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Journal Article

Gasoline Cold Start Concept (gCSC™) Technology for Low Temperature Emission Control

Stricter emission standards in the near future require not only a high conversion efficiency of the toxic air pollutants but also a substantial reduction of the greenhouse gases from automotive exhaust. Advanced engines with improved fuel efficiency can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions; their exhaust temperature is, however, also low. This consequently poses significant challenges to the emission control system demanding the catalysts to function at low temperatures both during the cold start period and under the normal engine operation conditions. In this paper, we will introduce a gasoline Cold Start Concept (gCSC™) technology developed for advanced stoichiometric-burn gasoline engines to meet future stringent emission regulations. To improve the low temperature performance of three-way catalysts, a novel Al2O3/CeO2/ZrO2 mixed oxide was developed.
Journal Article

Cold Start Concept (CSC™): A Novel Catalyst for Cold Start Emission Control

Catalytic emission control systems are installed on nearly all automobiles and heavy-duty trucks produced today to reduce exhaust emissions for the vehicles to meet government regulations. Current systems can achieve very high efficiencies in reducing tailpipe emissions once the catalytic components reach their operating temperatures. They are, however, relatively ineffective at temperatures below their operating temperature windows, especially during the cold start period of the vehicles. With the increasingly stringent government regulations, reducing the emissions during the cold start period before the catalytic components reach their operating temperatures is becoming a major challenge. For cold start HC control, HC traps based on zeolites have been investigated and commercialized for certain applications. For cold start NOx control, especially in lean burn engine exhaust, NOx storage and release catalysts have been evaluated.
Technical Paper

Engine Performance of Cu- and Fe-Based SCR Emission Control Systems for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications

Since early 2010, most new medium- and heavy-duty diesel vehicles in the US rely on urea-based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for meeting the most stringent regulations on nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in the world today. Catalyst technologies of choice include Copper (Cu)- and Iron (Fe)-based SCR. In this work, the performances of Fe-SCR and Cu-SCR were investigated in the most commonly used DOC + CSF + SCR system configuration. Cu-SCR offered advantages over Fe-SCR in terms of low temperature conversion, NO₂:NOx ratio tolerance and NH₃ slip, while Fe-SCR demonstrated superior performance under optimized NO₂:NOx ratio and at higher temperatures. The Cu-SCR catalyst displayed less tolerance to sulfur (S) exposure. Reactor testing has shown that Cu-SCR catalysts deactivate at low temperature when poisoned by sulfur.
Technical Paper

Advanced Catalysts for Combined (NAC + SCR) Emission Control Systems

Emission control systems combining NOx Adsorber catalysts with Selective Catalytic Reduction catalysts (NAC + SCR) offer potential performance advantages for NOx control under lean conditions compared to systems consisting of only one of these technologies. The combined systems, however, also present new catalyst design challenges. In contrast to NAC-only systems, formation of NH₃ over the NAC component under NOx regeneration conditions is a desirable feature in the combined (NAC + SCR) system. The SCR component in the combined system needs to be as thermally durable as the stand-alone SCR technology and also has to withstand repeated high-temperature lean/rich transients encountered during periodic desulfation of the upstream NAC component. In this study, advanced NAC and SCR components were developed specifically for the combination system. The advanced NAC component exhibited a wider operating temperature window and higher NH₃ generation activity at reduced PGM loading.