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Technical Paper

An Optimization of Suspension Linkages for Wheel-Legged Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0167
The guiding mechanism of vehicle suspension can keep the wheels moving along planned trajectory. The geometrical design of the reasonable suspension guide mechanism can reduce the vibration transmitted to the body, improve trafficability and handling stability. The vehicle suspension design method was applied to the wheel-legged vehicle, enhancing ride performance. The optimization of suspension hard points can be obtained by using single variable method, adjusting each hard point coordinate independently. It is also widely recommended by using intelligent algorithm to solve well-designed multi-objective parameter optimization function. In this study, the multi-objective parameter optimization function was solved by using the NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm-II). Computer simulations with half-car model were used to support the analysis in this study. ADAMS multibody dynamics software was also used to verify the reliability of the results.
Technical Paper

Aeroelastic Response and Structural Improvement for Heavy-Duty Truck Cab Deflectors

2019-01-14
2019-01-5004
Numerical simulations on the fluid-structure interaction were conducted using commercial software STAR-CCM+ and ABAQUS. The aeroelastic responses of a deflector under several different working conditions were simulated utilizing finite volume and finite element methods to investigate the aeroelastic problem of automotive deflectors. Results showed that the structural response of a top deflector is minimal under the influence of aerodynamics given its large structural stiffness. The size of the top deflector was optimised by using thickness as a variable. The volume and quality of the top deflector were significantly reduced, and its lightweight performance was improved to satisfy the stiffness performance requirement. The vibration of a side deflector structure was mainly induced by the turbulence on the structure surface. The amplitude of vibration was small and the vibration gradually converged in a few seconds without obvious regularity.
Technical Paper

Automatic Drive Train Management System for 4WD Vehicle Based on Road Situation Identification

2018-04-03
2018-01-0987
The slip ratio of vehicle driving wheels is easily beyond a reasonable range in the complex and changeable driving conditions. In order to achieve the adaptive acceleration slip regulation of four-wheel driving (4WD) vehicle, a fuzzy control strategy of Automatic Drive Train Management (ADM) system based on road situation identification was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the influence on the control strategy of ADM system was analyzed from two aspects, which included the different road adhesion coefficients and the vehicle’s ramp driving state. In the meantime several quantitative expressions of relevant control parameters were derived. Secondly, the fuzzy logic control algorithm was adopted to design a road situation identification subsystem and a ramp driving state identification subsystem respectively. The former was based on the μ-S curve model, and the latter was based on the vehicle driving equilibrium equation.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Torque Feedback Device for Driving Simulator Based on MR Fluid and Coil Spring Structure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0689
Since steering wheel torque feedback is one of the crucial factors for drivers to gain road feel and ensure driving safety, it is especially important to simulate the steering torque feedback for a driving simulator. At present, steering wheel feedback torque is mainly simulated by an electric motor with gear transmission. The torque response is typically slow, which can result in drivers’ discomfort and poor driving maneuverability. This paper presents a novel torque feedback device with magnetorheological (MR) fluid and coil spring. A phase separation control method is also proposed to control its feedback torque, including spring and damping torques respectively. The spring torque is generated by coil spring, the angle of coil spring can be adjusted by controlling a brushless DC motor. The damping torque is generated by MR fluid, the damping coefficient of MR fluid can be adjusted by controlling the current of excitation coil.
Technical Paper

Personalized Adaptive Cruise Control Considering Drivers’ Characteristics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0591
In order to improve drivers’ acceptance to advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) with better adaptation, drivers’ driving behavior should play key role in the design of control strategy. Adaptive cruise control systems (ACC) have many factors that can be influenced by different driving behavior. It is important to recognize drivers’ driving behavior and take human-like parameters to the adaptive cruise control systems to assist different drivers effectively via their driving characteristics. The paper proposed a method to recognize drivers’ behavior and intention based on Gaussian Mixture Model. By means of a fuzzy PID control method, a personalized ACC control strategy was designed for different kinds of drivers to improve the adaptabilities of the systems. Several typical testing scenarios of longitudinal case were created with a host vehicle and a traffic vehicle.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamics of Open Wheel Racing Car in Pitching Position

