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Technical Paper

Lane Line Detection by LiDAR Intensity Value Interpolation

Lane marks are an important aspect for autonomous driving. Autonomous vehicles rely on lane mark information to determine a safe and legal path to drive. In this paper an approach to estimate lane lines on straight or slightly curved roads using a LiDAR unit for autonomous vehicles is presented. By comparing the difference in elevation of LiDAR channels, a drivable region is defined. The presented approach used in this paper differs from previous LiDAR lane line detection methods by reducing the drivable region from three to two dimensions exploring only the x-y trace. In addition, potential lane markings are extracted by filtering a range of intensity values as opposed to the traditional approach of comparing neighboring intensity values. Further, by calculating the standard deviation of the potential lane markings in the y-axis, the data can be further refined to specific points of interest.
Technical Paper

Structural Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of a 3-Phase AC Induction Motor

This paper aims to study the NVH and acoustic performance of a 3-phase AC induction motor in order to develop an approach to reduce the magnetic component of noise from an electric motor in an electric vehicle (EV). The final goal of this project is to reduce the magnetic component of sound from the motor by making modifications to the end bracket of the motor housing. EVs are being considered the future of mobility mainly due to the fact that they are environment-friendly. As many companies are already investing in this technology, electric drives are set to become extremely popular in the years to come. The heart of an EV is its motor. Modern electric vehicles are quiet, furthermore with the lack of an IC engine to mask most sounds from other components, the sound from the electric motor and other auxiliary parts become more prominent.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Study of Perceived Vibration Quality for Human Hands

A large body of knowledge exists regarding the effects of vibration on human beings; however, the emphasis is generally on the damaging effects of vibration. Very little information has been published regarding the effect of vibration on perceived consumer product quality. The perceived loudness of a product is quantified using the Fletcher-Munson equal loudness curves, but the equivalent curves for perceived vibration amplitude as a function of amplitude and frequency are not readily available. This “vibration quality” information would be valuable in the design and evaluation of many consumer products, including automobiles. Vibration information is used in the automobile design process where targets for steering wheel, seat track, and pedal vibration are common. For this purpose, the vibration information is considered proprietary and is generally applicable to a narrow frequency range. In this investigation, work paralleling the original Fletcher-Munson study is presented.
Technical Paper

A Non-Contact Technique for Vibration Measurement of Automotive Structures

The automotive and aerospace industries are increasingly using the light-weight material to improve the vehicle performance. However, using light-weight material can increase the airborne and structure-borne noise. A special attention needs to be paid in designing the structures and measuring their dynamics. Conventionally, the structure is excited using an impulse hammer or a mechanical shaker and the response is measured using uniaxial or multi-axial accelerometers to obtain the dynamics of the structure. However, using contact-based transducers can mass load the structure and provide data at a few discrete points. Hence, obtaining the true dynamics of the structure conventionally can be challenging. In the past few years, stereo-photogrammetry and three-dimensional digital image correlation have received special attention in collecting operating data for structural analysis. These non-contact optical techniques provide a wealth of distributed data over the entire structure.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study Using FE Model for Tire Load Estimation

For virtual simulation of the vehicle attributes such as handling, durability, and ride, an accurate representation of pneumatic tire behavior is very crucial. With the advancement in autonomous vehicles as well as the development of Driver Assisted Systems (DAS), the need for an Intelligent Tire Model is even more on the increase. Integrating sensors into the inner liner of a tire has proved to be the most promising way in extracting the real-time tire patch-road interface data which serves as a crucial zone in developing control algorithms for an automobile. The model under development in Kettering University (KU-iTire), can predict the subsequent braking-traction requirement to avoid slip condition at the interface by implementing new algorithms to process the acceleration signals perceived from an accelerometer installed in the inner liner on the tire.
Technical Paper

Using Digital Image Correlation to Measure Dynamics of Rolling Tires

Vehicles are in contact with the road surface through tires, and the interaction at the tire-road interface is usually the major source of vibrations that is experienced by the passengers in the vehicle. Thus, it is critical to measure the vibrational characteristics of the tires in order to improve the safety and comfort of the passengers and also to make the vehicle quieter. The measurement results can also be used to validate numerical models. In this paper, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) as a non-contact technique is used to measure the dynamics of a racing tire in static and rolling conditions. The Kettering University FSAE car is placed on the dynamometer machine for this experiment. A pair of high-speed cameras is used to capture high-resolution images of the tire in a close-up view. The images are processed using DIC to obtain strain and displacement of the sidewall of the tire during rolling. The experiment is performed for various testing speeds.
Technical Paper

Physical Validation Testing of a Smart Tire Prototype for Estimation of Tire Forces

