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Technical Paper

Development of a Riding Simulator for Motorcycles

We developed the motorcycles based on RIDEOLOGY (Ride + Ideology) concept. In the past, the “Ride” was studied by a sensory evaluation with actual driving. However, the recent progress in numerical analysis, there have been developed driving simulators. It allows more quantitative measurement in a sensory evaluation. Therefore, we also developed a riding simulator specialized for motorcycles. In order to develop such riding simulator, there are some technical challenges for motorcycles. First, we need to reproduce roll motion height of motorcycles. Compared to four-wheeled vehicles, motorcycles have a higher center of rotation. Second, we need to reproduce vehicle motion control by rider’s changing body position. A rider controls vehicle’s lean by shifting his center of gravity. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a measurement system of rider’s body position. Third, we need to improve senses of speed and reality.
Journal Article

Effects of Port Injection Specifications on Emission Behavior of THC

In port injection, it is difficult to control in-cylinder fuel supply of each cycle in a transient state as cold start (in this paper, cold start is defined as several cycles from cranking at low engine temperature). Hence, THC, which is one of regulated emission gases, is likely to increase at cold start. As one of THC emission reduction approaches at cold start, the optimization of fuel injection specifications (including injection position and spray diameter) is expected to reduce THC emission. Setting injection position as downstream position is expected to secure the in-cylinder fuel supply amount at cold start because of small fuel adhesion amount on an intake port wall and a short distance between the injection position and in-cylinder. The position injection contributes to reduction of THC emission due to elimination of misfire.
Technical Paper

Engine Mount System Achieving Reduced Vibration from an Inline 3 Cylinder Engine Installed in a Utility Vehicle

This paper describes an engine mount system that achieves reduced vibration on an industrial type utility vehicle. First the vibration level and direction of the inline three cylinder engine installed in the vehicle was analyzed and based on these results a mount layout that leads to a reduced level of vibration felt by the passengers was developed. Next, this was applied on an actual vehicle and spring characteristics were designed for each mount. The actual spring constants were set such that when considering the engine to be a rigid body, the resonance frequency thereof occurs at an engine speed lower than idle and in addition were set to ensure component strength relative to driving forces and inertial forces that act while the utility vehicle is being driven. Lastly, achievement of significant vibration reduction was confirmed on an actual vehicle showing that this engine mount system is effective at reducing vibration.
Technical Paper

The Feasibility Study of a Design Concept of Electric Motorcycle

As for automobile, the mass production period of Electric Vehicle(EV) has begun by the rapid progress of the battery performance. But for EV-Motorcycle(MC), it is limited for the venture companies' releases. The design and evaluation methodologies are not yet established or standardized so far. This paper provides the practical and the experimental examples. To study the feasibility of EV-MC, we developed the prototypes in the present technical and suppliers' parts environments, and evaluated them by the practical view of the MC usage. The developed EV-MC has the equivalent driving performance of the 250cc internal combustion engine(ICE)-MC and a cruising range of 100km in normal use.
Technical Paper

A Study of Electric Motorcycle

As for automobile, the mass production period of Electric Vehicle(EV) has begun by the rapid progress of the battery performance. But for EV- Motorcycle(MC), it is limited for the venture companies' releases. The design and evaluation methodologies are not yet established or standardized so far. This paper provides the practical and the experimental examples. To study the feasibility of EV-MC, we developed the prototypes in the present technical and suppliers' parts environments, and evaluated them by the practical view of the MC usage. The developed EV-MC has the equivalent driving performance of the 250cc internal combustion engine(ICE)-MC and a cruising range of 100km in normal use. In the prototype development, the reliability and the ability of protection design of the battery in the whole vehicle against the environmental loads are mainly studied, especially, heat and cold, water, shock, and the accident impact.
Technical Paper

Application of Air Fuel Ratio Control to a Motorcycle with Dual Oxygen Sensor

At the upstream part of the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) an O₂ sensor (UpO₂S) is used for O₂ Feedback Control (O₂F/B) that controls the air-fuel ratio (A/F) close to the stoichiometric level. O₂ sensor has a bit of individual characteristic difference as for the switching the excess air ratios of output (λ shift). This phenomenon becomes remarkable according to the effects of unburnt elements in exhaust gas. Despite the O₂F/B implementation, A/F isn't controlled to the stoichiometric level and the conversion efficiency of the TWC could be lower. Maintaining a higher level of TWC conversion efficiency requires more accurate A/F control and corrections of the UpO₂S λ shift issue. Therefore, using an O₂ sensor at the downstream part of the TWC (DownO₂S)~where the effects of unburnt elements in exhaust gas are smaller~can be an effective way to restore these challenges.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Vibration Fatigue Life for Motorcycle Exhaust Systems

