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Technical Paper

A Study into the Impact of Engine Oil on Gasoline Particulate Filter Performance through a Real-World Fleet Test

2019-04-02
2019-01-0299
Increasingly stringent vehicle emissions legislation is being introduced throughout the world, regulating the allowed levels of particulate matter emitted from vehicle tailpipes. The regulation may prove challenging for gasoline vehicles equipped with modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology, owing to their increased levels of particulate matter production. It is expected that gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) will soon be fitted to most vehicles sold in China and Europe, allowing for carbonaceous particulate matter to be effectively captured. However, GPFs will also capture and accumulate non-combustible inorganic ash within them, mainly derived from engine oil. Studies exist to demonstrate the impact of such ash on GPF and vehicle performance, but these commonly make use of accelerated ash loading methods, which themselves introduce significant variation.
Technical Paper

On-Vehicle Fuel Cut Testing for Gasoline Particulate Filter Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0968
With the introduction of a stringent particulate number (PN) limit and real driving emission (RDE) requirements, gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are widely adopted for gasoline engines in Europe and China. The filter collects soot and ash. Like in diesel applications, the collected soot will continuously burn under favorable exhaust conditions. However, at extreme conditions, there could be large amounts of soot build-up, which may induce a highly exothermal event, potentially damaging the filter. Thus, it is important to understand what drives the over-heating in application, and develop counter measures. In this study, an on-vehicle fuel cut (FC) testing procedure was developed. The testing was conducted on two vehicles, one gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicle and one multiple port injection (MPI) vehicle, with different exhaust systems designs (a close coupled GPF and an under floor GPF) and catalyst coating levels (bare and heavily coated GPFs).
Technical Paper

Catalyst-Based BS VI Stage 2 Emission Control Solutions for Light Duty Diesel

2019-01-09
2019-26-0141
Various types of after-treatment system for BS VI Stage 1 are being assessed for the Light Duty Diesel (LDD) segment. For BS VI Stage 2, Real Driving Emission (RDE) assessment will be newly introduced, which will require more robustness in emission control system capability. Although the detailed requirements for India BS VI stage 2 are still being discussed, a reasonable assumption is that similar systems to those being developed for Euro 6d, will work for India BS VI. This paper describes typical system designs for Euro 6d and also reveals newly developed SCRF® (Selective Catalytic Reduction Filter) based systems, which demonstrate excellent RDE emissions. In addition, newly developed Lean NOx Trap (NSC) coatings, which focus on low temperature NOx control used with SCRF® (NSC + SCRF®) also show excellent emission control capability as demonstrated in this case on the ARTEMIS Cycle. These systems have potential as promising LDD solutions for India BS VI stage 2.
Journal Article

New Methodology for Transient Engine Rig Experiments for Efficient Parameter Tuning

2013-12-20
2013-01-9043
When performing catalyst modeling and parameter tuning it is desirable that the experimental data contain both transient and stationary points and can be generated over a short period of time. Here a method of creating such concentration transients for a full scale engine rig system is presented. The paper describes a valuable approach for changing the composition of engine exhaust gas going to a DOC (or potentially any other device) by conditioning the exhaust gas with an additional upstream DOC and/or SCR. By controlling the urea injection and the DOC bypass a wide range of exhaust compositions, not possible by only controlling the engine, could be achieved. This will improve the possibilities for parameter estimation for the modeling of the DOC.
Journal Article

Vehicular Emissions in Review

2013-04-08
2013-01-0538
This review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies (light-duty, heavy-duty, gasoline, diesel) in 2012. First, the paper covers the key regulatory developments in the field, including finalized criteria pollutant tightening in California; and in Europe, the development of real-world driving emissions (RDE) standards. The US finalized LD (light-duty) greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation for 2017-25. The paper then gives a brief, high-level overview of key developments in LD and HD engine technology, covering both gasoline and diesel. Marked improvements in engine efficiency are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations. HD engines are just starting to demonstrate 50% brake thermal efficiency. NOx control technologies are then summarized, including SCR (selective catalytic reduction) with ammonia, and hydrocarbon-based approaches.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Thermal Degradation on the Performance of a NOX Storage/Reduction Catalyst

