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Technical Paper

Catalyst-Based BS VI Stage 2 Emission Control Solutions for Light Duty Diesel

Various types of after-treatment system for BS VI Stage 1 are being assessed for the Light Duty Diesel (LDD) segment. For BS VI Stage 2, Real Driving Emission (RDE) assessment will be newly introduced, which will require more robustness in emission control system capability. Although the detailed requirements for India BS VI stage 2 are still being discussed, a reasonable assumption is that similar systems to those being developed for Euro 6d, will work for India BS VI. This paper describes typical system designs for Euro 6d and also reveals newly developed SCRF® (Selective Catalytic Reduction Filter) based systems, which demonstrate excellent RDE emissions. In addition, newly developed Lean NOx Trap (NSC) coatings, which focus on low temperature NOx control used with SCRF® (NSC + SCRF®) also show excellent emission control capability as demonstrated in this case on the ARTEMIS Cycle. These systems have potential as promising LDD solutions for India BS VI stage 2.
Journal Article

New Methodology for Transient Engine Rig Experiments for Efficient Parameter Tuning

When performing catalyst modeling and parameter tuning it is desirable that the experimental data contain both transient and stationary points and can be generated over a short period of time. Here a method of creating such concentration transients for a full scale engine rig system is presented. The paper describes a valuable approach for changing the composition of engine exhaust gas going to a DOC (or potentially any other device) by conditioning the exhaust gas with an additional upstream DOC and/or SCR. By controlling the urea injection and the DOC bypass a wide range of exhaust compositions, not possible by only controlling the engine, could be achieved. This will improve the possibilities for parameter estimation for the modeling of the DOC.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Thermal Degradation on the Performance of a NOX Storage/Reduction Catalyst

The performance characteristics of a commercial lean-NOX trap catalyst were evaluated between 200 and 500°C, using H2, CO, and a mixture of both H2 and CO as reductants before and after different high-temperature aging steps, from 600 to 750°C. Tests included NOX reduction efficiency during cycling, NOX storage capacity (NSC), oxygen storage capacity (OSC), and water-gas-shift (WGS) and NO oxidation reaction extents. The WGS reaction extent at 200 and 300°C was negatively affected by thermal degradation, but at 400 and 500°C no significant change was observed. Changes in the extent of NO oxidation did not show a consistent trend as a function of thermal degradation. The total NSC was tested at 200, 350 and 500°C. Little change was observed at 500°C with thermal degradation but a steady decrease was observed at 350°C as the thermal degradation temperature was increased.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Metallic Substrate Design for Close Coupled Converter Application

The implementations of the Tier 2 and LEVII emission levels require fast catalyst light-off and fast closed loop control through high-speed engine management. The paper describes the development of innovative catalyst designs. During the development thermal and mechanical boundary conditions were collected and component tests conducted on test rigs to identify the emission and durability performance. The products were evaluated on a Super Imposed Test Setup (SIT) where thermal and mechanical loads are applied to the test piece simultanously and results are compared to accelerated vehicle power train endurance runs. The newly developed light-off catalyst with Perforated Foil Technology (PE) showed superior emission light-off characteristic and robustness.
Technical Paper

Final Operability and Chassis Emissions Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Trucks Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

Six 2001 International Class 6 trucks participated in a project to determine the impact of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (DPFs) on emissions and operations from December 2003 through August 2004. The vehicles operated in Southern California and were nominally identical. Three vehicles operated “as-is” on California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices. Three vehicles were retrofit with Johnson Matthey CCRT® (Catalyzed Continuously Regenerating Technology) filters and fueled with Shell GTL Fuel. Two rounds of emissions tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer over the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) and the New York City Bus (NYCB) cycle. The CARB-fueled vehicles served as the baseline, while the GTL-fueled vehicles were tested with and without the CCRT filters. Results from the first round of testing have been reported previously (see 2004-01-2959).
Technical Paper

Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-To-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT™ diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made. Bench scale fuel-engine compatibility testing showed the GTL fuel had cold flow properties suitable for year-round use in southern California and was additized to meet current lubricity standards. Bench scale elastomer compatibility testing returned results similar to those of CARB specification diesel fuel. The GTL fuel met or exceeded ASTM D975 fuel properties. Researchers used a chassis dynamometer to test emissions over the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) and New York City Bus (NYCB) cycles.
Technical Paper

FTP and US06 Performance of Advanced High Cell Density Metallic Substrates as a Function of Varying Air/Fuel Modulation

