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Journal Article

Increasing Power Density in HSDI Engines as an Approach for Engine Downsizing

2010-05-05
2010-01-1472
In the context of CO₂ emission regulations and increase of energy prices, the downsizing of engine displacement is a widely discussed solution that allows a reduction of fuel consumption. However, high power density is required in order to maintain the power output and a good driveability. This study demonstrates the potential to strongly increase the specific power of High Speed Diesel Injection (HSDI) diesel engines. It includes the technological requirements to achieve high specific power and the optimal combination of engine settings to maximize specific power. The results are based on experimental work performed with a prototype single-cylinder engine (compression ratio of 14). Tests were conducted at full load, 4000 rpm. Part load requirements are also taken into account in the engine definition to be compatible with the targets of new emission standards.
Journal Article

Cold Start on Diesel Engines: Effect of Fuel Characteristics

2010-05-05
2010-01-1506
Faced with the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, diesel engines present the advantage of having low CO₂ emission levels compared to spark-ignited engines. Nevertheless, diesel engines still suffer from the fact that they emit pollutants and, particularly nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulates (PM). One of the most promising ways to meet this challenge is to reduce the compression ratio (CR). However a current limitation in reducing the diesel CR is cold start requirements. In this context, the fuel characteristics such as the cetane number, which represents ignition, and volatility could impact cold start. That is why a matrix of 8 fuels was tested. The cetane number ranges from 47.3 to 70.9 and the volatility, represented by the temperature necessary to distillate 5% of the product (T5%), ranges from 173 to 198°C. The engine tests were carried out at -25°C, on a common rail 4-cylinder diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Turbine Efficiency Estimation for Fault Detection Application

2010-04-12
2010-01-0568
In nowadays diesel engine, the turbocharger system plays a very important role in the engine functioning and any loss of the turbine efficiency can lead to driveability problems and the increment of emissions. In this paper, a VGT turbocharger fault detection system is proposed. The method is based on a physical model of the turbocharger and includes an estimation of the turbine efficiency by a nonlinear adaptive observer. A sensitivity analysis is provided in order to evaluate the impact of different sensors fault, (drift and bias), used to feed the observer, on the estimation of turbine efficiency error. By the means of this analysis a robust variable threshold is provided in order to reduce false detection alarm. Simulation results, based on co-simulation professional platform (AMEsim© and Simulink©), are provided to validate the strategy.
Journal Article

Study of Air Entrainment of Multi-hole Diesel Injection by Particle Image Velocimetry - Effect of Neighboring Jets Interaction and Transient Behavior After End of Injection.

2010-04-12
2010-01-0342
The air entrainment of multi-hole diesel injection is investigated by high speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) using a multi-hole common rail injector with an injection pressure of 100 MPa. The sprays are observed in a high pressure, high temperature cell that reproduces the thermodynamic conditions which exist in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine during injection. Typical ambient temperature of 800K and ambient density of 25 kg/m3 are chosen. The air entrainment is studied with the PIV technique, giving access to the velocity fields in the surrounding air and/or in the interior of two neighboring jets. High acquisition rate of 5000 Hz, corresponding to 200 μs between two consecutive image pairs is obtained by a high-speed camera coupled with a high-speed Nd:YLF laser. The effect of neighboring jets interaction is studied by comparing four injectors with different numbers of holes (4, 6, 8 and 12) with similar static mass flow rate per hole.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Pollutant Emissions Using Combined Tabulated Detailed Kinetics and Reduced Kinetics