2009-04-20
2009-01-0631
The performance characteristics of a commercial lean-NOX trap catalyst were evaluated between 200 and 500°C, using H2, CO, and a mixture of both H2 and CO as reductants before and after different high-temperature aging steps, from 600 to 750°C. Tests included NOX reduction efficiency during cycling, NOX storage capacity (NSC), oxygen storage capacity (OSC), and water-gas-shift (WGS) and NO oxidation reaction extents. The WGS reaction extent at 200 and 300°C was negatively affected by thermal degradation, but at 400 and 500°C no significant change was observed. Changes in the extent of NO oxidation did not show a consistent trend as a function of thermal degradation. The total NSC was tested at 200, 350 and 500°C. Little change was observed at 500°C with thermal degradation but a steady decrease was observed at 350°C as the thermal degradation temperature was increased.
Journal Article

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2009-04-20
2009-01-0121
This summary covers representative developments from 2008 in diesel regulations, engine technology, and NOx, particulate matter (PM), and hydrocarbon (HC) control. Europe is finalizing the Euro VI heavy-duty (HD) regulations for 2013 with the intent of technologically harmonizing with the US. A new particle number standard will be adopted. California is considering tightening the light-duty fleet average to US Tier 2 Bin 2 levels, and CO2 mandates are emerging in Europe for LD, and in the US for all vehicles. LD engine technology is focused on downsizing to deliver lower CO2 emissions, enabled by advances in boost and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation). Emerging concepts are shown for attaining Bin 2 emission levels. HD engines will make deNOx systems optional for even the tightest NOx standards, but deNOx systems enable much lower fuel consumption levels and will likely be used. NOx control is centered on SCR (selective catalytic reduction) for diverse applications.
Journal Article

Impact of Ceramic Substrate Web Thickness on Emission Light-Off, Pressure Drop, and Strength

2008-04-14
2008-01-0808
The effect of web thickness on emission performance, pressure drop, and mechanical properties was investigated for a series of catalyzed ceramic monolith substrates having cell densities of 900, 600 and 400 cpsi. As expected, thinner webs provide better catalyst light off performance and lower pressure drop, but mechanical strength generally decreases as web thickness is reduced. Good correlations were found between emission performance and geometric parameters based on bare and coated parts. An improved method for estimating the effects of cell density and web thickness on bare substrate strength is described, and the effect of porosity on material strength is also examined. New mechanical strength correlations for ceramic honeycombs are presented. The availability of a range of ceramic product geometries provides options for gasoline exhaust emission design and optimization, especially where increased levels of performance are desired.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Metallic Substrate Design for Close Coupled Converter Application

2007-04-16
2007-01-1262
The implementations of the Tier 2 and LEVII emission levels require fast catalyst light-off and fast closed loop control through high-speed engine management. The paper describes the development of innovative catalyst designs. During the development thermal and mechanical boundary conditions were collected and component tests conducted on test rigs to identify the emission and durability performance. The products were evaluated on a Super Imposed Test Setup (SIT) where thermal and mechanical loads are applied to the test piece simultanously and results are compared to accelerated vehicle power train endurance runs. The newly developed light-off catalyst with Perforated Foil Technology (PE) showed superior emission light-off characteristic and robustness.
Technical Paper