The safety of ground vehicles is a matter of critical importance. Vehicle safety is enhanced with the use of control systems that mitigate the effect of unachievable demands from the driver, especially demands for tire forces that cannot be developed. This paper presents the results of a smart tire prototyping and validation study, which is an investigation of a smart tire system that can be used as part of these mitigation efforts. The smart tire can monitor itself using in-tire sensors and provide information regarding its own tire forces and moments, which can be transmitted to a vehicle control system for improved safety. The smart tire is designed to estimate the three orthogonal tire forces and the tire aligning moment at least once per wheel revolution during all modes of vehicle operation, with high accuracy. The prototype includes two in-tire piezoelectric deformation sensors and a rotary encoder.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Development of a Slip Model for a Basic Rigid Ring Ride Model

With the recent advances in rapid modeling and rapid prototyping, accurate simulation models for tires are very desirable. Selection of a tire slip model depends on the required frequency range and nonlinearity associated with the dynamics of the vehicle. This paper presents a brief overview of three major slip concepts including “Stationary slip”, “Physical transient slip”, and “Pragmatic transient slip”; tire models use these slip concepts to incorporate tire slip behavior. The review illustrates that there can be no single accurate slip model which could be ideally used for all modes of vehicle dynamics simulations. For this study, a rigid ring based semi-analytical tire model for intermediate frequency (up to 100 Hz) is used.
Technical Paper

Injury Sources for Second Row Occupants in Frontal Crashes Considering Age and Restraint Condition Influence

The current study examined field data in order to document injury rates, injured body regions, and injury sources for persons seated in the second row of passenger vehicles. It was also intended to identify whether these varied with respect to age and restraint use in vehicles manufactured in recent years. Data from the 2007-2012 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS/CDS) was used to describe occupants seated in the second row of vehicles in frontal crashes. Injury plots, comparison of means and logistic regression analysis were used to seek factors associated with increased risk of injury. Restraint use reduced the risk of AIS ≥ 2 injury from approximately 1.8% to 5.8% overall. Seventy nine percent of the occupants in the weighted data set used either a lap and shoulder belt or child restraint system. The most frequently indicated injury source for persons with a MAIS ≥ 2 was “seat, back support”, across restraint conditions and for all but the youngest occupants.
Journal Article

Design and Control of Vehicle Trailer with Onboard Power Supply

Typically, when someone needs to perform occasional towing tasks, such as towing a boat on a trailer, they have two choices. They can either purchase a larger, more powerful vehicle than they require for their regular usage, or they can rent a larger vehicle when they need to tow something. In this project, we propose a third alternative: a trailer with an on-board power supply, which can be towed by a small vehicle. This system requires a means of sensing how much power the trailer's power supply should provide, and an appropriate control system to provide this power. In this project, we design and model the trailer, a standard small car, and the control system, and evaluate the concept's feasibility. We have selected a suitable power source for the trailer, a DC motor, coupled directly to the trailer's single drive wheel, which allow us to dispense with the need for a differential.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Joint Torque Characteristics for a Mechanical Counter - Pressure Spacesuit

Mechanical counter-pressure (MCP) spacesuit designs have been a promising, but elusive alternative to historical and current gas pressurized spacesuit technology since the Apollo program. One of the important potential advantages of the approach is enhanced mobility as a result of reduced bulk and joint torques, but the literature provides essentially no quantitative joint torque data or quantitative analytical support. Decisions on the value of investment in MCP technology and on the direction of technology development are hampered by this lack of information since the perceived mobility advantages are an important factor. An experimental study of a simple mechanical counter-pressure suit (elbow) hinge joint has been performed to provide some test data and analytical background on this issue to support future evaluation of the technology potential and future development efforts.
Technical Paper

Effect of Head and Neck Anthropometry on the Normal Range of Motion of the Cervical Spine of Prepubescent Children

Application of cervical spine range of motion data and related anthropometric measures of the head and neck include physical therapy, product design, and computational modeling. This study utilized the Cervical Range of Motion device (CROM) to define the normal range of motion of the cervical spine for subjects five (5) through ten (10) years of age. And, the data was collected and analyzed with respect to anatomical measures such as head circumference, face height, neck length, and neck circumference. This study correlates these static anthropometric measures to the kinematic measurement of head flexion, extension, lateral extension, and rotation.
Technical Paper

Development of Clean Snowmobile Technology for Operation on High-Blend Ethanol for the 2008 Clean Snowmobile Challenge

Clean snowmobile technology has been developed using methods which can be applied in the real world with a minimal increase in cost. Specifically, a commercially available snowmobile using a two cylinder, four-stroke engine has been modified to run on high-blend ethanol (E-85) fuel. Additionally, a new exhaust system which features customized catalytic converters and mufflers to minimize engine noise and exhaust emissions has developed. Finally, a number of additional improvements have been made to the track to reduce friction and diminish noise. The results of these efforts include emissions reductions of 94% when compared with snowmobiles operating at the 2012 U.S. Federal requirements.
Technical Paper

