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Technical Paper

Simulation Techniques for Determining Motorcycle Controllability Class according to ISO 26262

2018-10-30
2018-32-0060
The ISO 26262 standard specifies the requirement for functional safety of electrical and electronic systems within road vehicles. We have accumulated case studies based on actual riding tests by subjective judgment of expert riders to define a method for determining the controllability class (C class). However, the wide variety of practical traffic environments and vehicle behaviors in case of malfunction make it difficult to evaluate all C classes in actual running tests. Furthermore, under some conditions, actual riding tests may cause unacceptable risks to test riders. In Part 12 Annex C of ISO/DIS 26262, simulation is cited as an example of a technique for comprehensive evaluations by the Controllability Classification Panel. This study investigated the usefulness of mathematical simulations for evaluating the C class of a motorcycle reproducing a malfunction in either the front or rear brakes.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Measurements of HNCO Hydrolysis over SCR Catalyst

2018-09-10
2018-01-1764
To meet the strict emission regulations for diesel engines, an advanced processing device such as a Urea-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system is used to reduce NOx emissions. The Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test, which is implemented in the European Union, will expand the range of conditions under which the engine has to operate [1], which will lead to the construction of a Urea-SCR system capable of reducing NOx emissions at lower and higher temperature conditions, and at higher space velocity conditions than existing systems. Simulations are useful in improving the performance of the urea-SCR system. However, it is necessary to construct a reliable NOx reduction model to use for system design, which covers the expanded engine operation conditions. In the urea-SCR system, the mechanism of ammonia (NH3) formation from injected aqueous urea solution is not clear. Thus, it is important to clarify this mechanism to improve the NOx reduction model.
Technical Paper

Simplifying the Structural Design of the Advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor for Use in Standardized Testing

2018-04-03
2018-01-1049
The advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor (aPLI) incorporates a number of enhancements for improved lower limb injury prediction capability with respect to its predecessor, the FlexPLI. The aPLI also incorporates a simplified upper body part (SUBP), connected to the lower limb via a mechanical hip joint, that expands the impactor’s applicability to evaluate pedestrian’s lower limb injury risk also in high-bumper cars.As the aPLI has been developed to be used in standardized testing, further considerations on the impactor’s manufacturability, robustness, durability, usability, and repeatability need to be accounted for.. The aim of this study is to define and verify, by means of numerical analysis, a battery of design modifications that may simplify the manufacturing and use of physical aPLIs, without reducing the impactors’ biofidelity. Eight candidate parameters were investigated in a two-step numerical analysis.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of White Smoke Generation Derived from Hydrocarbons Accumulations on Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2018-04-03
2018-01-0641
White smoke emission is observed at the tailpipe of diesel vehicles when unburned hydrocarbons (HCs) are adsorbed on a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) under low exhaust gas temperature. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of white smoke emission derived from HCs, and to reduce emission levels. First, the components of HCs and the particle size distribution of white smoke emission were analyzed. It was clarified that semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) and water are condensed around soluble organic fraction and the order of particle size in white smoke is submicron scale. Additionally, the correlation between the behavior of white smoke emission and the amount/quality of HCs adsorbed on a DOC were investigated by examining the change of zeolite content in the DOC. It was found that the heavy HCs ratio in adsorbed HCs on DOC increases with a decrease in zeolite content when DOC inlet gas temperature is 120 °C.
Technical Paper

Optimal Specifications for the Advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor

2017-11-13
2017-22-0014
This study addresses the virtual optimization of the technical specifications for a recently developed Advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor (aPLI). The aPLI incorporates a number of enhancements for improved lower limb injury predictability with respect to its predecessor, the FlexPLI. It also incorporates an attached Simplified Upper Body Part (SUBP) that enables the impactor’s applicability to evaluate pedestrian’s lower limb injury risk also with high-bumper cars. The response surface methodology was applied to optimize both the aPLI’s lower limb and SUBP specifications, while imposing a total mass upper limit of 25 kg that complies with international standards for maximum weight lifting allowed for a single operator in the laboratory setting. All parameters were virtually optimized considering variable interaction, which proved critical to avoid misleading specifications.
Technical Paper