In this study, the technology that can predict fatigue life for motorcycle exhaust systems is developed. To predict the fatigue life, analyzing the engine vibration, modeling the vibration characteristics of exhaust systems and evaluating the fatigue damage of welded joints are considered essential. This paper shows an integrated numerical simulation and evaluation method. Furthermore, it is also shown with the result of a component vibration test of the muffler assembly to validate the technology. The results indicate a good correlation between the numerical simulation and the test.
Technical Paper

Stability Control of Motorcycle

We developed active control more suitable for sports riding than the previous electronic stability control system for enjoying sports riding by many users. One of them, the traction control system S-KTRC (Sports Kawasaki TRaction Control) uses the sensor output like not only the slippage calculated from the front and rear wheel speed but also engine speed, throttle position, and gear position etc. As the result, conditions of the motorcycle and rider's intention are calculated by ‘Motorcycle model’ in the ECU continuously. By this ‘Motorcycle model’, S-KTRC confirms the real time conditions and predicts the succeeded condition, every 5milliseconds to decide to govern torque. The ABS system KIBS (Kawasaki Intelligent anti-lock Brake System), it is possible to control the rear wheel's lift by using the pressure data of the front brake at the sudden braking operation.
Technical Paper

Advanced Environmental Control System (The 2nd Part)

The Advanced ECS is under development for the purpose of saving fuel, improving safety, and cabin comfort. In FY2006 study, basic components (i.e. MDC, OBNOGS, desiccant units, and CO2 removers) have been improved and their performances evaluated including resistance to environmental condition (i.e. vibration). In addition, the suitable system configuration for a 90-seats aircraft has been considered to evaluate the feasibility of the system. In this paper, we show the results of the evaluated performances based on prototype components, and the analytical study of a revised system configuration.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Disk Brake Squeal Using Substructure Synthesis Method

This paper describes a numerical analysis method for predicting the brake squeal using the Substructure Synthesis Method. This method is more accurate than the classical method based on the mass-spring system, and simpler than the analysis of all the brake system by FEM. The squeal studied here is focused the one occurring in the low frequency range and its mechanism is due the structural instability of the brake assembly. First, some experiments were carried out in order to grasp the brake squeal phenomenon. These experiments made clear the following items. (1) The low frequency brake squeal occurred at 850Hz. (2) The vibration mode shape had 5 nodes fixed in a space. (3) The brake squeal became maximum at 0.3 - 0.5 (MPa) liquid pressure under the constant temperature condition. (4) The higher the temperature of the pad was, the stronger the brake squeal was under the constant liquid pressure condition.
Technical Paper


Motorcycle engines are operated at an extremely broad range of revolutions, from 1000 min-1 to 10000 min-1 or more. Ideally, the natural frequency of each part should never match the engine excitation frequency at any point over that entire range of revolution speeds, but practically, there are times when resonance cannot be avoided because the range is so broad, and therefore the vibration amplitude at resonance must be kept low. For this reason, it is important to grasp not only the resonance frequency but also the vibration amplitude at that point. This may be achieved by two methods, measurement and analysis. The direct measurement of vibration is generally difficult because the motorcycle muffler system has a complex shape and in addition it gets very high temperature when the engine is operating. For this reason, with the aim of being able to predict muffler vibration at the design stage, we carried out a vibration test and FEM (finite element method) analysis.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Transmission Loss for Motorcycle Muffler

This paper describes the predicted results of acoustic transmission loss (T.L.) for a motorcycle muffler. First, the T.L. of a prototype muffler with one expansion chamber was obtained by measuring sound levels at the inlet and outlet ports of the muffler by speaker test. T.L. was then calculated by using a three-dimensional Finite-Element Method (FEM) for acoustic fields in the muffler. There was good coincidence between the calculated T.L. and experimentally observed data. Second, T.L. of the prototype muffler while attached to a motorcycle engine was measured. On this step, however, a similarly calculated T.L. using FEM to consider the effect of exhaust gas temperature in the muffler showed differences from the measured one. It was estimated that muffler body vibration sounds may affect the result. A dynamic analysis of the structure was carried out using FEM to obtain the eigen modes of the muffler body.
Technical Paper

