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Technical Paper

Optimization of Intake Port for Improvement of Fuel Consumption and Torque

In this study on the motorcycle engine, we investigated the geometry of the newly developed intake port with an objective of improving the fuel consumption and the torque in practical range. Herein we present the results obtained. We believe that an effective measure for achieving the stated objective is to improve the combustion speed and combustion stability. To realize that, it is necessary to increase the turbulence during combustion and improve the homogeneity of air-fuel mixture. To investigate the feasible shape of the port, the CFD simulation (including fuel spray analysis) was performed and a geometry that improved the turbulent kinetic energy and mixture homogeneity at the time of ignition was selected. For confirming the combustion improvement effect achieved by tumble strengthening, an engine test was conducted with the same amount of intake air as that used in.
Technical Paper

Development of a Supercharged Engine for Motorcycle with a Centrifugal Supercharger

1 In the development of motorcycle engines, a strong feeling of power, an element of being fun to ride has continued strong demand. However, demand to meet environmental performance, a conflicting element, has increased dramatically in recent years and a breakthrough technology that achieves both environmental performance and a feeling of power is in demand. Here, the newly developed engine has greatly enhanced feeling of power while clearing stringent environmental restrictions through use of a centrifugal type supercharger. However, there were several problems that had to be resolved with regards to application of a supercharger to a motorcycle engine. In applying a supercharger to a motorcycle, a major problem is the best way to keep the engine size from increasing in size. The engine, which is the heaviest parts on a motorcycle greatly affects motorcycle maneuverability so it must be compact and the mass concentrated.
Technical Paper

Development of Intake Sound Control Technique for Sports-Type Motorcycles

Engine sound is one of the most important factors when selecting a motorcycle from various models. Therefore, it is necessary to create an appealing sound in the rider's ears in addition to complying with noise regulations. In this paper, how we control intake sound is described through the study of a sports-type motorcycle with an inline 4 cylinder engine. To control intake sound, both intake pressure pulsations generated by the engine and acoustic transfer characteristics of the intake system are important. It is shown by unsteady-state one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis that specifications of the exhaust system affect intake pressure pulsations across the valve overlap period. Therefore, to emphasize high order components of the engine revolutions in the intake sound, for example, modifying the layout of the exhaust muffler is effective.
Technical Paper

Development of a Drill Bit for CFRP/Aluminum-Alloy Stack: To Improve Flexibility, Economical Efficiency and Work Environment

In the expansion of composite material application, it is one of the most important subjects in assembly of aircraft structure how drilling of composite/metal stack should be processed in an efficient way. This paper will show the result of development of a drill bit for CFRP/Aluminum-alloy stack by Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) and Sumitomo Electric Hardmetal (SEH). In order to improve workability and economic performance, the drill bit which enables drilling CFRP/Al-alloy stack: at 1 shot; from both directions; without air blow and coolant (just usual vacuuming); was required. A best mix drill bit which has smooth multi angles edge and pointed finishing edge was produced as a result of some trials. Developed drill bit achieved required performance and contributed to large cost reduction, labor hour saving, production speed increase and work environment improvement.
Technical Paper

Development of Fail-safe Method for Motorcycle's Electronic Throttle Control System

In recent years, even motorcycles impose demands for engine power controls that are more flexible and precise. The Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) system is one of the methods that addresses this need. However, the most important issue facing the installation of the ETC system on the motorcycle is handling failures. To avoid this problem, we developed an ETC system for motorcycles that can properly effect engine power control in case of a failure. This ETC system contains in duplicate the major components to detect failures and switch to a failure mode properly. To effect control that is optimally suited to the type of failure, this system switches between three types of failure modes. These failure modes are designed to minimize risks in case of a failure and maximize the operational capability while the rider is on the way to have the motorcycle repaired.
Technical Paper

Knock and Misfire Detection using Ion Current Measurement for Ultra Lean Burn Medium Speed Gas Engine

The aim of this study was to clarify the feasibility of applying ion current measurement to detect knock and misfire in lean-burn gas engines. The practical applicability was evaluated by conducting a basic test on a small engine and a test on a large engine. The tests were conducted by advancing the ignition timing to cause knocking, and an evaluation was carried out by comparing the knocking intensity detected by ion current signals and by cylinder pressure signals. By increasing the application voltage and including an amplifier circuit, the weak ion current signals were detected, which indicates that it should be possible to use ion current measurement to detect knock and misfire in lean-burn gas engines.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Auto-Ignition and Combustion of Unsteady Synthetic Gas Jet

It is thought that the synthetic gas, including hydrogen and carbon monoxide, has a potential to be an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines, because a heating value of the synthetic gas is higher than one of hydrogen or natural gas. A purpose of this study is to acquire stable auto-ignition and combustion of the synthetic gas which is supposed to be applied into a direct-injection compression ignition engine. In this study, the effects of ambient gas temperatures and oxygen concentrations on auto-ignition characteristics of the synthetic gas with changing percentage of hydrogen (H2) or carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the synthetic gas. An electronically-controlled, hydraulically-actuated gas injector was used to control a precise injection timing and period of gaseous fuels, and the experiments were conducted in an optically accessible, constant-volume combustion chamber under simulated quiescent diesel engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of New Hydraulic Fluids Specifications for Construction Machinery