2010-04-12
2010-01-0628
In the context of low consumption and low emissions engines development, combustion processes modeling is a challenging subject as the requirements for accurately controlled pollutant emissions are becoming more stringent. From a scientific point of view, it is a major source of in-depth investigations as the chemical processes involved are strongly coupled to the flow characteristics. Among the various approaches developed recently to account for these processes in realistic configurations, tabulated techniques appear to be a promising way. They induce a good compromise between the accuracy of detailed chemistry and the computational time necessary to calculate complex configurations. Tabulation approaches were firstly developed to address the modeling of species concentrations in stationary combustors. They consist basically of pre-computed chemical kinetics using detailed mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Matching and Evaluating Methods for Euro 6 and Efficient Two-stage Turbocharging Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1229
While fuel efficiency has to be improved, future Diesel engine emission standards will further restrict vehicle emissions, particularly of nitrogen oxides. Increased in-cylinder filling is recognized as a key factor in addressing this issue, which calls for advanced design of air and exhaust gas recirculation circuits and high cooling capabilities. As one possible solution, this paper presents a 2-stage boosting breathing architecture, specially dedicated to improving the trade-off between emissions and fuel consumption instead of seeking to improve specific power on a large family vehicle equipped with a 1.6-liter Diesel engine. In order to do it, turbocharger matching was specifically optimized to minimize engine-out NOx emissions at part-load and consumption under common driving conditions. Engine speed and load were analyzed on the European driving cycle. The key operating points and associated upper boundary for NOx emission were identified.
Journal Article

Formation of Unburned Hydrocarbons in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

2009-11-02
2009-01-2729
Low temperature combustion is a promising way to reach low NOx emissions in Diesel engines but one of its drawbacks, in comparison to conventional Diesel combustion is the drastic increase of Unburned Hydrocarbons (UHC). In this study, the sources of UHC of a low temperature combustion system were investigated in both a standard, all-metal single-cylinder Diesel engine and an equivalent optically-accessible engine. The investigations were conducted under low load operating conditions (2 and 4 bar IMEP). Two piston bowl geometries were tested: a wall-guided and a more conventional Diesel chamber geometry. Engine parameters such as the start of injection (SOI) timing, the level of charge dilution via exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR), intake temperature, injection pressure and engine coolant temperature were varied. Furthermore, the level of swirl and the diameter of the injector nozzle holes were also varied in order to determine and quantify the sources of UHC.
Journal Article

Cold Operation with Optical and Numerical Investigations on a Low Compression Ratio Diesel Engine

2009-11-02
2009-01-2714
With a high thermal efficiency and low CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions, Diesel engines become leader of transport market. However, the exhaust-gas legislation evolution leads to a drastic reduction of NOx (nitrogen oxide) standards with very low particulate, HC (unburned hydrocarbons) and CO (carbon monoxide) emissions, while combustion noise and fuel consumption must be kept under control. The reduction of the volumetric compression ratio (CR) is a key factor to reach this challenge, but it is today limited by the capabilities to provide acceptable performances during very cold operation: start and idle below −10°C. This paper focuses on the understanding of the main parameter’s impacts on cold operation. Effects of parameters like hardware configuration and calibration optimization are investigated on a real 4 cylinder Diesel 14:1 CR engine, with a combination of specific advanced tools.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Urea-SCR Process Applied to Lean-burn SI Engines

2009-11-02
2009-01-2776
Lean-burn combustion in SI engines can significantly reduce fuel consumption but NOx reduction becomes challenging because classic three-way catalyst (TWC) is no more efficient. Urea-SCR is then an interesting alternative solution because of its high NOx conversion efficiency without any additional fuel consumption. The coupling between two SI lean-burn engines (stratified and homogeneous combustion) and a urea-SCR catalyst was simulated on the NEDC cycle. Simulation results showed that the SCR efficiency would comply with the limits required by future Euro 5/6 regulations. Associated urea solution consumptions were estimated thanks to a simplified model. Finally, a comparison with a Diesel application was also made. It showed that the required amount of reducing agent remained significantly higher for SI lean-burn engines than for Diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Ethanol as a Diesel Base Fuel: Managing the Flash Point Issue - Consequences on Engine Behavior

2009-06-15
2009-01-1807
Facing more and more stringent regulations, new solutions are developed to decrease pollutant emissions. One of them have shown promising and relevant results. It consists of the use of ethanol as a blending component for diesel fuel Nevertheless, the addition of ethanol to Diesel fuel affects some key properties such as the flash point. Consequently, Diesel blends containing ethanol become highly flammable at a temperature around ambient temperature. This study proposes to improve the formulation of ethanol based diesel fuel in order to avoid flash point drawbacks. First, a focus on physical and chemical properties is done for ethanol based diesel fuels with and without flash point improvement. Second, blends are tested on a passenger car diesel engine, under a wide operating range conditions from low load low speed up to maximum power. The main advantage of the ethanol based fuels generate low smoke level, that allows using higher EGR rate, thus leading to an important NOx decrease.
Journal Article

