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Technical Paper

A Forward Collision Warning System Using Deep Reinforcement Learning

2020-04-14
2020-01-0138
Forward collision warning is one of the most challenging concerns in the safety of autonomous vehicles. A cooperation between many sensors such as LIDAR, Radar and camera helps to enhance the safety. Apart from the importance of having a reliable object detector, the safety system should have requisite capabilities to make reasonable decisions in the moment. In this work, we concentrate on detecting front vehicles of autonomous cars using a monocular camera, beyond only a detection method. In fact, we devise a solution based on a cooperation between a deep object detector and a reinforcement learning method to provide forward collision warning signals. The proposed method models the relation between acceleration, distance and collision point using the area of the bounding box related to the front vehicle. An agent of learning automata as a reinforcement learning method interacts with the environment to learn how to behave in eclectic hazardous situations.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Lane Change Control Using Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller and Bicycle Model

2020-04-14
2020-01-0215
As advanced vehicle controls and autonomy become mainstream in the automotive industry, the need to employ traditional mathematical models and control strategies arises for the purpose of simulating autonomous vehicle handling maneuvers. This study focuses on lane change maneuvers for autonomous vehicles driving at low speeds. The lane change methodology uses PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controller to command the steering wheel angle, based on the yaw motion and lateral displacement of the vehicle. The controller was developed and tested on a bicycle model of an electric vehicle (a Chevrolet Bolt 2017), with the implementation done in MATLAB/Simulink. This simple mathematical model was chosen in order to limit computational demands, while still being capable of simulating a smooth lane change maneuver under the direction of the car’s mission planning module at modest levels of lateral acceleration.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Kettering University’s New Proving Ground, the GM Mobility Research Center

2020-04-14
2020-01-0213
Rapid changes in the automotive industry, including the growth of advanced vehicle controls and autonomy, are driving the need for more dedicated proving ground spaces where these systems can be developed safely. To address this need, Kettering University has created the GM Mobility Research Center, a 21-acre proving ground located in Flint, Michigan at the former “Chevy in the Hole” factory location. Construction of a proving ground on this site represents a beneficial redevelopment of an industrial brownfield, as well as a significant expansion of the test facilities available at the campus of Kettering University. Test facilities on the site include a road course and a test pad, along with a building that has garage space, a conference room, and an indoor observation platform. All of these facilities are available to the students and faculty of Kettering University, along with their industrial partners, for the purpose of engaging in advanced transportation research and education.
Technical Paper

Source Noise Isolation during Electric Vehicle Pass-By Noise Testing Using Multiple Coherence

2020-04-14
2020-01-1268
Due to the nearly silent operation of an electric motor, it is difficult for pedestrians to detect an approaching electric vehicle. To address this safety concern, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration issued the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 141, “Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”. This FMVSS 141 standard requires the measurement of electric vehicle noise according to certain test protocols; however, performing these tests can be difficult since inconsistent results can occur in the presence of transient background noise. Methods to isolate background noise during static sound measurements have already been established, though these methods are not directly applicable to a pass-by noise test where neither the background noise nor the vehicle itself as it travels past the microphone produce stationary sound signals.
Technical Paper

Automated 3D Printer Bed Clearing Mechanism

2020-04-14
2020-01-1301
The objective of this work was to design an automated bed clearing mechanism for the Anet brand A8 3D printer, which uses Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process. This work has been carried out as a capstone course. Many OEMs are focusing on using functional 3D printed parts to replace metal parts that otherwise require complex assemblies or to reduce weight. The concept behind the work presented in this paper was to allow every user to be able to print multiple parts without human interaction. This saves time to load and unload one part at a time. The idea was to develop a universal bed clearing mechanism that can be used for most brands of 3D printers. Upon researching into the many different styles and designs of printers, it became clear that the designs are different and complex to create a universal product. It was decided to aim for the most common style of 3D printers for which easy modeling and testing should be possible.
Technical Paper

