Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 20 of 20
Technical Paper

Simplifying the Structural Design of the Advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor for Use in Standardized Testing

2018-04-03
2018-01-1049
The advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor (aPLI) incorporates a number of enhancements for improved lower limb injury prediction capability with respect to its predecessor, the FlexPLI. The aPLI also incorporates a simplified upper body part (SUBP), connected to the lower limb via a mechanical hip joint, that expands the impactor’s applicability to evaluate pedestrian’s lower limb injury risk also in high-bumper cars.As the aPLI has been developed to be used in standardized testing, further considerations on the impactor’s manufacturability, robustness, durability, usability, and repeatability need to be accounted for.. The aim of this study is to define and verify, by means of numerical analysis, a battery of design modifications that may simplify the manufacturing and use of physical aPLIs, without reducing the impactors’ biofidelity. Eight candidate parameters were investigated in a two-step numerical analysis.
Technical Paper

Optimal Specifications for the Advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor

2017-11-13
2017-22-0014
This study addresses the virtual optimization of the technical specifications for a recently developed Advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor (aPLI). The aPLI incorporates a number of enhancements for improved lower limb injury predictability with respect to its predecessor, the FlexPLI. It also incorporates an attached Simplified Upper Body Part (SUBP) that enables the impactor’s applicability to evaluate pedestrian’s lower limb injury risk also with high-bumper cars. The response surface methodology was applied to optimize both the aPLI’s lower limb and SUBP specifications, while imposing a total mass upper limit of 25 kg that complies with international standards for maximum weight lifting allowed for a single operator in the laboratory setting. All parameters were virtually optimized considering variable interaction, which proved critical to avoid misleading specifications.
Technical Paper

Research on Severity Class Evaluation Based on Various Crash Situations Involved with Motorcycles for ISO 26262

2016-11-08
2016-32-0057
ISO 26262 was established in 2011 as a functional safety standard for road vehicles. This standard provides safety requirements according to ASIL (Automotive Safety Integrity Level) in order to avoid unreasonable residual risk caused by malfunctioning behavior of electrical and/or electronic systems. The ASIL is determined by considering the estimate of three factors including injury severity. While applicable only to passenger cars at present, motorcycles will be included in the scope of application of ISO 26262 in the next revision. Therefore, our previous study focused on severity class evaluation for motorcycles. A method of classifying injury severity according to vehicle speed was developed on the basis of accident data. In addition, a severity table for motorcycles was created using accident data in representative collision configurations involved with motorcycles in Japan.
Journal Article

Research on Method for Classifying Injury Severity Using Motorcycle Accident Data for ISO 26262

2015-11-17
2015-32-0714
ISO 26262 was established in 2011 as a functional safety standard for passenger cars. In this standard, ASILs (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) representing safety levels for passenger cars are determined by evaluating the hazardous events associated with each item constituting an electrical and/or electronic safety-related system according to three evaluation criteria including injury severity. On the other hand, motorcycles will be included in the scope of application of ISO 26262 in the next revision. It is expected that a severity evaluation for motorcycles will be needed because motorcycles are clearly different from passenger cars in vehicle mass and structure. Therefore, this study focused on severity class evaluation for motorcycles. A method of classifying injury severity according to vehicle speed was developed on the basis of accident data.
Journal Article

Influence of the Upper Body of Pedestrians on Lower Limb Injuries and Effectiveness of the Upper Body Compensation Method of the FlexPLI

2015-04-14
2015-01-1470
Current legform impact test methods using the FlexPLI have been developed to protect pedestrians from lower limb injuries in collisions with low-bumper vehicles. For this type of vehicles, the influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb is compensated by setting the impact height of the FlexPLI 50 mm above that of pedestrians. However, neither the effectiveness of the compensation method of the FlexPLI nor the influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb of a pedestrian has been clarified with high-bumper vehicles. In this study, therefore, two computer simulation analyses were conducted in order to analyze: (1) The influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb of a pedestrian when impacted by high-bumper vehicles and (2) The effectiveness of the compensation method for the lack of the upper body by increasing impact height of the FlexPLI for high-bumper vehicles.
Technical Paper

Assessment Method of Effectiveness of Passenger Seat Belt Reminder

2012-04-16
2012-01-0050
Seat belts for rear passengers are not commonly used, even though they can significantly reduce fatalities. A passenger seat belt reminder (PSBR) is installed in order to encourage seat belt use, but the effectiveness of PSBRs on the rear seat passenger has not yet been proven. We have developed a methodology to assess PSBR effectiveness. There are two pathways to encourage seat belt use. The first is that PSBR directly facilitates the passenger's use. The second is to motivate the driver request passengers to use seat belts. In the experiment, we asked participants sitting in the driver's seat to select one of five ranks of likelihood to encourage the passenger when a PSBR was presented. We also asked participants sitting in the rear passenger seat to select the rank of likelihood to use the belt voluntarily with PSBR and that to use the belt when the driver requested. The degree of likelihood was quantified by averaging the assigned percentage values to the ranks.
Technical Paper

