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Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Investigation into Brake Thermal Efficiency Optimum Heat Release Rate for a Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0109
According to thermodynamic analysis of ideal engine cycles, Otto cycle thermal efficiency exceeds that of the Diesel and Sabathe (or Dual) cycles. However, zero-dimensional calculations indicated that the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of an actual Otto or Diesel engine could be higher with a Sabathe (or Seilliger) type cycle, within a limited peak firing pressure (PFP). To confirm these results with an actual engine, a three-injector combustion system (center and two sides) was utilized to allow more flexibility in the heat release rate (HRR) profile than the conventional single injector system in the previous study. The experimental result was qualitatively consistent with the calculated results even though its HRR had less peak and longer duration than ideal. In this study, a new thermodynamic cycle with higher HRR in the expansion stroke than the ideal Sabathe cycle, was thus developed. The proposed (higher) HRR was achieved by overlapped fuel injection with the three injectors.
Technical Paper

Towards Quantitative Prediction of Urea Thermo-Hydrolysis and Deposits Formation in Exhaust Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-0992
In order to assist in fast design cycle of Diesel engines selective catalytic reduction (SCR) exhaust systems, significant endeavor is currently being made to improve numerical simulation accuracy of urea thermo-hydrolysis. In this article, the achievements of a recently developed urea semi-detailed decomposition chemical scheme are assessed using three available databases from the literature. First, evaporation and thermo-hydrolysis of urea-water solution (UWS) single-droplets hanged on a thin thermocouple ring (127 μm) as well as on a thick quartz (275 μm), have been simulated at ambient temperature conditions ranging from 473K to 773K. It has been shown that the numerical results, in terms of evaporation rate and urea gasification, as well as droplet temperature history are very close to the experiments if the heat flux coming from the droplet support is properly accounted for.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Diluted Combustion in a Direct Injection CNG Engine Featuring Post- Euro-VI Fuel Consumption Targets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1142
The present paper is concerned with part of the work performed by Renault, IFPEN and Politecnico di Torino within a research project founded by the European Commission. The project has been focused on the development of a dedicated CNG engine featuring a 25% decrease in fuel consumption with respect to an equivalent Diesel engine with the same performance targets. To that end, different technologies were implemented and optimized in the engine, namely, direct injection, variable valve timing, LP EGR with advanced turbocharging, and diluted combustion. With specific reference to diluted combustion, it is rather well established for gasoline engines whereas it still poses several critical issues for CNG ones, mainly due to the lower exhaust temperatures. Moreover, dilution is accompanied by a decrease in the laminar burning speed of the unburned mixture and this generally leads to a detriment in combustion efficiency and stability.
Technical Paper

Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and HC Investigations of a Low RON Gasoline Fuel in a Compression Ignition Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2405
Fuels from crude oil are the main energy vector used in the worldwide transport sector. But conventional fuel and engine technologies are often criticized, especially Diesel engines with the recent “Diesel gate”. Engine and fuel co-research is one of the main leverage to reduce both CO2 footprint and criteria pollutants in the transport sector. Compression ignition engines with gasoline-like fuels are a promising way for both NOx and particulate emissions abatement while keeping lower tailpipe CO2 emissions from both combustion process, physical and chemical properties of the low RON gasoline. To introduce a new fuel/engine technology, investigation of pollutants and After-Treatment Systems (ATS) is mandatory. Previous work [1] already studied soot behavior to define the rules for the design of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) when used with a low RON gasoline in a compression ignition engine.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Intake Valve Dynamics on Knock Propensity in a Dual-Fuel SI Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2236
In this study, the impact of the intake valve timing on knock propensity is investigated on a dual-fuel engine which leverages a low octane fuel and a high octane fuel to adjust the fuel mixture’s research octane rating (RON) based on operating point. Variations in the intake valve timing have a direct impact on residual gas concentrations due to valve overlap, and also affect the compression pressure and temperature by altering the effective compression ratio (eCR). In this study, it is shown that the fuel RON requirement for a non-knocking condition at a fixed operating point can vary significantly solely due to variations of the intake valve timing. At 2000 rpm and 6 bar IMEP, the fuel RON requirement ranges from 80 to 90 as a function of the intake valve timing, and the valve timing can change the RON requirement from 98 to 104 at 2000 rpm and 14 bar IMEP.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization of a Multi-Cylinder CI Engine Running with a Low RON Gasoline Fuel Considering Different Air Loop and After-Treatment Configurations

