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Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Investigation into Brake Thermal Efficiency Optimum Heat Release Rate for a Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0109
According to thermodynamic analysis of ideal engine cycles, Otto cycle thermal efficiency exceeds that of the Diesel and Sabathe (or Dual) cycles. However, zero-dimensional calculations indicated that the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of an actual Otto or Diesel engine could be higher with a Sabathe (or Seilliger) type cycle, within a limited peak firing pressure (PFP). To confirm these results with an actual engine, a three-injector combustion system (center and two sides) was utilized to allow more flexibility in the heat release rate (HRR) profile than the conventional single injector system in the previous study. The experimental result was qualitatively consistent with the calculated results even though its HRR had less peak and longer duration than ideal. In this study, a new thermodynamic cycle with higher HRR in the expansion stroke than the ideal Sabathe cycle, was thus developed. The proposed (higher) HRR was achieved by overlapped fuel injection with the three injectors.
Technical Paper

Exploring and Modeling the Chemical Effect of a Cetane Booster Additive in a Low-Octane Gasoline Fuel

2019-09-09
2019-24-0069
Increasing the internal combustion engine efficiency is necessary to decrease their environmental impact. Several combustion systems demonstrated the interest of low temperature combustion to move toward this objective. However, to ensure a stable combustion, the use of additives has been considered in a several studies. Amongst them, 2-Ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) is considered as a good candidate for these systems but characterizing its chemical effect is required to optimize its use. In this study, its promoting effect (0.1 - 1% mol.) on combustion has been investigated experimentally and numerically in order to better characterize its behavior under different thermodynamic and mixture. Rapid compression machine (RCM) experiments were carried out at equivalence ratio 0.5 and pressure 10 bar, from 675 to 995 K. The targeted surrogate fuel is a mixture of toluene and n-heptane in order to capture the additive effect on both cool flame and main ignition.
Technical Paper

Towards Quantitative Prediction of Urea Thermo-Hydrolysis and Deposits Formation in Exhaust Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-0992
In order to assist in fast design cycle of Diesel engines selective catalytic reduction (SCR) exhaust systems, significant endeavor is currently being made to improve numerical simulation accuracy of urea thermo-hydrolysis. In this article, the achievements of a recently developed urea semi-detailed decomposition chemical scheme are assessed using three available databases from the literature. First, evaporation and thermo-hydrolysis of urea-water solution (UWS) single-droplets hanged on a thin thermocouple ring (127 μm) as well as on a thick quartz (275 μm), have been simulated at ambient temperature conditions ranging from 473K to 773K. It has been shown that the numerical results, in terms of evaporation rate and urea gasification, as well as droplet temperature history are very close to the experiments if the heat flux coming from the droplet support is properly accounted for.
Technical Paper

Water Injection to Improve Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Efficiency

2019-04-02
2019-01-1139
The increasing use of downsized turbocharged gasoline engines for passengers cars and the new European homologation cycles (WLTC and RDE) both impose an optimization of the whole engine map. More weight is given to mid and high loads, thus enhancing knock and overfueling limitations. At low and moderate engine speeds, knock mitigation is one of the main issues, generally addressed by retarding spark advance thereby penalizing the combustion efficiency. At high engine speeds, knock still occurs but is less problematic. However, in order to comply with thermo-mechanical properties of the turbine, excess fuel is injected to limit the exhaust gas temperature while maximizing engine power, even with cooled exhaust manifolds. This also implies a decrease of the combustion efficiency and an increase in pollutant emissions. Water injection is one way to overcome both limitations.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Diluted Combustion in a Direct Injection CNG Engine Featuring Post- Euro-VI Fuel Consumption Targets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1142
The present paper is concerned with part of the work performed by Renault, IFPEN and Politecnico di Torino within a research project founded by the European Commission. The project has been focused on the development of a dedicated CNG engine featuring a 25% decrease in fuel consumption with respect to an equivalent Diesel engine with the same performance targets. To that end, different technologies were implemented and optimized in the engine, namely, direct injection, variable valve timing, LP EGR with advanced turbocharging, and diluted combustion. With specific reference to diluted combustion, it is rather well established for gasoline engines whereas it still poses several critical issues for CNG ones, mainly due to the lower exhaust temperatures. Moreover, dilution is accompanied by a decrease in the laminar burning speed of the unburned mixture and this generally leads to a detriment in combustion efficiency and stability.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Novel Ammonia Mixer Designs for SCR Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0343
Meeting Euro 6d NOx emission regulations lower than 80 mg/km for light duty diesel (60 mg/km gasoline) vehicles remains a challenge, especially during cold-start tests at which the selective catalyst reduction (SCR) system does not work because of low exhaust gas temperatures (light-off temperature around 200 °C). While several exhaust aftertreatment system (EATS) designs are suggested in literature, solutions with gaseous ammonia injections seem to be an efficient and cost-effective way to enhance the NOx abatement at low temperature. Compared to standard SCR systems using urea water solution (UWS) injection, gaseous NH3 systems allow an earlier injection, prevent deposit formation and increase the NH3 content density. However non-uniform ammonia mixture distribution upstream of the SCR catalyst remains an issue. These exhaust gas/ NH3 inhomogeneities lead to a non-optimal NOx reduction performance, resulting in higher than expected NOx emissions and/or ammonia slip.
Technical Paper

