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Technical Paper

Electrification and Automation of Manual Gearbox Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and CO2-Emissions of Passenger Cars

2019-01-09
2019-26-0140
To meet the targets of Indian future emission legislation, an electrification and automation of today’s manual transmission technology is necessary. For this reason, IAV invented an electrified automated transmission family, based on well-known manual transmission technology. This low-cost automated manual transmission (AMT) approach is equipped with a 48 V electric machine and can be used as pure electric or hybrid drivetrain. Furthermore, it is possible to realize power shifts by using just one dry friction element. A small number of standard components combined with a low voltage electric machine and an electromechanical actuation system is sufficient to create a maximum of flexibility to meet future emission fleet targets, without having the disadvantageous high costs for a high-voltage electric system. To detect the optimal powertrain configuration, IAV used a unique advance development tool called Powertrain Synthesis.
Journal Article

The Thermodynamics of Exhaust Gas Condensation

2017-06-29
2017-01-9281
Water vapor is, aside from carbon dioxide, the major fossil fuel combustion by-product. Depending on its concentration in the exhaust gas mixture as well as on the exhaust gas pressure, its condensation temperature can be derived. For typical gasoline engine stoichiometric operating conditions, the water vapor dew point lies at about 53 °C. The exhaust gas mixture does however contain some pollutants coming from the fuel, engine oil, and charge air, which can react with the water vapor and affect the condensation process. For instance, sulfur trioxide present in the exhaust, reacts with water vapor forming sulfuric acid. This acid builds a binary system with water vapor, which presents a dew point often above 100 °C. Exhaust composition after leaving the combustion chamber strongly depends on fuel type, engine concept and operation point. Furthermore, the exhaust undergoes several chemical after treatments.
Journal Article

Objective Evaluation of Steering Rack Force Behaviour and Identification of Feedback Information

2016-09-02
2016-01-9112
Electric power steering systems (EPS) are characterized by high inertia and therefore by a considerably damped transmission behaviour. While this is desirable for comfort-oriented designs, EPS do not provide enough feedback of the driving conditions, especially for drivers with a sporty driving style. The systematic actuation of the electric motor of an EPS makes it possible to specifically increment the intensity of the response. In this context, the road-sided induced forces of the tie rod and the steering rack force provide all the information for the steering system’s response. Former concepts differentiate between use and disturbance information by defining frequency ranges. Since these ranges overlap strongly, this differentiation does not segment distinctively. The presented article describes a method to identify useful information in the feedback path of the steering system depending on the driving situation.
Technical Paper

Resource Management Processes for Future Vehicle Electronics

2016-04-05
2016-01-0039
New technologies such as multi-core and Ethernet provide vastly improved computing and communications capabilities. This sets the foundation for the implementation of new digital megatrends in almost all areas: driver assistance, vehicle dynamics, electrification, safety, connectivity, autonomous driving. The new challenge: We must share these computing and communication capacities among all vehicle functions and their software. For this step, we need a good resource planning to minimize the probability of late resource bottlenecks (e.g. overload, lack of real-time capability, quality loss). In this article, we summarize the status quo in the field of resource management and provide an outlook on the challenges ahead.
Technical Paper

0D/3D Simulations of Combustion in Gasoline Engines Operated with Multiple Spark Plug Technology

2015-04-14
2015-01-1243
A simulation method is presented for the analysis of combustion in spark ignition (SI) engines operated at elevated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level and employing multiple spark plug technology. The modeling is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) stochastic reactor model for SI engines (SI-SRM). The model is built on a probability density function (PDF) approach for turbulent reactive flows that enables for detailed chemistry consideration. Calculations were carried out for one, two, and three spark plugs. Capability of the SI-SRM to simulate engines with multiple spark plug (multiple ignitions) systems has been verified by comparison to the results from a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Numerical simulations were carried for part load operating points with 12.5%, 20%, and 25% of EGR. At high load, the engine was operated at knock limit with 0%, and 20% of EGR and different inlet valve closure timing.
Journal Article

Development and Demonstration of LNT+SCR System for Passenger Car Diesel Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-1537
The regulations for mobile applications will become stricter in Euro 6 and further emission levels and require the use of active aftertreatment methods for NOX and particulate matter. SCR and LNT have been both used commercially for mobile NOX removal. An alternative system is based on the combination of these two technologies. Developments of catalysts and whole systems as well as final vehicle demonstrations are discussed in this study. The small and full-size catalyst development experiments resulted in PtRh/LNT with optimized noble metal loadings and Cu-SCR catalyst having a high durability and ammonia adsorption capacity. For this study, an aftertreatment system consisting of LNT plus exhaust bypass, passive SCR and engine independent reductant supply by on-board exhaust fuel reforming was developed and investigated. The concept definition considers NOX conversion, CO2 drawback and system complexity.
Journal Article

