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Technical Paper

Improving Emissions, Noise and Fuel Economy Trade-Off by using Multiple Injection Strategies in Diesel Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) Mode

2010-10-25
2010-01-2162
Latest emissions standards impose very low NOx and particle emissions that have led to new Diesel combustion operating conditions, such as low temperature combustion (LTC). The principle of LTC is based on enhancing air fuel mixing and reducing combustion temperature, reducing raw nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particle emissions. However, new difficulties have arisen. LTC is typically achieved through high dilution rates and low CR, resulting in increased auto-ignition delay that produces significant noise and deteriorates the combustion phasing. At the same time, lower combustion temperature and reduced oxygen concentration increases hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon oxide (CO) emissions, which can be problematic at low load. Therefore, if LTC is a promising solution to meet future emission regulations, it imposes a new emissions, fuel consumption and noise trade-off. For this, the injection strategy is the most direct mean of controlling the heat release profile and fuel air mixture.
Journal Article

Comparison of Diesel Spray Combustion in Different High-Temperature, High-Pressure Facilities

2010-10-25
2010-01-2106
Diesel spray experimentation at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions is intended to provide a more fundamental understanding of diesel combustion than can be achieved in engine experiments. This level of understanding is needed to develop the high-fidelity multi-scale CFD models that will be used to optimize future engine designs. Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but because of the uniqueness of each facility, there are uncertainties about their operation. For this paper, we describe results from comparative studies using constant-volume vessels at Sandia National Laboratories and IFP.
Journal Article

Analysis of Combustion Process in Cold Operation with a Low Compression Ratio Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1267
Future emissions standards for passenger cars require a reduction of NOx (nitrogen oxide) and CO₂ (carbon dioxide) emissions of diesel engines. One of the ways to reach this challenge while keeping other emissions under control (CO: carbon monoxide, HC: unburned hydrocarbons and particulates) is to reduce the volumetric compression ratio (CR). Nevertheless complications appear with this CR reduction, notably during very cold operation: start and idle. These complications justify intensifying the work in this area. Investigations were led on a real 4-cylinder diesel 13.7:1 CR engine, using complementary tools: experimental tests, in-cylinder visualizations and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) calculations. In previous papers, the way the Main combustion takes place according to Pilot combustion behavior was highlighted. This paper, presents an in-depth study of mixture preparation and the subsequent combustion process.
Technical Paper

Turbine Efficiency Estimation for Fault Detection Application

2010-04-12
2010-01-0568
In nowadays diesel engine, the turbocharger system plays a very important role in the engine functioning and any loss of the turbine efficiency can lead to driveability problems and the increment of emissions. In this paper, a VGT turbocharger fault detection system is proposed. The method is based on a physical model of the turbocharger and includes an estimation of the turbine efficiency by a nonlinear adaptive observer. A sensitivity analysis is provided in order to evaluate the impact of different sensors fault, (drift and bias), used to feed the observer, on the estimation of turbine efficiency error. By the means of this analysis a robust variable threshold is provided in order to reduce false detection alarm. Simulation results, based on co-simulation professional platform (AMEsim© and Simulink©), are provided to validate the strategy.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Laminar Flame Speed of Natural Gas and Gasoline Surrogates