ISO 26262 C Class Evaluation Method for Motorcycles by Expert Riders Incorporating Technical Knowledge Obtained from Actual Riding Tests

2017-11-05
2017-32-0057
In applying the ISO 26262 controllability classification for motorcycles in actual riding tests, a subjective evaluation by expert riders is considered to be the appropriate approach from the viewpoint of safety. We studied the construction of an expert-rider-based C class evaluation method for motorcycles and developed some evaluation test cases reproducing various hazardous events. We determined that it was necessary to accumulate more evaluation cases for further representative scenarios and that, to avoid variations in such evaluations, a method in which different expert riders can carry out testing following a common understanding had to be devised. Considering these problems for practical application, this study aimed at establishing an actual riding test method for C class evaluation by expert riders and to develop a deeper understanding of test procedures and management.
Technical Paper

Detailed Study of Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment of ISO 26262 for Motorcycles

2017-11-05
2017-32-0083
ISO 26262, an international functional safety standard of electrical and/or electronic systems (E/E systems) for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011 and it is expected that the scope will be extended to motorcycles in a second edition of ISO 26262 going to be published in 2018. ISO/DIS 26262 second edition published in 2016 has Part 12 as a new part in order to apply ISO 26262 to motorcycle. Proper estimation of Exposure, Controllability, and Severity in accordance with ISO/DIS 26262 Part 12, are key factors to determine Motorcycle Safety Integrity Level. To estimate precise these factors, there would be a case that it might not be appropriate to apply studies done for passenger car to motorcycle, and it would be necessary to apply motorcycle specific knowledge and estimation methods. In our previous studies we clarified these motorcycle specific issues and studied the method for the adaptation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Spray Feature Injected by Tailpipe Injector for Aftertreatment of Diesel Engine Emissions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2373
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is a very effective aftertreatment device to limit particulate emissions from diesel engines. As the amount of soot collected in the DPF increases, the pressure loss increases. Therefore, DPF regeneration needs to be performed. Injected fuel into the exhaust line upstream of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), hydrocarbons are oxidized on the DOC, which increases the exhaust gas temperature at the DPF inlet. It is also necessary that the injected fuel is completely vaporized before entering the DOC, and uniformly mixed with the exhaust gases in order to make the DOC work efficiency. However, ensuring complete evaporation and an optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line are challenging. Therefore, it is important that the fuel spray feature is grasped to perform DPF regeneration effectively. The purpose of this study is the constructing a simulation model.
Journal Article

Prediction of Spray Behavior in Injected by Urea SCR Injector and the Reaction Products

2017-10-08
2017-01-2375
In the urea SCR system, urea solution is injected by injector installed in the front stage of the SCR catalyst, and NOx can be purified on the SCR catalyst by using NH3 generated by the chemical reaction of urea. NH3 is produced by thermolysis of urea and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid after evaporation of water in the urea solution. But, biuret and cyanuric acid which may cause deposit are sometimes generated by the chemical reactions without generating NH3. Spray behavior and chemical reaction of urea solution injected into the tail-pipe are complicated. The purpose of this study is to reveal the spray behavior and NH3 generation process in the tail-pipe, and to construct the model capable of predicting those accurately. In this report, the impingement spray behavior is clarified by scattered light method in high temperature flow field. Liquid film adhering to the wall and deposit generated after evaporation of water from the liquid film are photographed by the digital camera.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of International Variations in Diesel Spray Combustion with Evaporation Surrogate and Virtual Species Conversion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0582
A methodology for simulating effect of international variations in fuel compositions on spray combustion is proposed. The methodology is validated with spray combustion experiments with real fuels from three different countries. The compositions of those fuels were analyzed through GC×GC and H-NMR. It was found that ignition delay times, flame region and flame luminosity were significantly affected by the compositional variations. For the simulation, an evaporation surrogate consisting of twenty two species, covering basic molecular types and a wide range of carbon numbers, is developed. Each species in the evaporation surrogate is then virtually converted to a reaction surrogate consisting of n-hexadecane, methylcyclohexane and 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene so that combustion reactions can be calculated with a published kinetic model. The virtual species conversion (VSC) is made so as to take over combustion-related properties of each species of evaporation surrogates.
Technical Paper