Robust Sensor Fused Object Detection Using Convolutional Neural Networks for Autonomous Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0100
Environmental perception is considered an essential module for autonomous driving and Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS). Recently, deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have become the State-of-the-Art with many different architectures in various object detection problems. However, performances of existing CNNs have been dropping when detecting small objects at a large distance. To deploy any environmental perception system in real world applications, it is important that the system achieves high accuracy regardless of the size of the object, distance, and weather conditions. In this paper, a robust sensor fused object detection system is proposed by utilizing the advantages of both vision and automotive radar sensors. The proposed system consists of three major components: 1) the Coordinate Conversion module, 2) Multi level-Sensor Fusion Detection (MSFD) system, and 3) Temporal Correlation filtering module.
Technical Paper

Structural Analysis and Design Modification of Seat Rail Structures in Various Operating Conditions

2020-04-14
2020-01-1101
This paper is based on, and in continuation of the work previously published in ASEE NCS Conference held in Grand Rapids, MI [1]. Automotive seating rail structures are one of the key components in the automotive industry because they carry the entire weight of passenger and they hold the structure for seating foams and other assembled key components such as side airbag and seatbelt systems. The entire seating is supported firmly and attached to the bottom bodywork of the vehicle through the linkage assembly called the seat rails. Seat rails are adjustable in their longitudinal motion which plays an important role in giving the passengers enough leg room to make them feel comfortable. Therefore, seat rails under the various operating conditions, should be able to withstand the weight of the passenger along with the other assembled parts as mentioned above. Also, functional requirements such as crash safety is very important to avoid or to minimize injuries to the occupants.
Technical Paper

Experimentation for Design Improvements for Coil Spring in the Independent Suspension

2020-04-14
2020-01-0503
The objective of this project is to analyze potential design changes that can improve the performance of helical spring in an independent suspension. The performance of the helical spring was based upon the result measure of maximum value of stress acting on it and the amount displacement caused when the spring undergoes loading. The design changes in the spring were limited to coil cross section, spring diameter (constant & variable), pitch and length of the spring. The project was divided into Stage I & Stage II. For Stage I, using all the possible combinations of these design parameters, linear stress analysis was performed on different spring designs and their Stress and displacement results were evaluated. Based on the results, the spring designs were classified as over designed or under designed springs.
Technical Paper

A Robust Failure Proof Driver Drowsiness Detection System Estimating Blink and Yawn

2020-04-14
2020-01-1030
The fatal automobile accidents can be attributed to fatigued and distracted driving by drivers. Driver Monitoring Systems alert the distracted drivers by raising alarms. Most of the image based driver drowsiness detection systems face the challenge of failure proof performance in real time applications. Failure in face detection and other important part (eyes, nose and mouth) detections in real time cause the system to skip detections of blinking and yawning in few frames. In this paper, a real time robust and failure proof driver drowsiness detection system is proposed. The proposed system deploys a set of detection systems to detect face, blinking and yawning sequentially. A robust Multi-Task Convolutional Neural Network (MTCNN) with the capability of face alignment is used for face detection. This system attained 97% recall in the real time driving dataset collected. The detected face is passed on to ensemble of regression trees to detect the 68 facial landmarks.
Journal Article

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness Considerations for Autonomous Vehicle Perception Equipment

2020-04-14
2020-01-0482
Automakers looking to remake their traditional vehicle line-up into autonomous vehicles, Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) considerations for autonomous vehicles are soon to follow. While traditional NVH considerations still must be applied to carry-over systems, additional components are required for an autonomous vehicle to operate. These additional components needed for autonomy also require NVH analysis and optimization. Autonomous vehicles rely on a suite of sensors, including Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and cameras placed at optimal points on the vehicle for maximum coverage and utilization. In this study, the NVH considerations of autonomous vehicles are examined, focusing on the additional perception equipment installed in autonomous vehicles.
Journal Article