Potential of a Production DI Two-Stroke Engine Adapted for Range Extender and Motorcycle Applications

2017-11-05
2017-32-0082
The main purpose of this paper will be to investigate if a small snowmobile gasoline Direct Injected (DI) two-stroke engine has the potential to be adapted for two other types of applications: as a range extender (REX) for electric vehicles and for a motorcycle application. For the REX application, the main requested specifications (NVH, lightweight, compactness, minimum production cost and easy maintenance), correspond well to the main features of DI 2-stroke engines. The potential of a modified production engine operating in part load ultra-low NOx Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) to meet the Euro 6 emissions standards on the NEDC cycle has already been demonstrated in a previous paper. In the first part of this new paper, we will investigate which solutions can be used to maintain this potential with even stricter legislations based on Euro 6d, WLTP cycle and Real Driving Emissions (RDE).
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization of a Multi-Cylinder CI Engine Running with a Low RON Gasoline Fuel Considering Different Air Loop and After-Treatment Configurations

2017-10-08
2017-01-2264
Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOx and particulate emissions when used in compression ignition engines. In this context, low research octane number (RON) gasoline, a refinery stream derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, has been identified as a highly valuable fuel. In addition, thanks to its higher H/C ratio and energy content compared to diesel, CO2 benefits are also expected when used in such engines. In previous studies, different cetane number (CN) fuels have been evaluated and a CN 35 fuel has been selected. The assessment and the choice of the required engine hardware adapted to this fuel, such as the compression ratio, bowl pattern and nozzle design have been performed on a single cylinder compression-ignition engine.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Intake Valve Dynamics on Knock Propensity in a Dual-Fuel SI Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2236
In this study, the impact of the intake valve timing on knock propensity is investigated on a dual-fuel engine which leverages a low octane fuel and a high octane fuel to adjust the fuel mixture’s research octane rating (RON) based on operating point. Variations in the intake valve timing have a direct impact on residual gas concentrations due to valve overlap, and also affect the compression pressure and temperature by altering the effective compression ratio (eCR). In this study, it is shown that the fuel RON requirement for a non-knocking condition at a fixed operating point can vary significantly solely due to variations of the intake valve timing. At 2000 rpm and 6 bar IMEP, the fuel RON requirement ranges from 80 to 90 as a function of the intake valve timing, and the valve timing can change the RON requirement from 98 to 104 at 2000 rpm and 14 bar IMEP.
Journal Article

Simulation and Optical Diagnostics to Characterize Low Octane Number Dual Fuel Strategies: a Step Towards the Octane on Demand Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2164
Reduction of CO2 emissions is becoming one of the great challenges for future gasoline engines. Downsizing is one of the most promising strategies to achieve this reduction, though it facilitates occurrence of knocking. Therefore, downsizing has to be associated with knock limiting technologies. The aim of the current research program is to adapt the fuel Research-Octane-Number (RON) injected in the combustion chamber to prevent knock occurrence and keep combustion phasing at optimum. This is achieved by a dual fuel injection strategy, involving a low-RON naphtha-based fuel (Naphtha, RON 71) and a high-RON octane booster (Ethanol, RON107). The ratio of fuel quantity on each injector is adapted to fit the RON requirement as a function of engine operating conditions. Hence, it becomes crucial to understand and predict the mixture preparation, to quantify its spatial and cycle-to-cycle variations and to apprehend the consequences on combustion behavior - knock especially.
Technical Paper

