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Technical Paper

Study on Haptic Maneuver Guidance by Periodic Knocks on Accelerator Pedal

This study proposes a method for presenting maneuver request information of accelerator pedal to a driver via the accelerator pedal itself. By applying periodic force like vibration on an accelerator pedal, information is transferred to the driver without displacing the accelerator pedal. In this study, the authors focus on a saw-tooth wave as the periodic force. When the saw-tooth-waved force is applied on the accelerator pedal, a human driver feels as if the accelerator pedal is knocked by someone periodically. In addition, information about the quantity of requested maneuver can be transferred by the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave. Based on these facts, the saw-tooth wave is modified and optimized empirically with ten human drivers so that the information of direction is transferred most reliably. In addition, the relationship between the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave and requested quantity of the pedal maneuver that the drivers feel is formulated.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Controllability Based on Driver Behavior - A Case of Insufficient Brake-Assist Force

Controllability (C) is the parameter that determines the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) of each hazardous event based on an international standard of electrical and/or electronic systems within road vehicles (ISO 26262). C is classified qualitatively in ISO 26262. However, no specific method for classifying C is described. It is useful for C classification to define a specific classification based on objective data. This study assumed that C was classified using the percentage of drivers who could reduce Severity (S) in one or more classes compared with the S class in which the driver did not react to a hazardous event. An experiment simulated a situation with increased risk of collision with a leading vehicle due to insufficient brake force because of brake-assist failure when the experiment vehicle decelerated from 50 km/h on a straight road.
Technical Paper

Assessment Method of Effectiveness of Passenger Seat Belt Reminder

Seat belts for rear passengers are not commonly used, even though they can significantly reduce fatalities. A passenger seat belt reminder (PSBR) is installed in order to encourage seat belt use, but the effectiveness of PSBRs on the rear seat passenger has not yet been proven. We have developed a methodology to assess PSBR effectiveness. There are two pathways to encourage seat belt use. The first is that PSBR directly facilitates the passenger's use. The second is to motivate the driver request passengers to use seat belts. In the experiment, we asked participants sitting in the driver's seat to select one of five ranks of likelihood to encourage the passenger when a PSBR was presented. We also asked participants sitting in the rear passenger seat to select the rank of likelihood to use the belt voluntarily with PSBR and that to use the belt when the driver requested. The degree of likelihood was quantified by averaging the assigned percentage values to the ranks.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Commuter Concept Car “C-ta”

It is becoming more and more necessary to achieve a sustainable low-carbon society by mobility not depending on oil. Electric vehicles are appropriate for such a society, but expensive battery cost and long charging time prohibit the promotion of EVs. One of the solutions is minimizing battery usage by ultra-low fuel efficiency, so we developed an ultrahigh-efficient electric commuter concept car “C-ta”, which requires as small a battery as possible. We assumed that drivers would use the car as a second car for short-distance daily use, such as commuting, shopping, transportation of family, etc. In order to improve fuel efficiency, we mainly considered an ultra-light weight body and chassis, to which CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) greatly contributes, ultra-low rolling resistance tires, and highly accurate vehicle control technology with four in-wheel motors.
Technical Paper

Establishing Localized Fire Test Methods and Progressing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 11 years. In the past couple of years, significant attention has been directed toward a revision to the standard for vehicular hydrogen systems, SAE J2579(1). In addition to streamlining test methodologies for verification of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Systems (CHSSs) as discussed last year,(2) the working group has been considering the effect of vehicle fires, with the major focus on a small or localized fire that could damage the container in the CHSS and allow a burst before the Pressure Relief Device (PRD) can activate and safely vent the compressed hydrogen stored from the container.
Technical Paper

Empirical Approach to Risk Factors in Rear End Collisions at Intersections - Effect of Lead Vehicle Behaviour on Premature Decisions of the Following Driver -

Naturalistic driving data has been accumulated by driving data recorders to understand factors that contribute to collisions. Among the rear end conflicts at signalized intersections in the data, conflict data between the following vehicles and suddenly stopping lead vehicles were frequently observed just after their start. To investigate the following drivers' behavior in a realistic driving situation without collision danger, an instrumented vehicle equipped with a liquid-crystal display ahead of the windshield was developed, and an experiment reproducing such conflict on the display was conducted. It was found that a lead vehicle's rapid start (2.8 m/s₂ on average) before quitting its right turn caused the following vehicle's brake reaction time to be longer than a slow start (0.8 m/s₂ on average) did. This result suggests that a following driver's premature decision to start rapidly increases the risk of rear end collisions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Alcohol Fuels on Fuel-Line Materials of Gasoline Vehicles

In 1999, some Japanese fuel suppliers sold highly concentrated alcohol fuels, which are mixtures of gasoline and oxygenates, such as alcohol or ether, in amounts of 50% or more. In August 2001, it was reported that some vehicle models using the highly concentrated alcohol fuels encountered fuel leakage and vehicle fires due to corrosion of the aluminum used for the fuel-system parts. The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Government of Japan (MLIT) jointly established the committee on safety for highly concentrated alcohol fuels in September 2001. The committee consisted of automotive technology and metal corrosion experts knowledgeable about preventing such accidents and ensuring user safety. Immersion tests were conducted on metals and other materials used for the fuel-supply system parts to determine the corrosion resistance to each alcohol component contained in the highly concentrated alcohol fuels.
Technical Paper