2017-10-08
2017-01-2264
Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOx and particulate emissions when used in compression ignition engines. In this context, low research octane number (RON) gasoline, a refinery stream derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, has been identified as a highly valuable fuel. In addition, thanks to its higher H/C ratio and energy content compared to diesel, CO2 benefits are also expected when used in such engines. In previous studies, different cetane number (CN) fuels have been evaluated and a CN 35 fuel has been selected. The assessment and the choice of the required engine hardware adapted to this fuel, such as the compression ratio, bowl pattern and nozzle design have been performed on a single cylinder compression-ignition engine.
Technical Paper

Low RON Gasoline Calibration on a Multi-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine to Fulfill the Euro 6d Regulation

2017-09-04
2017-24-0091
Reducing the CO2 footprint, limiting the pollutant emissions and rebalancing the ongoing shift demand toward middle-distillate fuels are major concerns for vehicle manufacturers and oil refiners. In this context, gasoline-like fuels have been recently identified as good candidates. Straight run naphtha, a refinery stream derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, allows for a reduction of both NOx and particulate emissions when used in compression-ignition engines. CO2 benefits are also expected thanks to naphtha’s higher H/C ratio and energy content compared to diesel. In previous studies, wide ranges of Cetane Number (CN) naphtha fuels have been evaluated and CN 35 naphtha fuel has been selected. The assessment and the choice of the required engine hardware adapted to this fuel, such as the compression ratio, bowl pattern, nozzle design and air-path technology, have been performed on a light-duty single cylinder compression-ignition engine.
Technical Paper

A Fully-Analytical Fuel Consumption Estimation for the Optimal Design of Light- and Heavy-Duty Series Hybrid Electric Powertrains

2017-03-28
2017-01-0522
Fuel consumption is an essential factor that requires to be minimized in the design of a vehicle powertrain. Simple energy models can be of great help - by clarifying the role of powertrain dimensioning parameters and reducing the computation time of complex routines aiming at optimizing these parameters. In this paper, a Fully Analytical fuel Consumption Estimation (FACE) is developed based on a novel GRaphical-Analysis-Based fuel Energy Consumption Optimization (GRAB-ECO), both of which predict the fuel consumption of light- and heavy-duty series hybrid-electric powertrains that is minimized by an optimal control technique. When a drive cycle and dimensioning parameters (e.g. vehicle road load, as well as rated power, torque, volume of engine, motor/generators, and battery) are considered as inputs, FACE predicts the minimal fuel consumption in closed form, whereas GRAB-ECO minimizes fuel consumption via a graphical analysis of vehicle optimal operating modes.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Approach Combining Adaptive Mesh Refinement, the ECFM3Z Turbulent Combustion Model, and the TKI Tabulated Auto-Ignition Model for Diesel Engine CFD Simulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-0604
The 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z) and the Tabulated Kinetics for Ignition (TKI) auto-ignition model are widely used for RANS simulations of reactive flows in Diesel engines. ECFM3Z accounts for the turbulent mixing between one zone that contains compressed air and EGR and another zone that contains evaporated fuel. These zones mix to form a reactive zone where combustion occurs. In this mixing zone TKI is applied to predict the auto-ignition event, including the ignition delay time and the heat release rate. Because it is tabulated, TKI can model complex fuels over a wide range of engine thermodynamic conditions. However, the ECFM3Z/TKI combustion modeling approach requires an efficient predictive spray injection calculation. In a Diesel direct injection engine, the turbulent mixing and spray atomization are mainly driven by the liquid/gas coupling phenomenon that occurs at moving liquid/gas interfaces.
Technical Paper

Potential of CN25 Naphtha-Based Fuel to Power Compression Ignition Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0765
Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOx and particulate emissions when used in Diesel engines. In this context, straight-run naphtha, a refinery stream directly derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, has been identified as a highly valuable fuel. The current study is one step further toward naphtha-based fuel to power compression ignition engines. The potential of a cetane number 25 fuel (CN25), resulting from a blend of hydro-treated straight-run naphtha CN35 with unleaded non-oxygenated gasoline RON91 was assessed. For this purpose, investigations were conducted on multiple fronts, including experimental activities on an injection test bed, in an optically accessible vessel and in a single cylinder engine. CFD simulations were also developed to provide relevant explanations.
Technical Paper