Whole-Body Response to Pure Lateral Impact

2010-11-03
2010-22-0014
The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 ± 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband.
Technical Paper

Injury Pattern and Response of Human Thigh under Lateral Loading Simulating Car-Pedestrian Impact

2004-03-08
2004-01-1603
The main objective of the present study is to determine experimentally the injury patterns and response of the human thigh in lateral impacts simulating more closely the real impact conditions in car-pedestrian accidents. We conducted in-vitro experiments on thirteen thighs of eight completely intact Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHSs). The thigh was hit by a ram at a speed of 35 km/h at the mid-shaft of the femur in each completely intact PMHS. Since the effect of cumulative injuries should be avoided, each thigh was impacted only once. Three impact energies were used; 450J, 600J and 700J. The PMHS motion was not constrained so as to simulate the walking posture of a pedestrian. We analyzed the peak values of the impact force of the ram and the femur acceleration. Injury was assessed by dissecting the lower extremities.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Foot FE Model Based on the Movement of Bones during Heel Impact

2004-03-08
2004-01-0313
Frontal vehicle collisions often result in foot injury of the front seat occupant. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanism of the foot injury. For that purpose, several impact experiments have been conducted using a partial human lower extremity. In addition, recently several impact response analyses using a human FE model have been conducted to understand the mechanism. In the present circumstances, a verified FE model is needed, and the verification of kinematical biofidelity is very important in the first place. In this connection, a foot FE model (based on an existing human FE model) was improved to create a foot FE model, which can be used for study of foot injury mechanism in this research. And the kinematics of foot bones of the model was verified by comparing the bone movements of the FE model with the movement of human foot during heel impact.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Passenger Compartment Strength in Car-to-Car Frontal Crashes

2003-03-03
2003-01-0909
The strength of the passenger compartment is crucial for occupant safety in severe car-to-car frontal offset collisions. Car-to-car crash tests including minicars were carried out, and a low end of crash force was observed in a final stage of impact for cars with large intrusion into the passenger compartment. From overload tests, the strength could be evaluated from collapsing the passenger compartment. Based on the test, the end of crash force as well as the maximum forces might be important criteria to determine the passenger compartment strength, which in turn could predict the large intrusion into the passenger compartment in car-to-car crashes. A 64 km/h ODB test was insufficient to evaluate the potential strength of the passenger compartment because the maximum forces could not be determined in this test.
Technical Paper

Injury Pattern and Tolerance of Human Pelvis Under Lateral Loading Simulating Car-pedestrian Impact

2003-03-03
2003-01-0165
Numerous studies of pelvic tolerance to lateral impact aimed at protecting car occupants have been conducted on Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHSs) in a sitting posture. However, it remains unclear whether or not the results of these studies are relevant when evaluating the injury risk to walking pedestrians impacted by a car. Therefore, the first objective of the present study is to determine the injury tolerance and to describe the injury mechanisms of the human pelvis in lateral impacts simulating car-pedestrian accidents. The second objective is to obtain data for validation of mathematical models of the pelvis. In-vitro experiments were conducted on twelve PMHSs in simulated standing position. The trochanter of each PMHS was hit by a ram at speed of 32 km/h, and the pelvic motion was constrained by a bolt. This type of pelvic constraint is difficult to simulate in mathematical models.
Technical Paper

J-NCAP: Today and tomorrow

2001-06-04
2001-06-0157
The New Car Assessment Program in Japan (JNCAP) was launched in 1995 in order to improve car safety performance. According to this program, installation conditions of safety devices and the results for braking performance and full- frontal crash tests are published every year. Introduction of JNCAP significantly increases the installation rate of safety devices and contributes much in enhancement of safety as seen in the decrease in the average injury severity of drivers and passengers. Side impact and offset frontal crash tests were introduced in 1999 and 2000, respectively. At present, the overall crash safety rating is carried out based on the results of the full-frontal, offset frontal, and side impact tests.
Technical Paper

JNCAP: Developing overall rating protocol

2001-06-04
2001-06-0156
The Japan New Car Assessment Program (JNCAP) was launched in 1995 in order to improve car safety performance. According to this program, installation conditions of safety devices and the results for braking performance and full- frontal crash test are published every year. The side impact test was introduced in 1999. In 2000, the offset frontal crash test was also introduced. From the viewpoint of such a diversification of the crash tests, an overall assessment method for the safety of cars which reflects road accidents has been demanded. In this study, we have examined a new overall assessment method capable of reflecting the traffic accident situation in Japan using methods employed or planned by USA-NCAP, Euro-NCAP, TUB-NCAP and others as references. As the basic concept, JNCAP conducts three types of crash tests including the full-frontal crash test, offset frontal crash test, and side impact test to assess the dummy injury parameters.
Technical Paper

