, like low ambient temperature as well as high altitude are advanced physical-based algorithms beneficial in order to realize more precise, robust and efficient control concepts. A fast-running novel physical-based ignition delay model for diesel engine combustion simulation and additionally, for combustion control in the next generation of ECUs is presented and validated in this study. Detailed chemical reactions of the ignition processes are solved by a n-heptane mechanism which is coupled to the thermodynamic simulation of in-cylinder processes during the compression and autoignition phases.
Technical Paper

Comparison and Evaluation of a New Innovative Drive Concept for the Air Conditioning Compressor of Electric Vehicles

The development of energy efficient air conditioning systems for electric vehicles is an ever increasing challenge, because the cooling as well as the heating of the passenger compartment reduces the cruising range dramatically. Electric cars are usually equipped with a scroll compressor and a separate electric motor with appropriate power electronics. However, this solution is critical in terms of the installation space, the weight and also the costs. Therefore, an innovative and energy efficient drivetrain structure for electric vehicles was developed, which integrates the motor of the A/C-compressor directly into the drivetrain. Thus it is possible to switch off the compressor motor and to use the main motor for the drive of the compressor at certain driving situations. As a result, the operating point of the main motor can be shifted to a better efficiency.
Technical Paper

Scene Based Safety Functions for Pedestrian Detection Systems

The protection of pedestrians from injuries by accidental collision is a primary focus of the automotive industry and of government legislation [1]. In this area, scientists and developers are faced with a multitude of requirements. Complex scenes are to be analyzed. The wide spectrum of where pedestrians and cyclists appear on the road, weather, and light conditions are just examples. Data fusion of raw or preprocessed signals for several sensors (cameras, radar, lidar, ultrasonic) need to be considered as well. Accordingly, algorithms are very complex. When moving from prototypic environments to embedded systems, additional constraints must be considered. Limited system resources drive the need to simplify and optimize for technical and economic reasons. With all these constraints, how can the safety functions be safe-guarded? This submission considers scene-based methods for the development of vehicle functions from prototype to series production focusing on functional safety.
Technical Paper

Calibration Process for SCR Only TIER4i Engine for Construction Equipment

The current legislation for industrial applications and construction equipment including earthmoving machines and crane engines allows different strategies to fulfill the corresponding exhaust emission limits. Liebherr Machines Bulle SA developed their engines to accomplish these limits using SCRonly technology. IAV supported this development, carrying out engine as well as SCR aftertreatment system and vehicle calibration work including the OBD and NOx Control System (NCS) calibration, as well as executing the homologation procedures at the IAV development center. The engines are used in various Liebherr applications certified for EU Stage IIIb, EPA TIER 4i, China GB4 and IMO MARPOL Tier II according to the regulations “97/68/EC”, “40 CFR Part 1039”, “GB17691-2005” and “40 CFR Parts 9, 85, et al.” using the same SCR hardware for all engine power variants of the corresponding I6 and V8 engine families.
Technical Paper

Cold Start Simulation and Test on DISI Engines Utilizing a Multi-Zone Vaporization Approach

Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in global ethanol production, while cellulosic feedstock or the algae-based production approach make more sustainable ethanol production foreseeable in many countries. The ethanol produced will increasingly penetrate the markets not only as blending component, but also as main fuel component, boosting demand for flex-fuel vehicles. One of the main challenges for flex-fuel vehicles is the cold start due to the poor vapor pressure of ethanol. This is detrimental to starting capability in DISI engines in particular, with increased cylinder wall wetting causing higher oil dilution. The most efficient solution for DISI engines is a smart injection strategy, enabling fuel vaporization during injection in the compression stroke. But this requires optimum injection parameters such as injection timing, split ratio and rail pressure.
Technical Paper


There is an enormous effort to implement safety functionality into battery systems to prevent any accidents with the poisonous and inflammable ingredients of the electrolytes and electrode materials. But not only the safety regulation for lithium ion batteries will be different in comparison to the home electronics application, also the operating strategy must be different to guaranty the required lifetime in the automotive industry up to 10-12 years. This paperwork will show an approach to get offline (on test benches) and/or online (installed inside the car) information regarding the current healthy and state inside the cell. As an approach modeling of physical effects by the help of electro impedance spectroscopy (EIS) will be applied.
Technical Paper

Battery Simulation

Battery simulation by a DSP-controlled high current power supply is used to improve repeatability and comparability of starting tests, especially at low temperatures. The simulator's algorithm calculates the internal resistance of the battery by a timely constant resistor and a variable resistor representing the actual discharge history. The output voltage of the simulator is set as a function of internal resistor and load current with temperature and state of charge as setup parameter. The simulator was evaluated in cold start testing in comparison to real batteries. As a result, batteries are simulated with high repeatability. Deviations to real battery behavior are in the range of test to test deviations using real batteries.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for a Multi-Fuel, Torque Based ECU Concept using Automatic Code Generation

The software design of this new engine control unit is based on a unique and homogenous torque structure. All input signals are converted into torque equivalents and a torque coordinator determines their influence on the final torque delivered to the powertrain. The basic torque structure is independent on the type of fuel and can be used for gasoline, diesel, or CNG injection systems. This allows better use of custom specific algorithms and facilitates reusability, which is supported by the graphical design tool that creates all modules using automatic code generation. Injection specific algorithms can be linked to the software by simply setting a software switch.