The Dual Flame Model (DFM) : A Phenomenological 0D Diesel Combustion Model to Predict Pollutant Emissions

2015-09-06
2015-24-2388
IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN) has a large experience in the development of engine simulation platforms. During the last decade, the Dual Flame Model (DFM), a physical 0-dimensional (0D) combustion model designed for Diesel applications, was developed and continuously improved. The DFM formalism allows to represent quite precisely the in-cylinder combustion process scenario, by accounting for the first order relevant physics impacting fuel oxidation. First of all, this allows to account for the impact of engine actuators on combustion (e.g. injection systems performing complex injection strategies, Low Pressure and High Pressure EGR loops,…) and then to describe the pollutant emissions formation processes, being chemical kinetics strongly dependent on the in-cylinder thermochemical conditions. The aim of this communication is to present the potential of using the DFM model in the different stages of a Diesel engine development process for pollutant emissions optimization.
Technical Paper

Potential of Naphtha-like Fuel on an Existing Modern Compression Ignition Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1813
Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOX and particulates emissions when used in diesel engines. Indeed, fuels highly resistant to auto-ignition provide more time for fuel and air mixing prior to the combustion and therefore a more homogeneous combustion. Nevertheless, major issues still need to be addressed, particularly regarding UHC and CO emissions at low load and particulate/noise combustion trade-off at high load. The purpose of this study is to investigate how an existing modern diesel engine could be operated with low-cetane fuels and define the most appropriate Cetane Number (CN) to reduce engine-out emissions. With this regard, a selection of naphtha and gasoline blends, ranging from CN30/RON 57 to CN35/RON 41 was investigated on a Euro 5, 1.6L four-cylinder engine. Results were compared to the conventional diesel running mode using a minimum NOX level oriented calibration, both in steady state and transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity of SCR Control Strategies to Diesel Exhaust Fluid Quality: A Simulation Study

2015-04-14
2015-01-1051
This paper presents the evaluation of the impact of Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) quality on the behavior of a controlled SCR system. Proper control of the Selective Catalytic Reduction system is crucial to fulfill NOx emissions standards of modern Diesel engines. Today, the urea concentration of DEF is not considered as a control system input. Moreover, Urea Quality Sensors (UQS) are now available to provide real time information of Diesel Exhaust Fluid quality. The impact of percent urea from 20 to 36% on the NOx emissions of a passenger car 2.2L Diesel engine is calculated using a reference SCR model and a reference SCR control tool in multiple NEDC transient conditions. Several control tunings are tested with different levels of feedback. Ammonia slip levels are also calculated.
Technical Paper

System Optimization for a 2-Stroke Diesel Engine with a Turbo Super Configuration Supporting Fuel Economy Improvement of Next Generation Engines

2014-11-11
2014-32-0011
The objective of this paper is to present the results of the GT Power calibration with engine test results of the air loop system technology down selection described in the SAE Paper No. 2012-01-0831. Two specific boosting systems were identified as the preferred path forward: (1) Super-turbo with two speed Roots type supercharger, (2) Super-turbo with centrifugal mechanical compressor and CVT transmission both downstream a Fixed Geometry Turbine. The initial performance validation of the boosting hardware in the gas stand and the calibration of the GT Power model developed is described. The calibration leverages data coming from the tests on a 2 cylinder 2-stroke 0.73L diesel engine. The initial flow bench results suggested the need for a revision of the turbo matching due to the big gap in performance between predicted maps and real data. This activity was performed using Honeywell turbocharger solutions spacing from fixed geometry waste gate to variable nozzle turbo (VNT).
Journal Article

A Comparative Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) Study in Downsized SI Gasoline and CI Diesel-Methane Dual Fuel Engines

2014-10-13
2014-01-2688
Low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) in downsized spark-ignition engines has been studied for more than a decade but no definitive explanation has been found regarding the exact sources of auto-ignition. No single mechanism can explain all the occurrences of LSPI and that each engine should be considered as a particular case supporting different conditions for auto-ignition. In a different context, dual fuel Diesel-Methane engines have been more recently studied in large to medium bore compression ignition engines. However, if Dual Fuel combustion is less knock sensitive, LSPI remains one of the main limitations of low-end torque also for dual fuel engines. Indeed, in some cases, premature ignition of CNG can be observed before the Diesel pilot injection as LSPI can classically be observed before the spark in gasoline engines. This article aims at highlighting the similarities and discrepancies between LSPI phenomena in SI gasoline and dual fuel engines.
Journal Article