Research on Severity Class Evaluation Based on Various Crash Situations Involved with Motorcycles for ISO 26262

2016-11-08
2016-32-0057
ISO 26262 was established in 2011 as a functional safety standard for road vehicles. This standard provides safety requirements according to ASIL (Automotive Safety Integrity Level) in order to avoid unreasonable residual risk caused by malfunctioning behavior of electrical and/or electronic systems. The ASIL is determined by considering the estimate of three factors including injury severity. While applicable only to passenger cars at present, motorcycles will be included in the scope of application of ISO 26262 in the next revision. Therefore, our previous study focused on severity class evaluation for motorcycles. A method of classifying injury severity according to vehicle speed was developed on the basis of accident data. In addition, a severity table for motorcycles was created using accident data in representative collision configurations involved with motorcycles in Japan.
Journal Article

Examination of Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment and Exposure Research in the Real Traffic Situation of ISO 26262 for Motorcycles

2016-11-08
2016-32-0058
ISO 26262, an international functional safety standard of electrical and/or electronic systems (E/E systems) for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011 and it is expected that the scope will be extended to motorcycles in a second edition of ISO 26262 going to be published in 2018. In order to apply ISO 26262 to motorcycle, proper estimation of Exposure, Controllability, and Severity are key factors to determine Motorcycle Safety Integrity Level (MSIL). Exposure is a factor to indicate the probability of the state of an operational situation that can be hazardous with the E/E system malfunction. And it is not easy to estimate the motorcycle Exposure due to less availability of back ground data in actual operational situation compared to motor vehicle. Therefore real traffic situation should be investigated in order to provide rationales for MSIL determination.
Journal Article

Construction of an ISO 26262 C Class Evaluation Method for Motorcycles

2016-11-08
2016-32-0059
For applying ISO 26262 to motorcycles, controllability classification (C class evaluation) by expert riders is considered an appropriate technique. Expert riders have evaluated commercial product development for years and can appropriately conduct vehicle tests while observing safety restrictions (such as avoiding the risk of falling). Moreover, expert riders can ride safely and can stably evaluate motorcycle performance even if the test conditions are close to the limits of vehicle performance. This study aims to construct a motorcycle C class evaluation method based on an expert rider’s subjective evaluation. On the premise that expert riders can rate the C class, we improved a test procedure that used a subjective evaluation sheet as the concrete C class evaluation method for an actual hazardous event.
Technical Paper

ISO 26262 Controllability Evaluation Technique by Expert Riders

2015-11-17
2015-32-0746
Controllability (C class) represents the level of the ability to avoid harm and is one of the parameters that determine the Automotive Safety Integrity Level in the ISO 26262 functional safety standard, which applies to the electrical and/or electronic systems. This study aimed to consider an appropriate C class evaluation technique for expert riders in applying ISO 26262 to motorcycles. This study attempted to show a C class evaluation method without deviation by the riders and presented examples of the evaluation of three hazardous events in actual vehicle tests. In addition, riders' comments regarding their understanding of the circumstances that resulted in the evaluation were collected, and the correspondence of these comments was examined. We selected “unintended acceleration” or “unintended deceleration” due to the malfunction of the electronic throttle control system as hazard examples and conducted tests to reproduce hazardous events.
Journal Article

Research on Method for Classifying Injury Severity Using Motorcycle Accident Data for ISO 26262

2015-11-17
2015-32-0714
ISO 26262 was established in 2011 as a functional safety standard for passenger cars. In this standard, ASILs (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) representing safety levels for passenger cars are determined by evaluating the hazardous events associated with each item constituting an electrical and/or electronic safety-related system according to three evaluation criteria including injury severity. On the other hand, motorcycles will be included in the scope of application of ISO 26262 in the next revision. It is expected that a severity evaluation for motorcycles will be needed because motorcycles are clearly different from passenger cars in vehicle mass and structure. Therefore, this study focused on severity class evaluation for motorcycles. A method of classifying injury severity according to vehicle speed was developed on the basis of accident data.
Journal Article

