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Technical Paper

Advanced Emission Control Technologies for PM Reduction in Heavy-Duty Applications

1 In this paper results obtained with different particulate matter (PM) reduction technologies are presented. Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) are well known as a reliable PM reduction technology which can efficiently remove the soluble organic fraction (SOF) but which has no effect on the solid particles in PM. A drawback is that in combination with high sulfur fuel, oxidation of SO2 to SO3 by the DOC can occur, resulting in an increase of PM emissions. An alternative technology that is proven to significantly reduce soot emissions comprises diesel particulate wall-flow filters. High filtration efficiencies of up to 90% and beyond are feasible. The main obstacle is the combustion of the trapped soot. As shown in this paper, the application of a catalyst coating to the filter aids the filter regeneration by lowering the balance-point temperature. The main disadvantages of wall-flow filters are an increase in back-pressure and possible plugging caused by oil-ash accumulations.
Technical Paper

Improved SCR Systems for Heavy Duty Applications

This paper describes the function and application of the preoxidation, hydrolysis and SCR catalysts individually and as a combined system for urea SCR both in model gas and engine bench tests. Using the basic system and a non-optimized urea injection strategy 45% NOx conversion was achieved in the ESC engine test. Adding a preoxidation catalyst significantly improved the NOx conversion in the low temperature region of the engine mapping. NOx conversions over 75% can be achieved in the ESC test using this improved system. With a 50% reduced SCR catalyst volume still a NOx conversion of over 65% could be achieved. Tests after 200 hours engine aging show that the activity of the system is stable.
Technical Paper

The Role of Zirconium in Novel Three-Way Catalysts

Zirconium dioxide (zirconia) is a well-known material often being a major component in the washcoat systems of three-way catalysts (TWC) and diesel oxidation catalysts. One important characteristic of zirconia containing washcoats is an improved aging stability which is required to meet the more and more stringent emission standards. In the last few years the utilization of zirconia became even more important - especially for high sophisticated three-way washcoat systems. This was due to the development of high temperature stable oxygen storage components, containing cerium dioxide (ceria) in combination with different other oxides - one very promising candidate being zirconia. In the present work the results of a research program are discussed, focusing on the influence of zirconia in combination with ceria and additional rare earth promoters on the stability of the oxygen storage characteristics.