2018-04-03
2018-01-0729
Formula One (F1) racing cars are often running at high-speed with the pitching angle changing frequently due to road conditions. These pitching angle changes result in changes to the car’s aerodynamic characteristics that will directly affect handling stability and other performance factors including safety. This paper takes a F1 racing car as the model; the influence of the change of pitching angle on aerodynamic drag force and lift force are investigated. CFD code-PowerFLOW based LBM is used to simulate the aerodynamic characteristics with different pitching angles. The distribution of aerodynamic coefficients, velocity and pressure in the flow field are obtained; and the differences between different pitching angles were analyzed. The results show that as the pitching angle increases, the drag force increases and the lift force decreases. The down-force of the car is mainly supplied by the front wing and the rear wing.
Technical Paper

A Multi-mode Control Strategy for EV Based on Typical Situation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0438
A multitude of recent studies are suggestive of the EV as a paramount representative of the NEV, its development direction is transformed from “individuals adapt to vehicles” to “vehicles serve for occupants”. The multi-mode drive control technology is relatively mature in traditional auto control sphere, however, a host of EV continues to use a single control strategy, which lacks of flexibility and diversity, little if nothing interprets the vehicle performances. Furthermore, due to the complex road environment and peculiarity of vehicle occupants that different requirement has been made for vehicle performance. To solve above problems, this paper uses the key technology of mathematical statistics process in MATLAB, such as the mean, linear fitting and discrete algorithms to clean up, screening and classification the original data in general rules, and based on short trips in the segments of kinematics analysis method to establish a representative of quintessential driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Commercial Vehicles Thrust Rod Static and Dynamic Characteristics Analysis

2016-10-17
2016-01-2345
In order to study the static and dynamic characteristics of the thrust rod. Based on the multi-body dynamics theory, the dynamic model of the thrust rod and the vehicle system is established by using ADAMS software. The limit braking condition is simulated, and the limit braking load of the thrust rod is obtained. Thrust rod finite element model is established, the load calculation value and rubber test data as a finite element analysis of input conditions, using ABAQUS software to carry on the stiffness and strength analysis, analysis results show that the strength meets the requirement, and the stiffness and strength calculation result is in good agreement with the sample test, accurately describes the finite element model. The analytical method used can be used to predict the stiffness of the thrust rod.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Control of Vehicle Chassis Planar Stability Based on T-S Fuzzy Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0471
In the past decades, the stability of vehicles has been improved significantly by use of variety of chassis control systems such as Antilock Braking System (ABS), Electric Stability Program (ESP) and Active Front Steering (AFS). Recently, in order to further improve the performance of vehicles, more and more researches are focused on the integration control of multiple degrees of freedom of vehicle dynamic. However, in order to control multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously, the nonlinear problems caused by the coupling between different degrees of freedom have to be solved, which is always a difficult task. In this paper, a three-degrees-of-freedom single track vehicle model, in which some nonlinear terms are considered, is built firstly. Then, the nonlinear model is processed by the fuzzy technique and the T-S fuzzy model is designed.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Suspension System of Self-Dumping Truck Using TOPSIS-based Taguchi Method Coupled with Entropy Measurement

2016-04-05
2016-01-1385
This study presents a hybrid optimization approach of TOPSIS-based Taguchi method and entropy measurement for the determination of the optimal suspension parameters to achieve an enhanced compromise among ride comfort, road friendliness which means the extent of damage exerted on the road by the vehicles, and handling stabilities of a self-dumping truck. Firstly, the full multi-body dynamic vehicle model is developed using software ADAMS/Car and the vehicle model is then validated through ride comfort road tests. The performance criterion for ride comfort evaluation is identified as root mean square (RMS) value of frequency weighted acceleration of cab floor, while the road damage coefficient is used for the evaluation of the road-friendliness of a whole vehicle. The lateral acceleration and roll angle of cab were defined as evaluation indices for handling stability performance.
Journal Article

