Emission Control Systems for Two Stroke Engines - A Challenge for Catalysis=
The exhaust emissions of two stroke vehicles like motorbikes and scooters contribute to the pollution in urban areas of developing countries in South East Asia and India to a major extent. But also in Japan and selected European countries exhaust gas limitations become effective from 10/1998 and 06/1999 for these vehicles. To control this emissions catalytic aftertreatment by Hot Tubes® and/or monolith type catalysts are applied. Due to the constant rich operation of the two-stroke engines, common design criteria for three-way catalysts fail. Extremely high exhaust gas hydrocarbon concentrations lead to high exotherms during oxidation which increases the exhaust gas temperature to a range between 800 and 900 °C. Furthermore the lack of oxygen limits the CO and HC oxidation under certain engine operation conditions. Therefore, water-gas shift and steam reforming reactions play an important part in catalytic aftertreatment of two-stroke exhausts.