Hydraulic fluid (HF) specifications for mobile construction equipment called JCMAS HK and HKB have been established by the Fuels and Lubricants Committee of Japan Construction Mechanization Association (JCMA). The specifications are designated by two viscosity categories of single grade and multigrade. Each category has ISO viscosity grade (VG) 32 and 46. The JCMAS HK oils are recommended for use in hydraulic systems designed at pressure up to 34.3MPa(5000psi) and to heat hydraulic fluid up to 100 °C. These oils also provide wear control, friction performance, oxidation and rust protection, seal swell control and filterability performance. Two piston pump test procedures were developed to evaluate lubricating performance of these oils under high pressure conditions. The JACMAS HKB oils are classified as environmentally friendly oils due to the additional requirement for biodegradability.
Technical Paper

Improvement of transitional characteristic by measuring pressure in the combustion chamber

Motorcycle engines are required to have high output levels but low exhaust gas emission levels. Measuring the combustion condition proves useful for understanding the engine's operating condition. We developed a compact, high-performance combustion analyzer for measuring the combustion condition of motorcycle engines. This newly developed combustion analyzer is capable of analyzing the indicated mean effective pressure at each engine cycle at the engine speeds exceeding 10,000 rpm required of a high-performance motorcycle engine. Its compact size makes it easily applicable for onboard use, allowing measurement in any operating condition, including circuit travel, which has never been possible with conventional combustion analyzers. We used this new combustion analyzer to measure combustion condition not only on a chassis dynamo but also during circuit travel, when the motorcycle and engine are subjected to much harsher operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Magnesium Swing Arm for Motorcycles

In order to improve the fuel efficiency and the operating performance of motorcycles, there is a need to reduce their weight. Magnesium, which is the lightest of the various metals currently being used and has a high specific strength, has the potential to satisfy that need. We conducted a study to clarify the weldability and strength characteristics of, and the most suitable surface treatment for, extruded magnesium alloys and rolled magnesium alloys. Based on the stress analysis by the finite element method, we designed a magnesium swing arm and produced the prototype swing arm by pressing hot rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy plates and welding them. The prototype is about 10% lighter and has higher torsional rigidity than a conventional aluminum swing arm.
Technical Paper

Development of Spraying Technology for Improving the Wear Resistance of Engine Cylinder Bores

In response to design requirements for lower weight and higher output, the motorcycle engine cylinder block has evolved from a cast cylinder block to an aluminum alloy cylinder block whose bore walls are surface-treated for wear-resistance. Hard-chromium plating, nickel-compound plating, and the like are in wide use as the wear-resistance surface treatment method, but spray technology has recently been attracting attention because of less impact on the environment, superior initial running-in performance and good oil retention. We have been applying a unique spraying method called wire explosion spraying to those models with a special need for wear-resistance surface. In this report we describe our wire explosion spray technology. With the aim of improving the bond strength of the sprayed coat, we studied the effects of the collided particles' form on bond strength in the wire explosion spraying conditions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Disk Brake Squeal Using Substructure Synthesis Method

This paper describes a numerical analysis method for predicting the brake squeal using the Substructure Synthesis Method. This method is more accurate than the classical method based on the mass-spring system, and simpler than the analysis of all the brake system by FEM. The squeal studied here is focused the one occurring in the low frequency range and its mechanism is due the structural instability of the brake assembly. First, some experiments were carried out in order to grasp the brake squeal phenomenon. These experiments made clear the following items. (1) The low frequency brake squeal occurred at 850Hz. (2) The vibration mode shape had 5 nodes fixed in a space. (3) The brake squeal became maximum at 0.3 - 0.5 (MPa) liquid pressure under the constant temperature condition. (4) The higher the temperature of the pad was, the stronger the brake squeal was under the constant liquid pressure condition.
Technical Paper

Summary of Vertical Drop Tests of YS-11 Transport Fuselage Sections

Structures and Materials Research Center of the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL) conducted vertical drop tests of fuselage sections of a NAMC YS-11 A-200 transport airplane. This test program is a part of research activities in NAL on the structural crashworthiness of transport aircraft. In addition a cooperative research related to this test program has been carried out by NAL and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.(KHI). The main objectives of this program are to develop optimal numerical models for crash simulation of aircraft fuselage and to obtain background data by drop tests of full-scale fuselage sections under a controlled impact condition. Two sections of the fuselage structure with seats and passenger dummies were tested at different drop velocity to a rigid impact surface(concrete). Finite element models of the test articles for simulation of vertical drop tests were developed using a nonlinear dynamic analysis code, LS-DYNA3D.
Technical Paper