Advanced Injection Strategies for Controlling Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion and Emissions

2009-06-15
2009-01-1962
The simultaneous reduction of engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate emissions via low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies for compression-ignition engines is generally achieved via the use of high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR rates not only result in a drastic reduction of combustion temperatures to mitigate thermal NOx formation but also increases the level of pre-mixing thereby limiting particulate (soot) formation. However, highly pre-mixed combustion strategies such as LTC are usually limited at higher loads by excessively high heat release rates leading to unacceptable levels of combustion noise and particulate emissions. Further increasing the level of charge dilution (via EGR) can help to reduce combustion noise but maximum EGR rates are ultimately restricted by turbocharger and EGR path technologies.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions Behaviour in Optical and Metal Single-Cylinder Diesel Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1963
Single cylinder optical engines are used for internal combustion (IC) engine research as they allow for the application of qualitative and quantitative non-intrusive, diagnostic techniques to study in-cylinder flow, mixing, combustion and emissions phenomena. Such experimental data is not only important for the validation of computational models but can also provide a detailed insight into the physical processes occurring in-cylinder which is useful for the further development of new combustion strategies such as gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and Diesel low temperature combustion (LTC). In this context, it is therefore important to ensure that the performance of optical engines is comparable to standard all-metal engines. A comparison of optical and all-metal engine combustion and emissions performance was performed within the present study.
Technical Paper

Modelling Turbocharged Spark-Ignition Engines: Towards Predictive Real Time Simulators

2009-04-20
2009-01-0675
Due to increasingly stringent regulations, reduction of pollutant emissions and consumption are currently two major goals of the car industry. One way to reach these objectives is to enhance the management of the engine in order to optimize the whole combustion process. This requires the development of complex control strategies for the air and the fuel paths, and for the combustion process. In this context, engine 0D modelling emerges as a pertinent tool for investigating and validating such strategies. Indeed, it represents a useful complement to test bench campaigns, on the condition that these 0D models are accurate enough and manage to run quite fast, eventually in real time. This paper presents the different steps of the design of a high frequency 0D simulator of a downsized turbocharged Port Fuel Injector (PFI) engine, compatible with real time constraints.
Journal Article

Study of the Mixing and Combustion Processes of Consecutive Short Double Diesel Injections

2009-04-20
2009-01-1352
The mixing and combustion processes of short double Diesel injections are investigated by optical diagnostics. A single hole Common Rail Diesel injector allowing high injection pressure up to 120MPa is used. The spray is observed in a high pressure, high temperature cell that reproduces the thermodynamic conditions which exist in the combustion chamber of a Diesel engine during injection. Three configurations are studied: a single short injection serving as a reference case and two double short injections with short and long dwell time (time between the injections). Several optical diagnostics were performed successively. The mixing process is studied by normalized Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence giving access to the vapor fuel concentration fields. In addition, the flow fields both inside and outside the jets are characterized by Particle Imaging Velocimetry.
Technical Paper

Ethanol as a Diesel Base Fuel - Potential in HCCI Mode

2008-10-06
2008-01-2506
This work studies the potential of ethanol-Biodiesel-Diesel fuel blends in both conventional Diesel and HCCI combustion modes. First, ethanol based fuels were tested on a modern commercial multi-cylinder DI diesel engine. The aim of this phase was to assess how such fuels affect Diesel engine performances and emissions. These results indicate that low levels of PM and NOx emissions, with a contained fuel consumption penalty and with an acceptable noise level, are achievable when the Diesel-ethanol blends are used in combination with an optimized combustion control. Moreover, experiments with ethanol based blends were performed using a single cylinder engine, running under both early injection HCCI and Diesel combustion modes. Compared to a conventional fuel, these blends allow increasing the HCCI operating range and also lead to higher maximum power output in conventional Diesel combustion.
Journal Article