Effects of Hands-free Phone Conversation on Visual Behavior: Dissociation of Binocular Gaze Point as an Index of Inattention

Effects of hands-free phone conversations on drivers' visual behavior and detection performance were examined using a gaze-tracking device and fixed-based driving simulator. The participants engaged in various conversation tasks (simple/arithmetic/unconstrained) while following a lead vehicle. The results indicated that hands-free-phone conversations, even if the contents are not subjectively demanding, can affect a driver's visual behavior. The increment of binocular gaze dissociation induced by conversing on a phone indicates that a driver's attention is diverted from the external scenery to the conversation. Furthermore, this observed dissociation of binocular gaze may represent a resting position, which is revealed only when binocular fusion is disrupted by occluding one eye.
Technical Paper

Energy Absorption Properties of FRP tube under Commission Load

Tapered FRP tubes have high-energy absorption performance under axial compressive load. FRP will be useful for structural material of a shock absorber in the various industries. And in order to simulate the behavior of this material, several experimental tests and numerical simulations using FEM have been carried out recently. However, it is still difficult to simulate the behavior of tapered FRP tubes involving so called “Progressive Crushing” with FEM properly, because the fracture mechanism contains various kinds of fractures such as delamination, fiber fracture and so on. In this study, we proposed a specially designed FEM model based that is useful for the crush-worthiness analysis of FRP tube.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study and Clarification of Determination Factors of Diesel Exhaust Emission Using a Single Cylinder Engine and Model Fuels - JCAP Combustion Analysis Working Group Report Part I

Single cylinder engine testing was carried out to clearly understand the test results of multi-cylinder engines reported by the Diesel WG in JCAP (Japan Clean Air Program) (1), (2), (3) and (4). In this tests, engine specifications such as fuel injection pressure, nozzle hole diameter, turbo-charging pressure, EGR rate, and fuel properties such as 1-, 2-, 3-ring aromatics content, n-,i-paraffins content, and T90 were parametrically changed and their influence on the emissions were studied. PM emission generally increased in each engine condition with increased aromatic contents and T90. In particular, multi ring aromatics brought about large increases in PM regardless of the engine conditions. The influence of fuel properties on NOx emission is smaller than the influence on PM emission. Some other fuels that have various side chain structures of 1-ring aromatics, normal paraffins only and various naphthene contents were also investigated.
Technical Paper

J-NCAP: Today and tomorrow

The New Car Assessment Program in Japan (JNCAP) was launched in 1995 in order to improve car safety performance. According to this program, installation conditions of safety devices and the results for braking performance and full- frontal crash tests are published every year. Introduction of JNCAP significantly increases the installation rate of safety devices and contributes much in enhancement of safety as seen in the decrease in the average injury severity of drivers and passengers. Side impact and offset frontal crash tests were introduced in 1999 and 2000, respectively. At present, the overall crash safety rating is carried out based on the results of the full-frontal, offset frontal, and side impact tests.
Technical Paper

Traffic accidents in rural area and assistance system for traffic safety

An investigation based on human visual search functions was conducted into the causative factors of traffic accidents at clear intersections in rural areas. The results indicated that it is difficult for drivers to detect a vehicle traveling on a collision course because the vehicle remains in the same position in the driver's visual field. Two systems are introduced to assist drivers' visual searches. One system uses an image processing technique, and the other utilizes DGPS and IVC techniques. This paper presents the development of the assistance system.
Technical Paper

JamaS Study on the Location of In-Vehicle Displays

JAMA (Japan Automobile Manufactures Association, Inc.)'s guideline for car navigation systems is being decided on displayed the amount of information while driving. The position of a display and the estimated equation, which could be applied from a passenger car to a heavy truck, was studied. The evaluation index was the distance which drivers could become aware of a preceding vehicle by their peripheral vision, because car accidents while drivers glance at an in- vehicle display are almost the rear end collisions. As the results, the lower limit of a position of an in-vehicle display for a passenger car was 30 degrees, and a heavy truck was 46 degrees.
Technical Paper

Development of an Intersection Collision Warning System Using DGPS

In this paper, an intersection collision warning system using DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) will be proposed. The system is developed to prevent collisions of vehicles crossing at intersections, especially at well visibility intersections without traffic lights. Two GPS receivers are installed on two vehicles on the move towards the same intersection from different directions. The position and velocity information of the vehicles are measured by on-board GPS receivers, and then transmitted from one vehicle to another by inter-vehicle communication (IVC). Therefore, the relative position and direction of each vehicle and collision judgment coefficient (CJC) which is defined by using the relative position of vehicles are calculated. After taking the crossing position of directions and the variation of CJC into account, the position of the intersection and the possibility of collision can be predicted in advance. Warning will be given to drivers with a prearranged timing.
Technical Paper

Data Processing Method of Finger Blood Pulse for Estimating Human Internal States

It was found that the finger blood pulse shows various fluctuations in different driving conditions. The nature of the finger blood pulse fluctuations was used for estimating a driver's internal state. Indexes suitable for expressing the fluctuations were moment and density; these indexes were calculated by using a return-map. However these results were measured by an off-line system and were calculated after the experiment. So, an on-line (real-time) system was needed in order to construct a driver's internal state monitoring system. As a first step, an online system for estimating the human internal state was developed. This system is available for estimating the human internal state every 30 seconds.