Japanese research activity on future side impact test procedures

2001-06-04
2001-06-0155
This paper summarizes a future side impact test procedure based on the Japanese presentation at the recent IHRA Side Impact WG meeting. Under current Japanese regulations, the MDB specifications and test procedures were determined based on a market study more than ten years ago. Thus, they may not reflect current automobile characteristics, the actual accident situation, and crash test results. In this study (1) the vehicle types, velocity of striking and struck vehicles, body injury regions, causes of injuries, etc., are reviewed with reference to the latest Japanese side impact accident data. The occupant percentages for the non-struck-side, rear seat and for female occupants as well as the injury levels were analyzed. (2) To determine the MDB specifications, based on data from passenger car models registered in 1998, the curb mass, geometry and stiffness were examined. (3) For factorial analysis, side impact tests were performed as for real accidents.
Technical Paper

Test procedures to evaluate vehicle compatibility

2001-06-04
2001-06-0240
Test procedures for evaluating vehicle compatibility were investigated based on accident analysis and crash tests. This paper summarizes the research reported by Japan to the IHRA Compatibility Working Group. Passenger cars account for the largest share of injuries in head-on collisions in Japan and were identified as the first target for tackling vehicle compatibility in Japan. To ascertain situations in collisions between vehicles of different sizes, we conducted crash tests between minicars and large cars, and between small cars and large cars. The deformation and acceleration of the minicar and small car is greater than that of large car. ODB, Overload and MDB tests were performed as procedures for evaluating vehicle compatibility. In overload tests, methods to evaluate the strength of the passenger compartment were examined, and it is found that this test procedure is suitable for evaluating the strength of passenger compartments.
Technical Paper

Research on bus passenger safety in frontal impacts

2001-06-04
2001-06-0210
Guidelines with regard to the body strength of buses have been drawn up in Japan. We now pass to the second step in research to assure the greater safety of bus crews and passengers by launching a study on further reduction of collision injuries to bus occupants. As a way to reduce such passenger injuries, our focus is the optimization of energy absorption, the arrangement of equipment on the passenger seat back, the seat frame construction, mounting and so on. The study was conducted using an experimental method together with FEM computer simulation. The findings from a sled impact test simulating a seat in a bus in a frontal collision are stated as follows. 1.Further consideration should be given to the present conventional ELR two-point seat belt. 2.One way to reduce passenger injury is to optimize the space between seats.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of the Finite Element Model for the Human Lower Limb of Pedestrians

2000-11-01
2000-01-SC22
An impact test procedure with a legform addressing lower limb injuries in car-pedestrian accidents has been proposed by EEVC/WG17. Although a high frequency of lower limb fractures is observed in recent accident data, this test procedure assesses knee injuries with a focus on trauma to the ligamentous structures. The goal of this study is to establish a methodology to understand injury mechanisms of both ligamentous damages and bone fractures in car-pedestrian accidents. A finite element (FE) model of the human lower limb was developed using PAM-CRASH™. The commercially available H-Dummy™ lower limb model developed by Nihon ESI for a seated position was modified to represent the standing posture of pedestrians. Mechanical properties for both bony structures and knee ligaments were determined from our extensive literature survey, and were carefully implemented in the model considering their strain rate dependency in order to simulate the dynamic response of the lower limb accurately.
Technical Paper

Development of Simulation Model and Pedestrian Dummy

1999-03-01
1999-01-0082
Honda has been studying ways of improving vehicle design to reduce the severity of pedestrian injury. Full-scale test using a pedestrian dummy is an important way to assess the aggressiveness of a vehicle to pedestrians. However, from test results it is concluded that current pedestrian dummies have stiffer characteristics than Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS). Also, the dummy kinematics during a collision is different from that of a human body. Because of the limitations of current dummies, it was decided to develop a new pedestrian dummy. At the first stage of the project, a computer simulation model that represented the PMHS tests was developed. Joint characteristics obtained from the simulation model were used in building a new pedestrian dummy which has been named Polar I. The advanced frontal crash test dummy, known as Thor, was selected as the base dummy. Modifications were made for the thorax, spine, knee etc.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Impact Responses of the Sid-Iis Small Side Impact Dummy

1998-05-31
986149
A series of side impact tests have been conducted to evaluate the biofidelity of the latest prototype of a small side impact dummy, SID-II s β+(plus). The tests were lateral impacts for the thorax, shoulder, and pelvis, as well as lateral drops for the head, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. The test data were compared to the response target corridors that were estimated by scaling the cadaver test data to a smaller occupant. The test results show that the head, should, thorax, abdomen and pelvis of the SID-II s β+ either completely or close to meets the response target corridors, and that its biofidelity has been improved from the previous dummy SID II s B-prototype.
Technical Paper

A Study of Motorcycle Leg Protection

1985-01-01
856126
Researchers concerned with motorcycle occupant protection have attempted to develop ways to protect the motorcycle occupant from injury. In the hope of finding a means to protect the motorcycle occupant's lower extremities, the authors have investigated past research, designed a device that incorporates an energy-absorbing component, tested the device in a series of collisions with automobiles, and performed an analysis of the test results to assess the merits of the new device. Results show that although the device may under certain circumstances reduce lower leg injuries, there may be increased potential for upper leg, chest, and head injuries
X