Potential of CN25 Naphtha-Based Fuel to Power Compression Ignition Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0765
Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOx and particulate emissions when used in Diesel engines. In this context, straight-run naphtha, a refinery stream directly derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, has been identified as a highly valuable fuel. The current study is one step further toward naphtha-based fuel to power compression ignition engines. The potential of a cetane number 25 fuel (CN25), resulting from a blend of hydro-treated straight-run naphtha CN35 with unleaded non-oxygenated gasoline RON91 was assessed. For this purpose, investigations were conducted on multiple fronts, including experimental activities on an injection test bed, in an optically accessible vessel and in a single cylinder engine. CFD simulations were also developed to provide relevant explanations.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Approach Combining Adaptive Mesh Refinement, the ECFM3Z Turbulent Combustion Model, and the TKI Tabulated Auto-Ignition Model for Diesel Engine CFD Simulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-0604
The 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z) and the Tabulated Kinetics for Ignition (TKI) auto-ignition model are widely used for RANS simulations of reactive flows in Diesel engines. ECFM3Z accounts for the turbulent mixing between one zone that contains compressed air and EGR and another zone that contains evaporated fuel. These zones mix to form a reactive zone where combustion occurs. In this mixing zone TKI is applied to predict the auto-ignition event, including the ignition delay time and the heat release rate. Because it is tabulated, TKI can model complex fuels over a wide range of engine thermodynamic conditions. However, the ECFM3Z/TKI combustion modeling approach requires an efficient predictive spray injection calculation. In a Diesel direct injection engine, the turbulent mixing and spray atomization are mainly driven by the liquid/gas coupling phenomenon that occurs at moving liquid/gas interfaces.
Technical Paper

Study of ECN Injectors’ Behavior Repeatability with Focus on Aging Effect and Soot Fluctuations

2016-04-05
2016-01-0845
The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) has become a leading group concerning the experimental and computational analysis of engine combustion phenomena. In order to establish a coherent database for model validation, all the institutions participating in the experimental effort carry out tests at well-defined boundary conditions and using wellcharacterized hardware. In this framework, the reference Spray A injectors have produced different results even when tested in the same facility, highlighting that the nozzle employed and its fouling are important parameters to be accounted for. On the other hand, the number of the available Spray A injectors became an issue, due to the increasing number of research centers and simultaneous experiments taking place in the ECN community. The present work has a double aim: on the one hand, to seek for an appropriate methodology to “validate” new injectors for ECN experiments and to provide new hardware for the ECN community.
Technical Paper

An ICE Map Generation Tool Applied to the Evaluation of the Impact of Downsizing on Hybrid Vehicle Consumption

2015-09-06
2015-24-2385
Legal constraints concerning CO2 emissions have made the improvement of light duty vehicle efficiency mandatory. In result, vehicle powertrain and its development have become increasingly complex, requiring the ability to assess rapidly the effect of several technological solutions, such as hybridization or internal combustion engine (or ICE) downsizing, on vehicle CO2 emissions. In this respect, simulation is nowadays a common way to estimate a vehicle's fuel consumption on a given driving cycle. This estimation can be done with the knowledge of vehicle main characteristics, its transmission ratio and efficiency and its internal combustion engine fuel consumption map. While vehicle and transmission parameters are relatively easy to know, the ICE consumption map has to be obtained through either test bench measurements or computation.
Technical Paper

The Dual Flame Model (DFM) : A Phenomenological 0D Diesel Combustion Model to Predict Pollutant Emissions

2015-09-06
2015-24-2388
IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN) has a large experience in the development of engine simulation platforms. During the last decade, the Dual Flame Model (DFM), a physical 0-dimensional (0D) combustion model designed for Diesel applications, was developed and continuously improved. The DFM formalism allows to represent quite precisely the in-cylinder combustion process scenario, by accounting for the first order relevant physics impacting fuel oxidation. First of all, this allows to account for the impact of engine actuators on combustion (e.g. injection systems performing complex injection strategies, Low Pressure and High Pressure EGR loops,…) and then to describe the pollutant emissions formation processes, being chemical kinetics strongly dependent on the in-cylinder thermochemical conditions. The aim of this communication is to present the potential of using the DFM model in the different stages of a Diesel engine development process for pollutant emissions optimization.
Journal Article

Investigation on the Potential of Quantitatively Predicting CCV in DI-SI Engines by Using a One-Dimensional CFD Physical Modeling Approach: Focus on Charge Dilution and In-Cylinder Aerodynamics Intensity