The influence of catalyst volume, cell density and precious metal loading on the catalyst efficiency were investigated to design a low cost catalyst system. In a first experiment the specific loading was kept constant for a 500cpsi and a 900cpsi substrate. In a second experiment the palladium loading was reduced on the 900cpsi substrate and the same PM loading was applied to a 1200cpsi substrate with lower volume. Finally the loading was further reduced for the 1200cpsi substrate. The following parameters were studied after aging: Catalyst performance of standard cell density compared to high cell density technology Light-off performance and catalyst efficiency as a function of Palladium loading and substrate cell density Catalyst efficiency as a function of AFR biasing The performance of the aged catalysts was investigated in a lambda sweep test and in light-off tests at an engine bench.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Three-Way Catalysts that Enable Low PGM Loadings for Future Mercosur Emissions Legislation

This paper describes the development of new high performance three-way catalyst (TWC) formulations with improved activity and enhanced thermal stability. These new TWC formulations enable the converter to be fitted closer to the engine and allow this future legislation to be met with catalysts using PGM levels significantly lower than those currently being employed. The performance benefits of these advanced platinum- and palladium-based catalysts are demonstrated on a number of different vehicles after bench-engine ageing.
Technical Paper

Investigations into NOx Aftertreatment with Urea SCR for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

Future US emissions limits are likely to mean a sophisticated nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction technique is required for all vehicles with a diesel engine, which is likely to be either NOx trap or selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology. To investigate the potential of SCR for NOx reduction on a light duty vehicle, a current model vehicle (EUII M1 calibration), of inertia weight 1810 kg, was equipped with an urea-based SCR injection system and non-vanadium, non-zeolitic SCR catalysts. To deal with carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and volatile organic fraction (VOF), a diesel oxidation catalyst was also incorporated into the system for most tests. Investigations into the effect of placing the oxidation catalyst at different positions in the system, changing the volume of the SCR catalysts, increasing system temperature through road load changes, varying the SCR catalyst composition, and changing the urea injection calibration are discussed.
Technical Paper

High Performance Advanced Three-way Catalysts For The Proposed 2004 And 2008 Mercosur Emissions Standards

Recently, significantly more demanding emissions standards for the Mercosur region were proposed, and the intention is that these will be introduced in 2004 and 2008. This paper describes the development of new high performance three-way catalyst formulations for conventional gasoline/gasohol fueled engines that enables them to meet these stringent standards without increasing the content of platinum group metals above the levels currently employed. The performance benefits of these advanced platinum and palladium-based catalysts are demonstrated on both engine bench and vehicles.
Technical Paper

Research Results and Progress in LeaNOx II -A Co-operation for Lean NOx Abatement

In a consortium of European industrial partners and research institutes, a combination of industrial development and scientific research was organised. The objective was to improve the catalytic NOx conversion for lean burn cars and heavy-duty trucks, taking into account boundary conditions for the fuel consumption. The project lasted for three years. During this period parallel research was conducted in research areas ranging from basic research based on a theoretical approach to full scale emission system development. NOx storage catalysts became a central part of the project. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to resistance towards sulphur poisoning. It was concluded that very low sulphur fuel is a necessity for efficient use of NOx trap technology. Additionally, attempts were made to develop methods for reactivating poisoned catalysts. Methods for short distance mixing were developed for the addition of reducing agent.
Technical Paper

Reduction of NOx in Lean Exhaust by Selective NOx-Recirculation (SNR-Technique) Part I: System and Decomposition Process

The SNR-technique is a new NOx aftertreatment system for lean burn gasoline and diesel applications. The objective of SNR is NOx removal from lean exhaust gas by NOx adsorption and subsequent selective external recirculation and decomposition of NOx in the combustion process. The SNR-project is composed of two major parts. Firstly the development of NOx adsorbents which are able to store large quantities of NOx in lean exhaust gas, and secondly the NOx decomposition by the combustion process. Emphasis of this paper is the investigation of NOx reduction in the combustion process, including experimental investigation and numerical simulation. The NOx decomposition process has been proven in diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines. Depending on the type of engine NOx-conversion rates up to 90 % have been observed. Regarding the complete SNR-system, including the efficiency of the adsorbing material and the NOx decomposition by the combustion, a NOx removal of more than 50% is achievable.
Technical Paper

Performance of Different Cell Structure Converters A Total Systems Perspective

The objective of this effort was to develop an understanding of how different converter substrate cell structures impact tailpipe emissions and pressure drop from a total systems perspective. The cell structures studied were the following: The catalyst technologies utilized were a new technology palladium only catalyst in combination with a palladium/rhodium catalyst. A 4.0-liter, 1997 Jeep Cherokee with a modified calibration was chosen as the test platform for performing the FTP test. The experimental design focused on quantifying emissions performance as a function of converter volume for the different cell structures. The results from this study demonstrate that the 93 square cell/cm2 structure has superior performance versus the 62 square cell/cm2 structure and the 46 triangle cell/cm2 structure when the converter volumes were relatively small. However, as converter volume increases the emissions differences diminish.
Technical Paper

Reduction of NOx in Lean Exhaust by Selective NOx-Recirculation (SNR-Technique) Part II: NOx Storage Materials