Examination of the Validity of Connections between MSILs and ASILs in the Functional Safety Standard for Motor Vehicles

2015-11-17
2015-32-0794
ISO 26262, a functional safety standard for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. Although motorcycles are not included in the scope of application of the current edition of ISO 26262, it is expected that motorcycles will be included in the next revision. However, it is not appropriate to directly apply automotive safety integrity levels (ASILs) to motorcycles because the situation of usage in practice presumably differs between motorcycles and motor vehicles. In our previous study, we newly defined safety integrity levels for motorcycles (MSILs) and proposed that the levels of MSILs should correspond to levels one step lower than those of ASILs; however, we did not investigate the validity of their connections. Accordingly, in this research, we validated the connections. We defined the difference of levels of SILs between motorcycles and motor vehicles as the difference of target values of random hardware failure rates specified in ISO 26262-5.
Technical Paper

Validation of Vibration Test for Lithium-ion Battery Pack in Electric Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1195
To verify the appropriateness of the vibration test conditions of ISO 12405, we performed tailoring to derive power spectrum densities and test durations as vibration test conditions. Vehicles used for tailoring included two electric vehicles and one plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Those vehicles were equipped with accelerometers and were run on seven different road types at different speeds while data on the acceleration of the battery packs were recorded. The power spectrum densities for three axes that were derived from the obtained acceleration data were similar in form to the power spectrum densities of ISO 12405, and almost the same root mean square accelerations were obtained, confirming that they are appropriate. However, both experiments and theory suggest that the test duration for the Z-axis exceeds those of the X- and Y-axes.
Journal Article

Influence of the Upper Body of Pedestrians on Lower Limb Injuries and Effectiveness of the Upper Body Compensation Method of the FlexPLI

2015-04-14
2015-01-1470
Current legform impact test methods using the FlexPLI have been developed to protect pedestrians from lower limb injuries in collisions with low-bumper vehicles. For this type of vehicles, the influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb is compensated by setting the impact height of the FlexPLI 50 mm above that of pedestrians. However, neither the effectiveness of the compensation method of the FlexPLI nor the influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb of a pedestrian has been clarified with high-bumper vehicles. In this study, therefore, two computer simulation analyses were conducted in order to analyze: (1) The influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb of a pedestrian when impacted by high-bumper vehicles and (2) The effectiveness of the compensation method for the lack of the upper body by increasing impact height of the FlexPLI for high-bumper vehicles.
Technical Paper

Study on Haptic Maneuver Guidance by Periodic Knocks on Accelerator Pedal

2015-03-10
2015-01-0039
This study proposes a method for presenting maneuver request information of accelerator pedal to a driver via the accelerator pedal itself. By applying periodic force like vibration on an accelerator pedal, information is transferred to the driver without displacing the accelerator pedal. In this study, the authors focus on a saw-tooth wave as the periodic force. When the saw-tooth-waved force is applied on the accelerator pedal, a human driver feels as if the accelerator pedal is knocked by someone periodically. In addition, information about the quantity of requested maneuver can be transferred by the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave. Based on these facts, the saw-tooth wave is modified and optimized empirically with ten human drivers so that the information of direction is transferred most reliably. In addition, the relationship between the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave and requested quantity of the pedal maneuver that the drivers feel is formulated.
Technical Paper

Basic Characteristics of Motorcycle Riding Maneuvers of Expert Riders and Ordinary Riders

2014-11-11
2014-32-0025
ISO26262 was intended only for passenger cars but can be applied to motorcycles if the Controllability (C) is subjectively evaluated by expert riders. Expert riders evaluate motorcycle performance from the viewpoint of ordinary riders. However, riding maneuvers of ordinary riders have not been confirmed by objective data. For this reason, it is important to understand the basic characteristics of riding maneuvers of both expert and ordinary riders. This study seeks to confirm the compatibility between the riding maneuvers of expert riders and those of ordinary riders. The riding maneuvers and vehicle behavior of four expert riders and 16 ordinary riders were compared using the results of a test assuming normal running.
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