Three-Way-Catalyst Modeling - A Comparison of 1D and 2D Simulations

2007-04-16
2007-01-1071
In this paper we present a comparison of two different approaches to model three-way catalyst. First, a numerical sample case simulating light-off is used to compare the 1D and the 2D models. The advantages of each code are discussed with respect to required input data, detail level of the output, comparability, and computation time. Thus, the 2D model reveals significant radial temperature gradients inside the monolith during light-off. In a second step, the 2D model is compared with experimental data. One set of data consists of an air/fuel ratio varying sweep at isothermal conditions. Another set was gained by emission measurements during a real driving MVEG tests with varying substrate cell density & inlet conditions. From these experiments the applicability of the model to numerical parameter studies is discussed.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2006-04-03
2006-01-0030
The paper summarizes the key developments in diesel emission control, generally for 2005. Regulatory targets for the next 10 years and projected advancements in engine technology are used to estimate future emission control needs. Recent NOx control developments on selective catalytic reduction (SCR), lean NOx traps (LNT) and lean NOx catalysts (LNC) are then summarized. Likewise, the paper covers important recent developments on diesel particulate filters (DPFs), summarizing regeneration strategies, new filter and catalyst materials, ash management, and PM measurement. Recent developments in diesel oxidation catalysts are also briefly summarized. Finally, the paper discusses examples of how it is all pulled together to meet the tightest future regulations.
Technical Paper

Final Operability and Chassis Emissions Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Trucks Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

2005-10-24
2005-01-3769
Six 2001 International Class 6 trucks participated in a project to determine the impact of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (DPFs) on emissions and operations from December 2003 through August 2004. The vehicles operated in Southern California and were nominally identical. Three vehicles operated “as-is” on California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices. Three vehicles were retrofit with Johnson Matthey CCRT® (Catalyzed Continuously Regenerating Technology) filters and fueled with Shell GTL Fuel. Two rounds of emissions tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer over the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) and the New York City Bus (NYCB) cycle. The CARB-fueled vehicles served as the baseline, while the GTL-fueled vehicles were tested with and without the CCRT filters. Results from the first round of testing have been reported previously (see 2004-01-2959).
Technical Paper

Extruded Zeolite Catalysts for Lean Exhaust Application

2005-04-11
2005-01-1118
In lean burn engines, the conventional automotive catalyst is ineffective in reducing harmful nitric oxide (NOx) wastes. This study has investigated the use of different materials with metal additives as supports for effective NOx- controlling lean burn catalysts. A series of zeolite (ZSM-5) honeycomb samples were prepared via extrusion with low concentrations of transition metals. Samples were also impregnated with Pt to determine the effect on the catalytic activity. NOx and hydrocarbon conversion under simple lean conditions were measured in a temperature-controlled fixed bed reactor. Ethylene and Propylene, both highly selective NOx reductants, were used separately as the hydrocarbon species. Results have revealed that single and double component zeolites containing Ni, Mn, Cu, and Ag are highly effective in reducing NOx. When these same samples were impregnated with Pt, they achieved conversion rates up to 100% at temperatures less than 300°C at a space velocity of 7000 h-1.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Stronger Ultra Thin Wall Corning Substrate for Improved Performance

2005-04-11
2005-01-1109
Current trends in automotive emissions control have tended towards reduced mass substrates for improved light-off performance coupled with a reduction in PGM levels. This trend has led to increasingly thinner walls in the substrates and increased open frontal areas, with a potential of reducing the overall mechanical strength of the substrate relative to the thicker walled lower cell density supports. This change in demand driven technology has also led to developments, at times costly, in the processing of the catalytic converter system. Changes in mat materials, handling technology and coating variables are only a few sources of overall increased system costs. Corning has introduced the Celcor® XS™ product to the market which significantly increases the strength of thin and ultra thin walled substrates.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermal Mass and Aging on CO-NOx Crossover and Light Off Behavior

