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Technical Paper

Improving Emissions, Noise and Fuel Economy Trade-Off by using Multiple Injection Strategies in Diesel Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) Mode

Latest emissions standards impose very low NOx and particle emissions that have led to new Diesel combustion operating conditions, such as low temperature combustion (LTC). The principle of LTC is based on enhancing air fuel mixing and reducing combustion temperature, reducing raw nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particle emissions. However, new difficulties have arisen. LTC is typically achieved through high dilution rates and low CR, resulting in increased auto-ignition delay that produces significant noise and deteriorates the combustion phasing. At the same time, lower combustion temperature and reduced oxygen concentration increases hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon oxide (CO) emissions, which can be problematic at low load. Therefore, if LTC is a promising solution to meet future emission regulations, it imposes a new emissions, fuel consumption and noise trade-off. For this, the injection strategy is the most direct mean of controlling the heat release profile and fuel air mixture.
Journal Article

Advanced Injection Strategies for Controlling Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion and Emissions

The simultaneous reduction of engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate emissions via low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies for compression-ignition engines is generally achieved via the use of high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR rates not only result in a drastic reduction of combustion temperatures to mitigate thermal NOx formation but also increases the level of pre-mixing thereby limiting particulate (soot) formation. However, highly pre-mixed combustion strategies such as LTC are usually limited at higher loads by excessively high heat release rates leading to unacceptable levels of combustion noise and particulate emissions. Further increasing the level of charge dilution (via EGR) can help to reduce combustion noise but maximum EGR rates are ultimately restricted by turbocharger and EGR path technologies.
Technical Paper

Development of the High Power NADI™ Concept Using Dual Mode Diesel Combustion to Achieve Zero NOx and Particulate Emissions

Due to their high thermal efficiency coupled with low CO2 emissions, Diesel engines are promised to an increasing part of the transport market if their NOx and particulate emissions are reduced. Today, adequate after-treatments, NOx and PM traps are under industrialization with still concerns about fuel economy, robustness, sensitivity to fuel sulfur and cost because of their complex and sophisticated strategy. New combustion process such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) are investigated for their potential to achieve near zero particulate and NOx emissions. Their main drawbacks are too high hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, combustion control at high load and then limited operating range and power output. As an answer for challenges the Diesel engine is facing, IFP has developed a combustion system able to reach near zero particulate and NOx emissions while maintaining performance standards of the D.I Diesel engines.