Optical Investigation of Dual-fuel CNG/Diesel Combustion Strategies to Reduce CO2 Emissions

2014-04-01
2014-01-1313
Dual-fuel combustion strategies combining a premixed charge of natural gas and a pilot injection of diesel fuel offer the potential to reduce CO2 emissions as a result of the high Hydrogen/Carbon (H/C) ratio of methane gas. Moreover, the high octane number of methane means that dual-fuel combustion strategies can be employed on compression ignition engines without the need to vary the engine compression ratio, thereby significantly reducing the cost of engine hardware modifications. The aim of this investigation is to explore the fundamental combustion phenomena occurring when methane is ignited with a pilot injection of diesel fuel. Experiments were performed on a single-cylinder optical research engine which is typical of modern, light-duty diesel engines. A high-speed digital camera recorded time-resolved combustion luminosity and an intensified CCD camera was used for single-cycle OH*chemiluminescence imaging.
Technical Paper

Modeling of a Thermal Management Platform of an Automotive D.I Diesel Engine to Predict the Impact of Downsizing and Hybridization during a Cold Start

2014-04-01
2014-01-0657
Thermal management is a key issue to minimize fuel consumption while dealing with pollutant emissions. It paves the way for developing new methods and tools in order to assess the effects of warm up phase with different drivetrains architectures and to define the most suitable solution to manage oil and coolant temperatures. DEVICE (Downsized hybrid Diesel Engine for Very low fuel ConsumptIon and CO2 Emissions) project consists in designing hybrid powertrain to cut off significantly CO2 emissions. It combines a 2-cylinder engine with an electric motor and a 7-gear dual clutch transmission. Hybridization and downsizing offer a great improvement of fuel economy and it is valuable to study their effects on thermal management. Hence, a dedicated AMESim platform is developed to model the fluids temperatures as well as the energy balance changes due to the powertrain architecture.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Bore-to-Stroke Ratio on a Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0065
The more and more severe regulations on exhaust emissions from vehicles and the worldwide demand for fuel consumption reduction impose continuous improvements of the engine thermal efficiency. Base engine geometrical setups are important aspects which have to be taken into account to improve the engine efficiency. This paper discusses the influence of the bore-to-stroke ratio on emissions, fuel consumption and full load performances of a Diesel engine. The expected advantage of a reduced bore-to-stroke ratio is mainly a decrease of the thermal losses, due to a higher volume-to-surface ratio, reducing the wall surfaces, responsible for the heat losses, per volume of gas. The advantages concerning the wall heat losses are opposed to the disadvantages of lower volumetric efficiency, as a smaller bore requires smaller valve diameter. Additionally does a reduction of the bore-to-stroke ratio lead to an increase of the friction losses, as the mean piston speed increases.
Book

Hybrid Vehicles

2013-07-01
The fast growth in world population and the associated energy requirements, the announced depletion of fossil fuel resources, the continuing rise in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with the induced climatic changes represent some of the major challenges to be taken up in the coming decades. Hybridization, therefore, typically represents a transition technology which can significantly improve the energy and environmental performance of current vehicles, without radically changing their use typologies, while opening the way to new propulsion modes for the longer term. It is nevertheless a complex subject requiring a multidisciplinary approach. This book, which is intended to be exhaustive, considers the vehicle, its components, their association and their control, as well as the global balances determined over the vehicle lifetime.
Technical Paper

Optimal Online Energy Management for Diesel HEV: Robustness to Real Driving Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1471
This paper addresses the robustness of an optimal online energy management for diesel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Optimal strategy is based on the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS). Optimal torque split between engine and electric motor is found by minimizing fuel consumption and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) emissions. Online adaptation is made in order to ensure battery charge sustainability and good driveability when driving conditions are unknown. The strategy is tested in simulation over one hundred driving cycles representative of real-world conditions. Results obtained with the online strategy are compared with those of an offline optimal strategy (knowing the driving cycle a priori). Even if a slight degradation is noticed in comparison to optimal case, fuel economy and NOx reduction - provided by hybridization - are conserved with the online strategy.
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