State Space Formulation by Bond Graph Models for Vehicle System Dynamics

Modeling and simulation of dynamic systems is not always a simple task. In this paper, the mathematical model of a 4 Degree Of Freedom (DOF) ride model is presented using a bond-graph technique with state energy variables. We believe that for the physical model as described in this research, the use of a bond-graph approach is the only feasible solution. Any attempt to use classical methods such as Lagrange equations or Newton's second law, will create tremendous difficulties in the transformation of a set of second order linear differential equations to a set of first order differential equations without violating the existence and the uniqueness of the solution of the differential equations, the only approach is the elimination of the damping of the tires, which makes the model unrealistic. The bond-graph model is transformed to a mathematical model. Matlab is used for writing a computer script that solves the engineering problem.
Journal Article

Task and Message Scheduling for a FlexCAN-based Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Drivetrain Functional Unit

A Task and Message Schedule for a FlexCAN-based Hybrid-Electric vehicle (HEV) functional unit is described. The resulting schedule is a component of an incremental message and task scheduling approach based on a time-driven message schedule and priority-driven task schedule. The HEV functional unit involves the combined control and monitoring functions of an internal combustion engine working in parallel with a permanent magnet synchronous motor. The control algorithm for the synchronous motor has been simulated using VHDL-AMS. The global message system is supported by FlexCAN and the task scheduler system is supported by a priority based OS (e.g., OSEK or AUTOSAR).
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Trailer Rear Impact Guard - Interdependence of Guard Strength, Energy Absorption, Occupant Acceleration Forces and Passenger Compartment Intrusion

FMVSS 223 and 224 set standards for “Rear Impact Protection” for trailers and semi-trailers with a gross weight rating greater than 10000 pounds. A limited amount of experimental data is available for evaluating the different performance attributes of rear impact guards. The crash tests are usually limited to fixed parameters such as impact speed, guard height, strength and energy absorption, etc. There also seems to be some misunderstanding of the interdependence of guard strength and energy absorption, and their combined effect on the guard's ability to limit underride while keeping occupant acceleration forces in a safe range. In this paper, we validated the Finite Element (FE) model of an existing rear impact guard against actual FMVSS 223 tests. We also modified a previously evaluated FE model of a 1990 Ford Taurus by updating its hood geometry and material properties.
Technical Paper

Development of Snowmobile Technology for Operation on High-Blend Ethanol

Kettering University has developed a cleaner and quieter snowmobile using technologies and innovative methods which can be applied in the real world with a minimal increase in cost. Specifically, a commercially available snowmobile using a two cylinder, four-stroke engine has been modified to run on high-blend ethanol (E-85) fuel. Further, a new exhaust system which features customized catalytic converters and mufflers to minimize engine noise and exhaust emissions has developed. A number of additional improvements have been made to the track to reduce friction and diminish noise. This paper provides details of the snowmobile development the results of these efforts on performance and emissions. Specifically, the Kettering University snowmobile achieved reductions of approximately 72% in CO, and 98% in HC+NOx when compared with the 2012 standard. Further, the snowmobile achieved a drive by noise level of 73 dbA while operating on hard packed snow.
Technical Paper

Traction and Clutch Effects on the Natural Frequency and Vibration Stability of Limited Slip Differential Axles

The torsional natural frequencies of axles equipped with limited slip differential clutches depend on whether or not the tires and clutches are slipping since the effective inertia at each end of the axle is different for slipping and non-slipping conditions. Limited slip axle vibrations are typically analyzed for one tire slipping and the other not since that is the case for which the limited slip clutches are used. Vibrations often arise, however, during normal turning when both drive tires have good traction.
Technical Paper

External Knee Geometry Surface Variation as a Function of Subject Anthropometry and Flexion Angle for Human and Surrogate Subjects

The current study was designed to compare the surface anatomy of the knee for different human subject anthropometries using a 3-D, non-contact digitizer which converted the anatomy into point clouds. The subjects were studied at flexion angles of 60, 90, and 120 degrees. Multiple subjects fitting narrow anthropometrical specifications were studied: 5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 95th percentile male. These data were then compared to a corresponding anthropometrical crash dummy knee which served as an unambiguous control. Intersubject human comparisons showed surface geometry variations which were an order of magnitude smaller than comparisons between the human and dummy knee. Large errors between the human and dummy were associated with the muscle bulk proximal and distal to the popliteal region and the rounder shape of the human knee.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Frontal Impact of a Formula SAE Vehicle

The objective of this study was to determine risk of injury to the driver during a frontal impact in a Formula SAE vehicle. Formula SAE is a collegiate student design competition where every year universities worldwide build and compete with open-wheel formula-style race cars. Formula SAE 2006 rules stipulate the use of an impact attenuator to absorb energy in the event of a frontal impact. These rules mandated an average deceleration not to exceed 20-g from a speed of 7.0 m/s (23 ft/s), but do not specify a specific time or pulse shape of the deceleration. The pulse shapes tested in this study included an early high-g, constant-g, and late high-g pulse. The tests were performed using the deceleration sled at the Kettering University Crash Safety Center. Using industry standard practices, this study examined the driver's risk of injury with regard to neck and femur loads, head and chest accelerations, as well as kinematic analysis using high speed video.