Using Multiple Injection Strategies in Diesel Combustion: Potential to Improve Emissions, Noise and Fuel Economy Trade-Off in Low CR Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-1329
In former high compression ratio Diesel engines a single injection was used to introduce the fuel into the combustion chamber. With actual direct injection engines which exhibit a compression ratio between 17:1 and 18:1 single or multiple early injections called “pilot injections” are also added in order to reduce the combustion noise. For after-treatment reasons a late injection during the expansion stroke named “post injection” may also be used in some operating conditions. Investigations have been conducted on lower compression ratio Diesel engine and in high EGR rate operating conditions to evaluate the benefits of multiple injection strategies to improve the trade off between engine emissions, noise and fuel economy.
Journal Article

Cold Start on Diesel Engine: Is Low Compression Ratio Compatible with Cold Start Requirements?

2008-04-14
2008-01-1310
Future emission standards for Diesel engine will require a drastic reduction of engine-out NOx emissions with very low level of particulate matter (PM), HC and CO, and keeping under control fuel consumption and combustion noise. One of the most promising way to reach this challenge is to reduce compression ratio (CR). A stringent limitation of reducing Diesel CR is currently cold start requirements. Indeed, reduction of ambient temperature leads to penalties in fuel vaporization and auto ignition capabilities, even more at very low temperature (-20°C and below). In this paper, we present the work operated on an HSDI Common rail Diesel 4-cyl engine in three area: engine tests till very low temperature (down to -25°C); in cylinder imaging (videoscope) and CFD code development for cold start operation. First, combustion chamber is adapted in order to reach low compression ratio (CR 13.7:1).
Journal Article

Reduction of the Compression Ratio on a HSDI Diesel Engine: Combustion Design Evolution for Compliance the Future Emission Standards

2008-04-14
2008-01-0839
Environment protection issues regarding CO2 emissions as well as customers requirements for fun-to-drive and fuel economy explain the strong increase of Diesel engine on European market share in all passenger car segments. To comply future purposes of emission regulations, particularly dramatic decrease in NOx emissions, technology need to keep upgrading; the reduction of the volumetric compression ratio (VCR) is one of the most promising research ways to allow a simultaneous increase in power at full load and NOx / PM trade-off improvement at part load. This study describes the combustion effects of the reduction of compression ratio and quantifies improvements obtained at full load and part load running conditions on a HSDI Common Rail engine out performance (power, fuel consumption, emissions and noise). Potential and limitations of a reduced compression ratio from 18:1 to 14:1 are underlined.
Technical Paper

Study of the Correlation Between Mixing and Auto-Ignition Processes in High Pressure Diesel Jets

2007-04-16
2007-01-0650
A tracer laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique for the visualisation of fuel distribution in the presence of oxygen was developed and then used sequentially with high speed chemiluminescence imaging to study the correlation between the mixing and auto-ignition processes of high pressure Diesel jets. A single hole common rail Diesel injector allowing high injection pressures up to 150MPa was used. The reacting fuel spray was observed in a high pressure, high temperature cell that reproduces the thermodynamic conditions which exist in the combustion chamber of a Diesel engine during injection. Both free jet and flat wall impinging jet configurations were studied. Several tracers were first considered with the objective of developing a tracer-LIF technique in the presence of oxygen. 5-nonanone was selected for its higher fluorescence efficiency.
Technical Paper

AMT Control for a Mild-Hybrid Urban Vehicle with a Downsized Turbo-Charged CNG Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0286
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels for transportation due to its ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, in particular) and its abundance. An earlier study from IFP has shown that CNG has a considerable potential when used as a fuel for a dedicated downsized turbo-charged SI engine on a small urban vehicle. To take further advantage of CNG assets, this approach can be profitably extended by adding a small secondary (electrical) power source to the CNG engine, thus hybridizing the powertrain. This is precisely the focus of the new IFP project, VEHGAN, which aims to develop a mild-hybrid CNG prototype vehicle based on a MCC smart car equipped with a reversible starter-alternator and ultra-capacitors (Valeo Starter Alternator Reversible System, StARS).
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