Physico-Chemical Modeling of an Integrated SCR on DPF (SCR/DPF) System

2012-04-16
2012-01-1083
A physico-chemical model of a Cu-zeolite SCR/DPF-system involving NH₃ storage and SCR reactions as well as soot oxidation reactions with NO₂ has been developed and validated based on fundamental experimental investigations on synthetic gas test bench. The goal of the work was the quantitative modeling of NOx and NH₃ tailpipe emissions in transient test cycles in order to use the model for concept design analysis and the development of control strategies. Another focus was put on the impact of soot on SCR/DPF systems. In temperature-programmed desorption experiments, soot-loaded SCR/DPF filters showed a higher NH₃ storage capacity compared to soot-free samples. The measured effect was small, but could affect the NH₃ slip in vehicle applications. A bimodal desorption characteristic was measured for different adsorption temperatures and heating rates.
Journal Article

Zero-Dimensional Modeling of Combustion and Heat Release Rate in DI Diesel Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1065
Zero-dimensional heat release rate models have the advantage of being both easy to handle and computationally efficient. In addition, they are capable of predicting the effects of important engine parameters on the combustion process. In this study, a zero-dimensional combustion model based on physical and chemical sub-models for local processes like injection, spray formation, ignition and combustion is presented. In terms of injection simulation, the presented model accounts for a phenomenological nozzle flow model considering the nozzle passage inlet configuration and an approach for modeling the characteristics of the Diesel spray and consequently the mixing process. A formulation for modeling the effects of intake swirl flow pattern, squish flow and injection characteristics on the in-cylinder turbulent kinetic energy is presented and compared with the CFD simulation results.
Technical Paper

A Simulation-Based Comparison of Different Power Split Configurations with Respect to the System Efficiency

2012-04-16
2012-01-0438
In power-split configuration, the input power is split into two parts, one of which is transmitted from the internal combustion engine through one or more planetary gear(s) to the wheels. The other part is generated as electricity and passes through an electrical variator to assist the driving torque. The latter has the characteristic of poor efficiency. In this simulation study, a comparison among the input power-split, compound power-split, and two mode power-split are discussed. Output power-split is not mentioned in this paper due to its limited applicability in specific vehicles. The idea of selection of the electrical machines is explained: the speed and torque of electrical machines was taken into consideration for the required transmission ratios spread.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Assessment of Hybrid Powertrain Solutions

2011-09-11
2011-24-0070
This paper shows the main results of a research activity carried out in order to investigate the impact of different hybridization concepts on vehicle fuel economy during standard homologation cycles (NEDC, FTP75, US Highway, Artemis). Comparative analysis between a standard passenger vehicle and three different hybrid solutions based on the same vehicle platform is presented. The following parallel hybrid powertrain solutions were investigated: Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) solution (three different levels of hybridization are investigated with respect to different Electric Motor Generator size and battery storage/power capacity), High Speed Flywheel (HSF) system described as a fully integrated mechanical (kinetic) hybrid solution based on the quite innovative approach, and hydraulic hybrid system (HHV). In order to perform a fare analysis between different hybrid systems, analysis is also carried out for equal system storage capacities.
Technical Paper

Gasoline HCCI/CAI on a Four-Cylinder Test Bench and Vehicle Engine - Results and Conclusions for the Next Investigation Steps

2010-05-05
2010-01-1488
Internal combustion engines with lean homogeneous charge and auto-ignition combustion of gasoline fuels have the capability to significantly reduce fuel consumption and realize ultra-low engine-out NOx emissions. Group research of Volkswagen AG has therefore defined the Gasoline Compression Ignition combustion (GCI®) concept. A detailed investigation of this novel combustion process has been carried out on test bench engines and test vehicles by group research of Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH Gifhorn. Experimental results confirm the theoretically expected potential for improved efficiency and emissions behavior. Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH will utilize a highly flexible externally supercharged variable valve train (VVT) engine for future investigations to extend the understanding of gas exchange and EGR strategy as well as the boost demands of gasoline auto-ignition combustion processes.
Technical Paper

In-cylinder Flow Field Measurement with Doppler Global Velocimetry in Combination with Droplet Distribution Visualization by Mie Scattering

2009-04-20
2009-01-0652
Flow fields and fuel distribution play a critical role in developing the combustion process inside the cylinders of piston engines. This has prompted the development of measurement and diagnostic capabilities including laser techniques like Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The paper provides an overview of the basics of DGV and the type of results that can be obtained. It also includes a short comparison to Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) which is a popular alternative method. Furthermore, it is shown that DGV can be used simultaneously in combination with droplet distribution visualization inside cylinders based on Mie scattering.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Different EGR Solutions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0206
This paper compares 4 different EGR systems by means of simulation in GT-Power. The demands of optimum massive EGR and fresh air rates were based on experimental results. The experimental data were used to calibrate the model and ROHR, in particular. The main aim was to investigate the influence of pumping work on engine and vehicle fuel consumption (thus CO2 production) in different EGR layouts using optimum VG turbine control. These EGR systems differ in the source of pressure drop between the exhaust and intake pipes. Firstly, the engine settings were optimized under steady operation - BSFC was minimized while taking into account both the required EGR rate and fresh air mass flow. Secondly, transient simulations (NEDC cycle) were carried out - a full engine model was used to obtain detailed information on important parameters. The study shows the necessity to use natural pressure differences or renewable pressure losses if reasonable fuel consumption is to be achieved.
Technical Paper