2010-04-12
2010-01-0546
An unified model with a single set of kinetic parameters has been proposed for modeling laminar flame velocities of several alkanes using detailed kinetic mechanisms automatically generated by the EXGAS software. The validations were based on recent data of the literature. The studied compounds are methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-heptane, iso-octane, and two mixtures for natural gas and surrogate gasoline fuel. Investigated conditions are the following: unburned gases temperature was varied from 300 to 600 K, pressures from 0.5 to 25 bar, and equivalence ratios range from 0.4 to 2. For the overall studied compounds, the agreement between measured and predicted laminar burning velocities is quite good.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Benefits of Dual Cam Phasers, Lean Mixture and EGR on the Operating Range and Fuel Economy of a PFI NVO CAI Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0844
Among the existing concepts that help to improve the efficiency of spark-ignition engines at part load, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. This combustion concept is based on the auto-ignition of an air-fuel-mixture highly diluted with hot burnt gases to achieve high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through low temperature combustion. To minimize the costs of conversion of a standard spark-ignition engine into a CAI engine, the present study is restricted to a Port Fuel Injection engine with a cam-profile switching system and a cam phaser on both intake and exhaust sides. In a 4-stroke engine, a large amount of burnt gases can be trapped in the cylinder via early closure of the exhaust valves. This so-called Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) strategy has a key parameter to control the amount of trapped burnt gases and consequently the combustion: the exhaust valve-lift profile.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Mean-Value Model of a Fuel-Flexible Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0937
Among the last years, environmental concerns have raised the interest for biofuels. Ethanol, blended with gasoline seems particularly suited for the operation of internal combustion engines, and has been in use for severals years in some countries. However, it has a strong impact on engine performance, which is emphasized on recent engine architectures, with downsizing through turbocharging and variable valve actuation. Taking all the benefits of ethanol-blended fuel thus requires an adaptation of the engine management system. This paper intends to assess the effect of gasoline-ethanol blending from this point of view, then to describe a mean-value model of a fuel-flexible turbocharged PFI-SI engine, which will serve as a basis for the development of control algorithms. The focus will be in this paper on ethanol content estimation in the blend, supported by both simulation and experimental results.
Technical Paper

Matching and Evaluating Methods for Euro 6 and Efficient Two-stage Turbocharging Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1229
While fuel efficiency has to be improved, future Diesel engine emission standards will further restrict vehicle emissions, particularly of nitrogen oxides. Increased in-cylinder filling is recognized as a key factor in addressing this issue, which calls for advanced design of air and exhaust gas recirculation circuits and high cooling capabilities. As one possible solution, this paper presents a 2-stage boosting breathing architecture, specially dedicated to improving the trade-off between emissions and fuel consumption instead of seeking to improve specific power on a large family vehicle equipped with a 1.6-liter Diesel engine. In order to do it, turbocharger matching was specifically optimized to minimize engine-out NOx emissions at part-load and consumption under common driving conditions. Engine speed and load were analyzed on the European driving cycle. The key operating points and associated upper boundary for NOx emission were identified.
Journal Article

Cold Operation with Optical and Numerical Investigations on a Low Compression Ratio Diesel Engine

2009-11-02
2009-01-2714
With a high thermal efficiency and low CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions, Diesel engines become leader of transport market. However, the exhaust-gas legislation evolution leads to a drastic reduction of NOx (nitrogen oxide) standards with very low particulate, HC (unburned hydrocarbons) and CO (carbon monoxide) emissions, while combustion noise and fuel consumption must be kept under control. The reduction of the volumetric compression ratio (CR) is a key factor to reach this challenge, but it is today limited by the capabilities to provide acceptable performances during very cold operation: start and idle below −10°C. This paper focuses on the understanding of the main parameter’s impacts on cold operation. Effects of parameters like hardware configuration and calibration optimization are investigated on a real 4 cylinder Diesel 14:1 CR engine, with a combination of specific advanced tools.
Technical Paper