Prediction of Automotive Ride Performance Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and Fuzzy Clustering

2015-06-15
2015-01-2260
Artificial intelligence systems are highly accepted as a technology to offer an alternative way to tackle complex and non-linear problems. They can learn from data, and they are able to handle noisy and incomplete data. Once trained, they can perform prediction and generalization at high speed. The aim of the present study is to propose a novel approach utilizing the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and the fuzzy clustering method for automotive ride performance estimation. This study investigated the relationship between the automotive ride performance and relative parameters including speed, spring stiffness, damper coefficients, ratios of sprung and unsprung mass. A Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy inference system associated with artificial neuro network was employed. The C-mean fuzzy clustering method was used for grouping the data and identifying membership functions.
Technical Paper

Research on Roll Vibration Characteristics of a Truck's Front Suspension

2015-04-14
2015-01-0635
For the roll vibration problem of a Truck, a 4-DOF roll vibration model of its front suspension system was built. According to dynamics theory, the complex modal vibration modes of the model were all obtained. At the same time, the frequency response functions of frame roll angle acceleration, the relative dynamic load of wheel and the suspension dynamic deflection were respectively presented. Then their characteristics were respectively researched. In the process of characteristic analysis, a new system parameter was proposed, which is the space ratio of the space between suspensions of left and right sides and the wheel track of the front axle (space ratio in short). At last, the influence of system parameters on the vibration transmission property was also reserached, which included the natural frequency of the frame, the damping ratio, the stiffness ratio, the mass ratio, the rotational inertia ratio and the space ratio.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Vehicle Ride Comfort and Handling Stability Based on TOPSIS Method

2015-04-14
2015-01-1348
A detailed multi-body dynamic model of a passenger car was modeled using ADAMS/Car and then checked by the ride comfort and handling stability test results in this paper. The performance criterion for ride comfort evaluation was defined as the overall weighted acceleration root mean square (RMS) value of car body floor, while the roll angle and lateral acceleration of car body were considered as evaluation indicators for handling stability performance. Simultaneously, spring stiffness and shock absorber damping coefficients of the front and rear suspensions were taken as the design variables (also called factors), which were considered at three levels. On this basis, a L9 orthogonal array was employed to perform the ride and handling simulations.
Technical Paper

Chassis Tuning Study of a Commercial Vehicle

2015-03-10
2015-01-0016
This paper presents the study of chassis tuning of a commercial vehicle, which has a rear suspension with dual stage leaf spring assembly and a front suspension with double wishbone torsion bar. To balance the handling and ride performance of the vehicle, it is necessary to tune the key suspension parameters of the chassis including the dual stage stiffness of the leaf spring, the contact load of the leaf spring, the torsional rigidity of the torsion bar, the force curve of the front and rear dampers etc. The chassis tuning process of a physical commercial vehicle was first put forward. In the proposed flowchart, the kinematics and statics of front & rear suspensions were checked at the beginning of the tuning. Then the tire mechanical characteristics were tested by using a plate-type tire tester and the inertial parameters of the vehicle were indirectly measured. The K&C characteristics of front and rear suspensions were also tested and compared with the benchmark vehicle's.
Technical Paper

Improving Light Bus Handling and Stability by Anti-roll Bar and Bushing Adjustment

2015-03-10
2015-01-0026
In order to improve the handling and stability of a light bus at high speed, a virtual model was established in Adams-Car and its anti-roll bar and bushing parameters were virtually optimized. The tyre mechanical characteristics were firstly tested by using a plate-type tyre tester and the Magic Formula parameters of the tyre were obtained. Then the virtual bus model's handling performance were studied by the simulation of central steering test and steady static circular test. An optimal matching method was put forward. By using genetic algorithm to conduct optimization, the optimised parameters were obtained. After that the anti-roll bar and bushing samples were respectively manufactured. At last, the comparative trials were performed in an automotive proving ground, and the subjective evaluation of the light bus's handling and stability was taken by three specialized assessors.
Technical Paper