Vertical Drop Test of a Transport Fuselage Section

The Structures and Materials Research Center of the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL) conducted a vertical drop test of a fuselage section from a NAMC YS-11 transport airplane in December2001. This test program is a part of research activities in NAL on the structural crashworthiness of transport aircraft. In addition a cooperative research related to this test program was carried out between NAL and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.(KHI). The main objective of this program is to develop optimal numerical models for crash simulation of aircraft fuselage and to obtain background data by drop tests of small-scale structural models and a full-scale fuselage section. Prior to the drop test of a full-scale fuselage structure, a trial numerical simulation on the crash behavior of a small-scale sub-floor structure was conducted by NAL using the explicit, nonlinear dynamic analysis code, LS-DYNA3D.
Technical Paper


Motorcycle engines are operated at an extremely broad range of revolutions, from 1000 min-1 to 10000 min-1 or more. Ideally, the natural frequency of each part should never match the engine excitation frequency at any point over that entire range of revolution speeds, but practically, there are times when resonance cannot be avoided because the range is so broad, and therefore the vibration amplitude at resonance must be kept low. For this reason, it is important to grasp not only the resonance frequency but also the vibration amplitude at that point. This may be achieved by two methods, measurement and analysis. The direct measurement of vibration is generally difficult because the motorcycle muffler system has a complex shape and in addition it gets very high temperature when the engine is operating. For this reason, with the aim of being able to predict muffler vibration at the design stage, we carried out a vibration test and FEM (finite element method) analysis.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Transmission Loss for Motorcycle Muffler

This paper describes the predicted results of acoustic transmission loss (T.L.) for a motorcycle muffler. First, the T.L. of a prototype muffler with one expansion chamber was obtained by measuring sound levels at the inlet and outlet ports of the muffler by speaker test. T.L. was then calculated by using a three-dimensional Finite-Element Method (FEM) for acoustic fields in the muffler. There was good coincidence between the calculated T.L. and experimentally observed data. Second, T.L. of the prototype muffler while attached to a motorcycle engine was measured. On this step, however, a similarly calculated T.L. using FEM to consider the effect of exhaust gas temperature in the muffler showed differences from the measured one. It was estimated that muffler body vibration sounds may affect the result. A dynamic analysis of the structure was carried out using FEM to obtain the eigen modes of the muffler body.
Technical Paper

Evaluation Method of Exhaust Sound Quality of Motorcycle

The quality of exhaust sound has become one of the important factors in the motorcycle market. Therefore both an efficient sound quality evaluation method and technology to achieve ideal sound quality have become necessary. Sound qualify evaluation has generally been performed by trial and error through repeated modification of exhaust silencer construction until desired quality was obtained. But it usually took painstaking work and long hours. In order to solve such problems, we established an objective auditory evaluation method. We also applied Principal component analysis to analize the result of the “Semantic Differential Method (SD method)” so as to determine the affecting elements. Through this analysis system, “powerful sound” caused by relatively higher content of the low frequency range and “crispy sound” caused by a cyclic sound pattern were determined to be desirable sounds for “American type” motorcycles.
Technical Paper

Application of Active Control Technologies and Structural Optimization for Supersonic Commercial Transport

A design procedure is presented which utilizes (1) the active control technologies such as Flutter Mode Control, Gust Load Alleviation and Maneuver Load Control to relax the strength and stiffness requirements on wing structure, and (2) structural optimization to derive the minimum weight composite wing structures satisfying the relaxed structural requirements. The design procedure is applied to the preliminary design study of a Supersonic Commercial Transport configuration with laminated composite wing structure. Four design configurations are compared. Maximum of about 30% structural weight reduction was achieved from the quasi-isotropic design. Also some insights on the characteristics of the Supersonic Commercial Transport configuration are discussed.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction for Small Utility Two-Stroke Engine

As a result of our researches into reduction of exhaust emissions for small utility two-stroke engines which are widely used for handheld equipment such as a brush cutter and a hedge trimmer, we here discuss how much exhaust emissions can be reduced with only minor modifications of an engine. For the purpose of reducing emissions, we evaluated the effects of exhaust timing retard and of enleanment of carburetor mixture on mass emissions using the existing 25cc two-stroke engine, which emits high levels of HC and CO, and substantially low levels of NOx. We attained great reduction of HC and CO. The power output, however, dropped and both the plug seat and the exhaust gas temperatures rose, which would detract the practicability of the engine. But we solved the problems by modifying the combustion chamber and the exhaust port shape, keeping the emissions reduced as mentioned above.
Technical Paper

Limit Cycle in the Longitudinal Motion of the USB STOL ASKA - Control System Functional Mockup and Actual Aircraft

The Japanese Quiet Short Take Off and Landing experimental aircraft named ASKA was developed and flight tested during 1977 till 1989. The control system hard and software were examined by the functional mock-up with using the actual hardware. The small longitudinal limit cycle was observed in the closed loop test when the Pitch Control Wheel Steering software was on in the mock-up testing. In this paper, first, the method to analyze and to expect the limit cycle based on the describing function was shown. The limit cycle was induced due to the nonlinearities in the automatic control mechanism. The nonlinearities in the hardware were examined to make the model to simulate the system on the computer. The method was shown effective to predict the limit cycle in the mock-up. Second, with using the flight measured dynamics, the limit cycle was concluded as on border line between existing and not, which coincides with the actual flight result.