Optimal Design for a Highly Downsized Gasoline Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1794
The combination of air charging and downsizing is known to be an efficient solution to reduce CO2 emissions of modern gasoline engines. The decrease of the cubic capacity and the increase of the specific performance help to reduce the fuel consumption by limiting pumping and friction losses and even the losses of energy by heat transfer. Investigations have been conducted on a highly downsized SI engine to confirm if a strong decrease of the displacement (50 %) was still interesting regarding the fuel consumption reduction and if other ways were possible to improve further more its efficiency. The first aim of our work was to identify the optimal design (bore, stroke, displacement, …) that could maximize the consumption reduction potential at part load but also improve the engine's behaviour at very high load (up to 3.0 MPa IMEP from 1000 rpm). In order to do that, four engine configurations with different strokes and bores have been tested and compared.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions Behaviour in Optical and Metal Single-Cylinder Diesel Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1963
Single cylinder optical engines are used for internal combustion (IC) engine research as they allow for the application of qualitative and quantitative non-intrusive, diagnostic techniques to study in-cylinder flow, mixing, combustion and emissions phenomena. Such experimental data is not only important for the validation of computational models but can also provide a detailed insight into the physical processes occurring in-cylinder which is useful for the further development of new combustion strategies such as gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and Diesel low temperature combustion (LTC). In this context, it is therefore important to ensure that the performance of optical engines is comparable to standard all-metal engines. A comparison of optical and all-metal engine combustion and emissions performance was performed within the present study.
Journal Article

Online Implementation of an Optimal Supervisory Control for a Parallel Hybrid Powertrain

2009-06-15
2009-01-1868
The authors present the supervisory control of a parallel hybrid powertrain, focusing on several issues related to the real-time implementation of optimal control based techniques, such as the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategies (ECMS). Real-time implementation is introduced as an intermediate step of a complete chain of tools aimed at investigating the supervisory control problem. These tools comprise an offline optimizer based on Pontryagin Minimum Principle (PMP), a two-layer real-time control structure, and a modular engine-in-the-loop test bench. Control results are presented for a regulatory drive cycle with the aim of illustrating the benefits of optimal control in terms of fuel economy, the role of the optimization constraints dictated by drivability requirements, and the effectiveness of the feedback rule proposed for the adaptation of the equivalence factor (Lagrange multiplier).
Journal Article

Advanced Injection Strategies for Controlling Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion and Emissions

2009-06-15
2009-01-1962
The simultaneous reduction of engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate emissions via low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies for compression-ignition engines is generally achieved via the use of high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR rates not only result in a drastic reduction of combustion temperatures to mitigate thermal NOx formation but also increases the level of pre-mixing thereby limiting particulate (soot) formation. However, highly pre-mixed combustion strategies such as LTC are usually limited at higher loads by excessively high heat release rates leading to unacceptable levels of combustion noise and particulate emissions. Further increasing the level of charge dilution (via EGR) can help to reduce combustion noise but maximum EGR rates are ultimately restricted by turbocharger and EGR path technologies.
Technical Paper

Modelling Turbocharged Spark-Ignition Engines: Towards Predictive Real Time Simulators

2009-04-20
2009-01-0675
Due to increasingly stringent regulations, reduction of pollutant emissions and consumption are currently two major goals of the car industry. One way to reach these objectives is to enhance the management of the engine in order to optimize the whole combustion process. This requires the development of complex control strategies for the air and the fuel paths, and for the combustion process. In this context, engine 0D modelling emerges as a pertinent tool for investigating and validating such strategies. Indeed, it represents a useful complement to test bench campaigns, on the condition that these 0D models are accurate enough and manage to run quite fast, eventually in real time. This paper presents the different steps of the design of a high frequency 0D simulator of a downsized turbocharged Port Fuel Injector (PFI) engine, compatible with real time constraints.
Journal Article

A 0D Phenomenological Approach to Model Diesel HCCI Combustion with Multi-Injection Strategies Using Probability Density Functions and Detailed Tabulated Chemistry

2009-04-20
2009-01-0678
More and more stringent restrictions concerning the pollutant emissions of ICE (Internal Combustion Engines) constitute a major challenge for the automotive industry. New combustion strategies such as LTC (Low Temperature Combustion), PCCI (Premixed Controlled Compression Ignition) or HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) are promising solutions to achieve the imposed emission standards. They permit low NOx and soot emissions via a lean and highly diluted combustion regime, thus assuring low combustion temperatures. In next generation of ICE, new technologies allow the implementation of complex injection strategies in order to optimize the combustion process. This requires the creation of numerical tools adapted to these new challenges. This paper presents a 0D Diesel HCCI combustion model based on a physical 3D CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) approach.
Technical Paper