Selective NOx recirculation (SNR), involving adsorption, selective external recirculation and decomposition of the NOx by the combustion process, is itself a promising technique to abate NOx emissions. Three types of materials containing Ba: barium aluminate, barium tin perovskite and barium Y-zeolites have been developed to adsorb NOx under lean-burn or Diesel conditions, with or without the presence of S02. All these materials adsorb NO2 selectively (lean-burn conditions), and store it as nitrate/nitrite species. The desorption takes place by decomposition of these species at higher temperatures. Nitrate formation implies also sulfate formation in the presence of SO2 and SO3, while the NO2/SO2 competition governs the poisoning of such catalysts.
Technical Paper

Effect of a Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Filter on Non-Regulated Emissions and Particle Size Distribution

The reduction of particulate emissions from diesel engines is one of the most challenging problems associated with exhaust pollution control, second only to the control of NOx from any “lean burn” application. Particulate emissions can be controlled by adjustments to the combustion parameters of a diesel engine but these measures normally result in increased emissions of oxides of nitrogen. Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) hold out the prospect of substantially reducing regulated particulate emissions and the task of actually removing the particles from the exhaust gas has been solved by the development of effective filtration materials. The question of the reliable regeneration of these filters in situ, however, remains a difficult hurdle. Many of the solutions proposed to date suffer from high engineering complexity and/or high energy demand. In addition some have special disadvantages under certain operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flow Distribution on Emissions Performance of Catalytic Converters

The emissions performance of catalytic converters under different conditions of flow distribution was investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics methods were utilised to model the maldistribution effects of different inlet cones. The effects of maldistribution on ageing, light-off and conversion were investigated using steady state tests on an engine bench. Emission testing was also conducted on a vehicle throughout ECE and EUDC test cycles. Maldistribution was found to have a significant effect on the efficiency of the catalyst during the early stages of the ECE cycle for both fresh and aged catalysts. The effects were less significant over later stages of the ECE cycle and throughout the EUDC except NOx where maldistribution did have an effect on the conversion at higher flow rates during the later stages of the test.
Technical Paper

Ambient Temperature Light-off Aftertreatment System for Meeting ULEV Emission Standards

It has long been recognized that the key to achieving stringent emission standards such as ULEV is the control of cold-start hydrocarbons. This paper describes a new approach for achieving excellent cold-start hydrocarbon control. The most important component in the system is a catalyst that is highly active at ambient temperature for the exothermic CO oxidation reaction in an exhaust stream under net lean conditions. This catalyst has positive order kinetics with respect to CO for CO oxidation. Thus, as the concentration of CO in the exhaust is increased, the rate of this reaction is increased, resulting in a faster temperature rise over the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Thermally Stable Pt/Rh Catalysts

The increasing severity in emission standards around the world has been accompanied by the development of more active, durable catalysts. With a view to investigating the effects of high thermal aging on the catalyst performance and structure, the relationships of washcoat composition, washcoat structure, and PGM location with respect to catalyst activity were clarified using a model gas test, as well as physical and chemical characterization methods. The influence of newly developed washcoat components and PGM location on catalyst performance are also demonstrated by engine bench tests. The results obtained in this study indicate the newly developed Pt/Rh catalyst techologies are appropriate for future applications in which the catalyst will be exposed to extremely high temperature and flowrates.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Fuel Sulfur Level on FTP Emissions - Effect of PGM Catalyst Type

With the advent of stricter vehicle emission standards, the improvement of three way catalyst performance and durability remains a pressing issue. A critical consideration in catalyst design is the potential for variations in fuel sulfur levels to have a significant impact on the ability to reach TLEV, LEV, and ULEV emission levels. As a result, a better understanding of the role of PGM composition in the interplay between thermal durability and sulfur tolerance is required. Three way catalysts representative of standard Pd-only, Pd/Rh and Pt/Rh formulations were studied over a variety of aging and evaluation conditions. The parameters investigated included aging temperature, air fuel ratio and sulfur level. Evaluations were performed on a 1994 TLEV vehicle using different sulfur level fuels. The effect of PGM loading was also included within the study.
Technical Paper

Comparison of De-NOx and Adsorber Catalysts to Reduce NOx - Emissions of Lean Burn Gasoline Engines

A comparison of two different types of NOx reducing catalysts will be worked out. The potential of two De-NOx catalysts using engine out hydrocarbon emissions for NOx conversion will be shown by variation of different engine parameters. An analysis of the hydrocarbon species upstream and downstream catalyst will demonstrate, which components are responsible for the NOx reduction in the exhaust gas of a lean burn engine. By variation of different parameters during adsorbtion and regeneration phases of the adsorber catalyst the efficiency in NOx reduction will be optimized. An assessment of the suitability for lean burn engines will consider the emission reduction efficiency as well as the influence on engine fuel consumption.