A Study of Noise Reduction Method on Motorcycle

With an increasing number of vehicles, the reduction of traffic noise emissions becomes a greater social requirement. On the other hand, as users' tastes for motorcycles have diversified, it becomes important to develop and supply products to meet customers' requests within a short period. Therefore, it is a key factor to efficiently develop motorcycles which conform to the noise regulations. This paper describes concrete examples of currently utilized noise-source proving methods and noise reduction methods for motorcycles.
Technical Paper

System Studies of Advanced Single-Phase Fluid Loop with Honeycomb-Cored Cold Plate

The feasibility study of the thermal control system for medium size or large size satellites was conducted to investigate the capabilities and specifications of devices such as cold plates, a radiator, a mechanical pump, and so on. In the first step of the system development demonstration, the cold plate was selected to investigate the performance among these devices. In this paper, the system concept of the advanced single-phase fluid loop and the evaluation by numerical analysis and experiments are described.
Technical Paper

Evaluation Method of Exhaust Sound Quality of Motorcycle

The quality of exhaust sound has become one of the important factors in the motorcycle market. Therefore both an efficient sound quality evaluation method and technology to achieve ideal sound quality have become necessary. Sound qualify evaluation has generally been performed by trial and error through repeated modification of exhaust silencer construction until desired quality was obtained. But it usually took painstaking work and long hours. In order to solve such problems, we established an objective auditory evaluation method. We also applied Principal component analysis to analize the result of the “Semantic Differential Method (SD method)” so as to determine the affecting elements. Through this analysis system, “powerful sound” caused by relatively higher content of the low frequency range and “crispy sound” caused by a cyclic sound pattern were determined to be desirable sounds for “American type” motorcycles.
Technical Paper

Temperature and Humidity Control System of JEM

A Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) assembly an essential system in order to provide comfortable environment for crew members in Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Development of an engineering model (EM) and a proto model (PM) of JEM THC assembly started from March 1991 and completed on March 1995 successfully. In this development phase, it is called JEM EM phase, qualification test of THC was conducted to verify the THC design. This paper presents JEM THC design and an outline of the assembly model development.
Technical Paper

Study on Predicative Evaluation Method of Noise Generated by Engine

The engine noise accounts for a relatively large percentage among the noises generated by a motorcycle. Among the parts of the engine, the cover is important in design as well as a source of the engine noise, being at the end of the vibration transfer path. This paper clarifies that the natural frequency of the cover with a flat surface clearly affects its vibration and noise radiation and that its vibration depends on this surface, by investigation of the effect of surface shape of the cover on its vibration and noise radiation and by a modal analysis of its vibration characteristics. In addition, we confirmed that the calculated value of the radiated noise from the cover agrees well with the measured value.
Technical Paper

Development of the Isolation Chamber

The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is constructing the Isolation Chamber in Tsukuba Space Center (TKSC) by March 1996. The Isolation Chamber will be used to basic training for Japanese astronauts, development for crew training technology and research for manned space technology. This paper describes the outline of the Isolation Chamber.
Technical Paper

Experiment of Two-Phase Flow Loop Thermal Control System Using Test Rocket

This paper describes results of the thermal-hydraulic performance experiment system (THYPES) of the two-phase flow loop thermal control system using the test rocket which can maintain a gravity level of 10-4G for about six minutes. Feasibility study of this system had been conducted for loading into a experiment module of test rocket TR-IA No. 3. In 1991, engineering model of the experiment system was designed and manufactured in order to investigate its function, performance, and endurance against launching conditions. In 1992, flight model of the experiment system was designed and manufactured. The following tests were conducted so as to ensure the capability and compatibility of THYPES; functional test, performance test, environmental test, and interface tests between the experiment system and rocket avionics section. The experiment was performed on September 17, 1993 and the results are evolved.
Technical Paper

Limit Cycle in the Longitudinal Motion of the USB STOL ASKA - Control System Functional Mockup and Actual Aircraft

The Japanese Quiet Short Take Off and Landing experimental aircraft named ASKA was developed and flight tested during 1977 till 1989. The control system hard and software were examined by the functional mock-up with using the actual hardware. The small longitudinal limit cycle was observed in the closed loop test when the Pitch Control Wheel Steering software was on in the mock-up testing. In this paper, first, the method to analyze and to expect the limit cycle based on the describing function was shown. The limit cycle was induced due to the nonlinearities in the automatic control mechanism. The nonlinearities in the hardware were examined to make the model to simulate the system on the computer. The method was shown effective to predict the limit cycle in the mock-up. Second, with using the flight measured dynamics, the limit cycle was concluded as on border line between existing and not, which coincides with the actual flight result.