One Calculation Method of the Contact Load of a Two-Level Variable Stiffness Suspension

2015-03-10
2015-01-0042
This paper presented one calculation method of the contact load, which is the load acted on the spring at the moment when the second-level stiffness of the spring just begins to work. In the proposed method, the contact load calculation mainly based on the dynamic load of the unsprung mass and the road grades and the commonly driving speed were also considered. A semiempirical formula of the contact load was put forward. Then the contact load of the commercial bus's rear suspension was respectively calculated by using the proposed formula and traditional methods(geometric mean method and average load method) to compare each other and to verify the new method. Later, the spring samples were respectively manufactured based on the calculation results. At last, the validation tests were respectively performed in an automotive proving ground.
Technical Paper

Study on Dynamic Characteristics and Control Methods for Drive-by-Wire Electric Vehicle

2014-09-30
2014-01-2291
A full drive-by-wire electric vehicle, named Urban Future Electric Vehicle (UFEV) is developed, where the four wheels' traction and braking torques, four wheels' steering angles, and four active suspensions (in the future) are controlled independently. It is an ideal platform to realize the optimal vehicle dynamics, the marginal-stability and the energy-efficient control, it is also a platform for studying the advanced chassis control methods and their applications. A centralized control system of hierarchical structure for UFEV is proposed, which consist of Sensor Layer, Identification and Estimation Layer, Objective Control Layer, Forces and Motion Distribution Layer, Executive Layer. In the Identification and Estimation Layer, identification model is established by utilizing neural network algorithms to identify the driver characteristics. Vehicle state estimation and road identification of UFEV based on EKF and Fuzzy Logic Control methods is also conducted in this layer.
Technical Paper

Calculation and Analysis of Stiffness of Taper-Leaf Spring with Variable Stiffness

2014-04-01
2014-01-0929
Aiming at the difficulty of sovling the stiffness calculation of taper-leaf spring with variable stiffness, a combined method was proposed, which combine superposition method and finite difference method. Then the calculation results of different differential segments were compared with experimental results. The compared results show that the proposed method is effective and simple. So it has some practical significance in designing the taper-leaf spring. In addition, based on the stiffness test of the taper-leaf spring, the proper adjustments to the correction factor of the single parabolic leaf spring stiffness formula was recommended(ξ =0.92-0.96).
Journal Article

Analysis of Performance Parameters of Torsional Vibration Damper Under Various Operating Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1488
The performance parameters of torsional vibration damper, including stiffness and damping, have great influence on the torsional vibration of automobile driveline. At present, the research on torsional vibration damper mainly concentrates on the torsional stiffness, but rarely on the torsional damping characteristics. This paper systematically studied the effect of torsional stiffness and damping on torsional vibration of automobile driveline under uniform speed conditions, accelerated and decelerated conditions, idling conditions and resonance conditions. The requirements on stiffness and damping of various operating conditions were summarized. The effect and requirements researched were useful to performance match design of torsional vibration damper.
Journal Article

Objective Evaluation of Interior Sound Quality in Passenger Cars Using Artificial Neural Networks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1704
In this research, the interior noise of a passenger car was measured, and the sound quality metrics including sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were calculated. An artificial neural network was designed to successfully apply on automotive interior noise as well as numerous different fields of technology which aim to overcome difficulties of experimentations and save cost, time and workforce. Sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were estimated by using the artificial neural network designed by using the experiment values. The predicted values and experiment results are compared. The comparison results show that the realized artificial intelligence model is an appropriate model to estimate the sound quality of the automotive interior noise. The reliability value is calculated as 0.9995 by using statistical analysis.
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