2005-04-11
2005-01-1106
The tightening of emissions regulations has required changes in many areas of vehicle systems, including calibration strategies, catalytic converter strategies and exhaust configurations. Engine calibration strategies can be engineered to complement the performance parameters of the converter. Knowledge of the precise window of converter performance for different substrates can therefore provide guidance in targeting engine calibration strategies as well as selecting compatible converter systems within calibration constraints. In a previous paper [5], we explored the effect of thermal mass on emissions performance in the context of the FTP. This paper expands on the previous work and explores the effect of the aging cycle and thermal mass differences on CO-NOx crossover and light-off profiles. This analysis provides a tool to assist in design by defining a window of performance in the converter to be used in matching to a window of operation in the calibration.
Technical Paper

DPF Regeneration-Concept to Avoid Uncontrolled Regeneration During Idle

2004-10-26
2004-01-2657
Significant particulate emission reductions of diesel engines can be achieved using diesel particulate filters (DPFs). Ceramic wall flow filters with a PM efficiency of >90% have proven to be effective components in emission control. The challenge for the application lies with the development and adaptation of a reliable regeneration strategy. The main focus is emission efficiency over the legally required durability periods, as well as over the useful vehicle life. It will be shown, that new DPF systems are characterized by a high degree of integration with the engine management system, to allow for initiation of the regeneration and its control for optimum DPF protection. Using selected cases, the optimum combination and tuning will be demonstrated for successful regenerations, taking into account DPF properties.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-To-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

2004-10-25
2004-01-2959
A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT™ diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made. Bench scale fuel-engine compatibility testing showed the GTL fuel had cold flow properties suitable for year-round use in southern California and was additized to meet current lubricity standards. Bench scale elastomer compatibility testing returned results similar to those of CARB specification diesel fuel. The GTL fuel met or exceeded ASTM D975 fuel properties. Researchers used a chassis dynamometer to test emissions over the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) and New York City Bus (NYCB) cycles.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Different Heavy Duty Diesel Oxidation Catalysts Configurations

2004-03-08
2004-01-1419
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in conjunction with large frontal area substrates is a key element in HDV Diesel emission control systems. This paper describes and reviews tests on a set of various Diesel Oxidation Catalyst configurations (for example cell densities), all with the same catalyst coating. The Diesel Oxidation Catalyst specimens were subjected to the European Stationary Cycle (ESC), the European Transient Cycle (ETC), and the US heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (US FTP). The focus was to study relative emissions, pressure drop, and light-off performance. All tests were conducted using the same Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine operating on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel. In addition to this, the exhaust was regulated so that the backpressure on the engine, upstream of the catalyst was also the same for all catalysts.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control Technology 2003 in Review

2004-03-08
2004-01-0070
This paper will review the field of diesel emission control with the intent of highlighting representative studies that illustrate the state-of-the-art. First, the author reviews general technology approaches for heavy and light duty applications. Given the emerging significance of ultrafines to health, and to emission control technologies, an overview of the significant developments in ultrafine particulate science is provided, followed by an assessment of filter technology. Regarding NOx control, SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and LNT (lean NOx traps) progress is described. Finally, system integration examples are provided. In general, progress is impressive and studies demonstrate that high-efficiency systems are within reach in all highway vehicle sectors. Engines are making impressive gains, and will increase the options for emission control.
Technical Paper

Diesel SCR NOx Reduction and Performance on Washcoated SCR Catalysts

2004-03-08
2004-01-1293
This paper describes a study of ternary V2O5/WO3/TiO2 SCR catalysts coated on standard Celcor® and new highly porous cordierite substrates. At temperatures below 275°C, where NOx conversion is kinetically limited, high catalyst loadings are required to achieve high conversion efficiencies. In principle there are two ways to achieve high catalyst loadings: 1. On standard Celcor® substrates the washcoat thickness can be increased. 2. With new highly porous substrates a high amount of washcoat can be deposited in the walls. Various catalyst loadings varying from 120g/l to 540 g/l were washcoated on both standard Celcor® and new high porosity cordierite substrates with standard coating techniques. Simulated laboratory testing of these samples showed that high catalyst loadings improved both low temperature conversion efficiency and high temperature ammonia storage capacity and consequently increased the overall conversion efficiency.
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