2015-09-06
2015-24-2401
Increasingly restrictive emission standards and CO2 targets drive the need for innovative engine architectures that satisfy the design constraints in terms of performance, emissions and drivability. Downsizing is one major trend for Spark-Ignition (SI) engines. For downsized SI engines, the increased boost levels and compression ratios may lead to a higher propensity of abnormal combustions. Thus increased levels of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) are used in order to limit the appearance of knock and super-knock. The drawback of high EGR rates is the increased tendency for Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV) it engenders. A possible way to reduce CCV could be the generation of an increased in-cylinder turbulence to accelerate the combustion process. To manage all these aspects, 1D simulators are increasingly used. Accordingly, adapted modeling approaches must be developed to deal with all the relevant physics impacting combustion and pollutant emissions formation.
Technical Paper

Potential of Naphtha-like Fuel on an Existing Modern Compression Ignition Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1813
Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOX and particulates emissions when used in diesel engines. Indeed, fuels highly resistant to auto-ignition provide more time for fuel and air mixing prior to the combustion and therefore a more homogeneous combustion. Nevertheless, major issues still need to be addressed, particularly regarding UHC and CO emissions at low load and particulate/noise combustion trade-off at high load. The purpose of this study is to investigate how an existing modern diesel engine could be operated with low-cetane fuels and define the most appropriate Cetane Number (CN) to reduce engine-out emissions. With this regard, a selection of naphtha and gasoline blends, ranging from CN30/RON 57 to CN35/RON 41 was investigated on a Euro 5, 1.6L four-cylinder engine. Results were compared to the conventional diesel running mode using a minimum NOX level oriented calibration, both in steady state and transient conditions.
Journal Article

Stabilization of Highly Diluted Gasoline Direct Injection Engine using Innovative Ignition Systems

2014-10-13
2014-01-2598
Dilution is a promising way to improve fuel economy of Spark-Ignited (SI) gasoline engines. In this context, influence of innovative ignition systems on the dilution acceptance of a 400cc optical GDI engine has been studied. Several systems were tested and compared to a conventional coil: a dual-coil system and two nanosecond scaled plasma generators. Two operating points were studied: 2.8bar IMEP (net) at 2000rpm and 9bar IMEP (net) at 1200rpm. Two diluents were evaluated: real EGR and air (lean combustion). High-speed imaging at frequency up to 10kHz was performed to visualize both spark and combustion initiation and propagation. Voltage and current were measured to infer the energy deposited in the spark plug gap. The dual-coil DCO™ system and the nanosecond multi-pulse plasma generator at their maximum power showed an ability to extend the dilution range of the engine.
Journal Article

A Comparative Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) Study in Downsized SI Gasoline and CI Diesel-Methane Dual Fuel Engines

2014-10-13
2014-01-2688
Low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) in downsized spark-ignition engines has been studied for more than a decade but no definitive explanation has been found regarding the exact sources of auto-ignition. No single mechanism can explain all the occurrences of LSPI and that each engine should be considered as a particular case supporting different conditions for auto-ignition. In a different context, dual fuel Diesel-Methane engines have been more recently studied in large to medium bore compression ignition engines. However, if Dual Fuel combustion is less knock sensitive, LSPI remains one of the main limitations of low-end torque also for dual fuel engines. Indeed, in some cases, premature ignition of CNG can be observed before the Diesel pilot injection as LSPI can classically be observed before the spark in gasoline engines. This article aims at highlighting the similarities and discrepancies between LSPI phenomena in SI gasoline and dual fuel engines.
Journal Article

On the Effects of EGR on Spark-Ignited Gasoline Combustion at High Load

2014-10-13
2014-01-2628
EGR dilution is a promising way to improve fuel economy of Spark-Ignited (SI) gasoline engines. In particular, at high load, it is very efficient in mitigating knock at low speed and to decrease exhaust temperature at high speed so that fuel enrichment can be avoided. The objective of this paper is to better understand the governing mechanisms implied in EGR-diluted SI combustion at high load. For this purpose, measurements were performed on a modern, single-cylinder GDI engine (high tumble value, multi-hole injector, central position). In addition 0-D and 1-D Chemkin simulations (reactors and flames) were used to complete the engine tests so as to gain a better understanding of the physical mechanisms. EGR benefits were confirmed and characterized at 19 bar IMEP: net ISFC could be reduced by 17% at 1200rpm and by 6% at 5000rpm. At low speed, knock mitigation was the main effect, improving the cycle efficiency by a better combustion phasing.
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