Lane Line Detection by LiDAR Intensity Value Interpolation

2019-10-22
2019-01-2607
Lane marks are an important aspect for autonomous driving. Autonomous vehicles rely on lane mark information to determine a safe and legal path to drive. In this paper an approach to estimate lane lines on straight or slightly curved roads using a LiDAR unit for autonomous vehicles is presented. By comparing the difference in elevation of LiDAR channels, a drivable region is defined. The presented approach used in this paper differs from previous LiDAR lane line detection methods by reducing the drivable region from three to two dimensions exploring only the x-y trace. In addition, potential lane markings are extracted by filtering a range of intensity values as opposed to the traditional approach of comparing neighboring intensity values. Further, by calculating the standard deviation of the potential lane markings in the y-axis, the data can be further refined to specific points of interest.
Technical Paper

Structural Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of a 3-Phase AC Induction Motor

2019-06-05
2019-01-1458
This paper aims to study the NVH and acoustic performance of a 3-phase AC induction motor in order to develop an approach to reduce the magnetic component of noise from an electric motor in an electric vehicle (EV). The final goal of this project is to reduce the magnetic component of sound from the motor by making modifications to the end bracket of the motor housing. EVs are being considered the future of mobility mainly due to the fact that they are environment-friendly. As many companies are already investing in this technology, electric drives are set to become extremely popular in the years to come. The heart of an EV is its motor. Modern electric vehicles are quiet, furthermore with the lack of an IC engine to mask most sounds from other components, the sound from the electric motor and other auxiliary parts become more prominent.
Technical Paper

A Non-Contact Technique for Vibration Measurement of Automotive Structures

2019-06-05
2019-01-1503
The automotive and aerospace industries are increasingly using the light-weight material to improve the vehicle performance. However, using light-weight material can increase the airborne and structure-borne noise. A special attention needs to be paid in designing the structures and measuring their dynamics. Conventionally, the structure is excited using an impulse hammer or a mechanical shaker and the response is measured using uniaxial or multi-axial accelerometers to obtain the dynamics of the structure. However, using contact-based transducers can mass load the structure and provide data at a few discrete points. Hence, obtaining the true dynamics of the structure conventionally can be challenging. In the past few years, stereo-photogrammetry and three-dimensional digital image correlation have received special attention in collecting operating data for structural analysis. These non-contact optical techniques provide a wealth of distributed data over the entire structure.
Journal Article

Preliminary Study of Perceived Vibration Quality for Human Hands

2019-06-05
2019-01-1522
A large body of knowledge exists regarding the effects of vibration on human beings; however, the emphasis is generally on the damaging effects of vibration. Very little information has been published regarding the effect of vibration on perceived consumer product quality. The perceived loudness of a product is quantified using the Fletcher-Munson equal loudness curves, but the equivalent curves for perceived vibration amplitude as a function of amplitude and frequency are not readily available. This “vibration quality” information would be valuable in the design and evaluation of many consumer products, including automobiles. Vibration information is used in the automobile design process where targets for steering wheel, seat track, and pedal vibration are common. For this purpose, the vibration information is considered proprietary and is generally applicable to a narrow frequency range. In this investigation, work paralleling the original Fletcher-Munson study is presented.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study Using FE Model for Tire Load Estimation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0175
For virtual simulation of the vehicle attributes such as handling, durability, and ride, an accurate representation of pneumatic tire behavior is very crucial. With the advancement in autonomous vehicles as well as the development of Driver Assisted Systems (DAS), the need for an Intelligent Tire Model is even more on the increase. Integrating sensors into the inner liner of a tire has proved to be the most promising way in extracting the real-time tire patch-road interface data which serves as a crucial zone in developing control algorithms for an automobile. The model under development in Kettering University (KU-iTire), can predict the subsequent braking-traction requirement to avoid slip condition at the interface by implementing new algorithms to process the acceleration signals perceived from an accelerometer installed in the inner liner on the tire.
Technical Paper