A 3WCC Global Kinetic Model: A Calibration Method Using Laboratory Scale and Engine Test Bench Experiments

2008-04-14
2008-01-0453
A 3 way catalytic converter (3WCC) model based on a global kinetic model was developed and validated against laboratory scale and engine test bench experiments. Various equivalence ratios and temperatures were tested. A methodology was finalized and applied to calibrate the kinetic constants. Laboratory scale experiments were first used to characterize the reaction mechanism during light-off, including the way reduction and oxidation reactions begin and compete with each other when temperature increases. The numerical results are in good agreement with the laboratory scale light-off results. Also, when adapted to simulate the engine test bench experiments, the model is able to correctly reproduce both the light-off tests and the 3WCC conversion efficiency evolution versus equivalence ratio. A calibration method in two steps was thus established and successfully used. The combination of modeling with experimental work appeared to be a powerful tool to determine the reaction mechanism.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Modeling of Power Split Devices in Combined Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-1313
The paper discusses different alternative choices regarding the simulation and control of combined hybrid vehicles with a simple or compound power split device (PSD). These choices concern the causal representation of PSD both in a vehicle model and in the supervisory controller, the structure of the supervisory controller, and the pathway to generate the setpoints to the component-level controllers. Quasistatic and high-frequency simulations provide the example applications to assess the competing approaches.
Journal Article

Using Multiple Injection Strategies in Diesel Combustion: Potential to Improve Emissions, Noise and Fuel Economy Trade-Off in Low CR Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-1329
In former high compression ratio Diesel engines a single injection was used to introduce the fuel into the combustion chamber. With actual direct injection engines which exhibit a compression ratio between 17:1 and 18:1 single or multiple early injections called “pilot injections” are also added in order to reduce the combustion noise. For after-treatment reasons a late injection during the expansion stroke named “post injection” may also be used in some operating conditions. Investigations have been conducted on lower compression ratio Diesel engine and in high EGR rate operating conditions to evaluate the benefits of multiple injection strategies to improve the trade off between engine emissions, noise and fuel economy.
Journal Article

Reduction of the Compression Ratio on a HSDI Diesel Engine: Combustion Design Evolution for Compliance the Future Emission Standards

2008-04-14
2008-01-0839
Environment protection issues regarding CO2 emissions as well as customers requirements for fun-to-drive and fuel economy explain the strong increase of Diesel engine on European market share in all passenger car segments. To comply future purposes of emission regulations, particularly dramatic decrease in NOx emissions, technology need to keep upgrading; the reduction of the volumetric compression ratio (VCR) is one of the most promising research ways to allow a simultaneous increase in power at full load and NOx / PM trade-off improvement at part load. This study describes the combustion effects of the reduction of compression ratio and quantifies improvements obtained at full load and part load running conditions on a HSDI Common Rail engine out performance (power, fuel consumption, emissions and noise). Potential and limitations of a reduced compression ratio from 18:1 to 14:1 are underlined.
Technical Paper

A New 0D Approach for Diesel Combustion Modeling Coupling Probability Density Function with Complex Chemistry

2006-10-16
2006-01-3332
The model presented in this paper is an original contribution for two main mechanisms involved in a Diesel combustion chamber: the micro-mixing and the combustion heat release. The micro-mixing phenomenon is modelled thanks to the presumed probability density function theory adapted to the 0D combustion modeling issues in order to take into account the stratification of air / fuel ratio around the spray. The combustion heat release is obtained from complex chemistry look-up tables. These tables are issued from a dedicated use of the Flame Prolongation of ILDM theory and allow a large range of combustion conditions since it includes high EGR rates. Moreover, the spray model including evaporation and turbulent macro-mixing is based on the well-known Siebers theory.
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