Study cases using the method of Statistical Energy Analyse SEA for airborne sound transmission in a vehicle body

2008-03-30
2008-36-0567
The acoustics insulation on the car body is ones of the more important target in the NVH (Noise Vibration and Harshness) vehicle development process. The method of SEA is a validated statistical approach to solve airborne noise transmission problems. In the vehicle analysis above 300 Hz where material trim and leakage paths makes a important contribution in the vehicle interior acoustics shows the methodology its advantages over deterministic methods.
Technical Paper

Air System Control for Advanced Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0970
In order to satisfy environmental regulations while maintaining strong performance and excellent fuel economy, advanced diesel engines are employing sophisticated air breathing systems. These include high pressure and low pressure EGR (Hybrid EGR), intake and exhaust throttling, and variable turbine geometry systems. In order to optimize the performance of these sub-systems, system level controls are necessary. This paper presents the design, benefits and test results of a model-based air system controller applied to an automotive diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Locally Resolved Measurement of Gas-Phase Temperature and EGR-Ratio in an HCCI-Engine and Their Influence on Combustion Timing

2007-04-16
2007-01-0182
Laser-based measurements of charge temperature and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio in an homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine are demonstrated. For this purpose, the rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy technique (CARS) was used. This technique allows temporally and locally resolved measurements in combustion environments through only two small line-of-sight optical accesses and the use of standard gasoline as a fuel. The investigated engine is a production-line four-cylinder direct-injection gasoline engine with the valve strategy modified to realize HCCI-operation. CARS-measurements were performed in motored and fired operation and the results are compared to polytropic calculations. Studies of engine speed, load, valve timing, and injection pressure were conducted showing the strong influence of charge temperature on the combustion timing.
Technical Paper

Engine-Independent Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Using a Burner Heated Catalyst

2006-10-16
2006-01-3401
Meeting current exhaust emission standards requires rapid catalyst light-off. Closed-coupled catalysts are commonly used to reduce light-off time by minimizing exhaust heat loss between the engine and catalyst. However, this exhaust gas system design leads to a coupling of catalyst heating and engine operation. An engine-independent exhaust gas aftertreatment can be realized by combining a burner heated catalyst system (BHC) with an underfloor catalyst located far away from the engine. This paper describes some basic characteristics of such a BHC system and the results of fitting this system into a Volkswagen Touareg where a single catalyst was located about 1.8 m downstream of the engine. Nevertheless, it was possible to reach about 50% of the current European emission standard EU 4 without additional fuel consumption caused by the BHC system.
Technical Paper

Boost and EGR System for the Highly Premixed Diesel Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0204
Advanced Diesel combustion strategies with the focus on the reduction of NOx and PM emission as well as fuel consumption need an increase of the EGR rate and therefore improved boost concepts. The suppression of the nitrogen oxide build up requires changes in the charge condition (charge temperature, EGR rate), which have to be realized by the gas exchange system. The gas exchange system of IAV's ADCS test engine was dimensioned with the help of the engine process simulation software THEMOS®. This paper shows simulation and test bench results of the potential to increase the EGR rate and the charge density at stationary and transient operation. The increase of both EGR rate and boost pressure, as well as the need for a better control of transient operation leads to greater requirements for the engine control system. The potential of the engine and its control system for an application to a demo vehicle will be assessed.
Technical Paper

Brake Judder - Analysis of the Excitation and Transmission Mechanism within the Coupled System Brake, Chassis and Steering System

2005-10-09
2005-01-3916
The prevention of any brake noise or brake-induced body vibrations is a key development target firmly integrated in the car development process. Emphasis is placed here on disc brake judder that is attributable to thickness variations in the disc. These deviations from the ideal plane surface can be caused either by wear and corrosion or by thermal stresses (changes within the microstructure of the disc material). They are termed “cold judder” and “thermal judder” respectively. During braking, possible vibration excitation passes through a wide frequency band due to the coupling between the judder frequency and the wheel rotational speed, and thus, resonant frequencies of many vehicle components can be excited. This includes wheel suspension components and the steering column. In this paper, it is reported on extensive investigations into the topic of “cold judder”.
Technical Paper

Development and Verification of In-Vehicle Networks in a Virtual Environment

2005-04-11
2005-01-1534
Due to the increase in demand for comfort and safety features in today's automobiles, the internal vehicle communication networks necessary to accommodate these features are very complex. These networks represent a heterogeneous architecture consisting of several ECUs exchanging information via bus systems such as CAN, LIN, MOST, or FlexRay buses. Development and verification of internal vehicle networks include multiple design layers. These layers are the logical layer represented by the software application, the associated data link layer, and the physical connection layer containing bus interfaces, wires, and termination. Verification of these systems in the early stages of the design process (before a physical network is available for testing) has become a critical need. As a result, the need to simulate these designs at all their levels of complexity has become critically important.
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