On the Safety of Autonomous Driving: A Dynamic Deep Object Detection Approach

2019-04-02
2019-01-1044
To improve the safety of automated driving, the paramount target of this intelligent system is to detect and segment the obstacle such as car and pedestrian, precisely. Object detection in self-driving vehicle has chiefly accomplished by making decision and detecting objects through each frame of video. However, there are diverse group of methods in both machine learning and machine vision to improve the performance of system. It is significant to factor in the function of the time in the detection phase. In other word, considering the inputs of system, which have been emitted from eclectic type of sensors such as camera, radar, and LIDAR, as time-varying signals, can be helpful to engross ‘time’ as a fundamental feature in modeling for forecasting the object, while car is moving on the way. In this paper, we focus on eliciting a model through the time to increase the accuracy of object detection in self-driving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Physical Validation Testing of a Smart Tire Prototype for Estimation of Tire Forces

2018-04-03
2018-01-1117
The safety of ground vehicles is a matter of critical importance. Vehicle safety is enhanced with the use of control systems that mitigate the effect of unachievable demands from the driver, especially demands for tire forces that cannot be developed. This paper presents the results of a smart tire prototyping and validation study, which is an investigation of a smart tire system that can be used as part of these mitigation efforts. The smart tire can monitor itself using in-tire sensors and provide information regarding its own tire forces and moments, which can be transmitted to a vehicle control system for improved safety. The smart tire is designed to estimate the three orthogonal tire forces and the tire aligning moment at least once per wheel revolution during all modes of vehicle operation, with high accuracy. The prototype includes two in-tire piezoelectric deformation sensors and a rotary encoder.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Development of a Slip Model for a Basic Rigid Ring Ride Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-1116
With the recent advances in rapid modeling and rapid prototyping, accurate simulation models for tires are very desirable. Selection of a tire slip model depends on the required frequency range and nonlinearity associated with the dynamics of the vehicle. This paper presents a brief overview of three major slip concepts including “Stationary slip”, “Physical transient slip”, and “Pragmatic transient slip”; tire models use these slip concepts to incorporate tire slip behavior. The review illustrates that there can be no single accurate slip model which could be ideally used for all modes of vehicle dynamics simulations. For this study, a rigid ring based semi-analytical tire model for intermediate frequency (up to 100 Hz) is used.
Technical Paper

Using Digital Image Correlation to Measure Dynamics of Rolling Tires

2018-04-03
2018-01-1217
Vehicles are in contact with the road surface through tires, and the interaction at the tire-road interface is usually the major source of vibrations that is experienced by the passengers in the vehicle. Thus, it is critical to measure the vibrational characteristics of the tires in order to improve the safety and comfort of the passengers and also to make the vehicle quieter. The measurement results can also be used to validate numerical models. In this paper, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) as a non-contact technique is used to measure the dynamics of a racing tire in static and rolling conditions. The Kettering University FSAE car is placed on the dynamometer machine for this experiment. A pair of high-speed cameras is used to capture high-resolution images of the tire in a close-up view. The images are processed using DIC to obtain strain and displacement of the sidewall of the tire during rolling. The experiment is performed for various testing speeds.
Technical Paper

Power Systems Infrastructure of Hybrid Electric Fuel Cell Competition Go Kart

2017-10-08
2017-01-2452
This paper documents the electrical infrastructure design of a Hybrid Go Kart competition vehicle which includes a dual Fuel Cell power system, Ultra Capacitors for energy storage, and a dual AC induction motor capable of independent drive. The Kart was built primarily to compete in the 2009 Formula Zero international event. This paper emphasized the vehicle model and control strategy as a result of three (3) graduate student research projects. The vehicle was fabricated and tested but did not participate in the race competition since the race organization folded. The vehicle model was developed in Simulink to determine whether the fuel cell and ultra-capacitor combination will be sufficient for peak transient power requirement of 14 kW. The vehicle’s functional description and performance specifications are documented including the integration of the fuel cell power modules, energy storage system, power converters, and AC motor and motor controllers.
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