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Technical Paper

Influence of the Injector Geometry at 250 MPa Injection in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

This paper investigated the influence of the injector nozzle geometry on fuel consumption and exhaust emission characteristics of a light-duty diesel engine with 250 MPa injection. The engine used for the experiment was the 0.4L single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The diesel fuel injection equipment was operated under 250MPa injection pressure. Three injectors with nozzle hole number of 8 to 10 were compared. As the nozzle number of the injector increased, the orifice diameter decreased 105 μm to 95 μm. The ignition delay was shorter with larger nozzle number and smaller orifice diameter. Without EGR, the particulate matter(PM) emission was lower with larger nozzle hole number. This result shows that the atomization of the fuel was improved with the smaller orifice diameter and the fuel spray area was kept same with larger nozzle number. However, the NOx-PM trade-offs of three injectors were similar at higher EGR rate and higher injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Effects of Hydrogen Ratio and EGR on Combustion and Emissions in a Hydrogen/Diesel Dual-Fuel PCCI Engine

The effects of hydrogen ratio and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emissions in a hydrogen/diesel dual-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) engine were investigated. The control of combustion phasing could be improved using hydrogen enrichment and EGR due to the retarded combustion phasing with a higher hydrogen ratio. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) was increased with a higher hydrogen ratio because the hydrogen enrichment intensified the high temperature reactions and thus decreased the combustion duration. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were reduced significantly in a hydrogen/diesel dual-fuel PCCI mode with a similar NOx emissions level as that of the diesel PCCI mode.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of DI Gasoline Injection Processes

This work investigates the injection processes of an eight-hole direct-injection gasoline injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) effort on gasoline sprays (Spray G). Experiments are performed at identical operating conditions by multiple institutions using standardized procedures to provide high-quality target datasets for CFD spray modeling improvement. The initial conditions set by the ECN gasoline spray community (Spray G: Ambient temperature: 573 K, ambient density: 3.5 kg/m3 (∼6 bar), fuel: iso-octane, and injection pressure: 200 bar) are examined along with additional conditions to extend the dataset covering a broader operating range. Two institutes evaluated the liquid and vapor penetration characteristics of a particular 8-hole, 80° full-angle, Spray G injector (injector #28) using Mie scattering (liquid) and schlieren (vapor).
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR and DME Injection Strategy in Hydrogen-DME Compression Ignition Engine

The compression ignition combustion fuelled with hydrogen and dimethyl-ether was investigated. Exhaust gas recirculation was applied to reduce noise and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission. When dimethyl-ether was injected earlier, combustion showed two-stage ignitions known as low temperature reaction and high temperature reaction. With advanced dimethyl-ether injection, combustion temperature and in-cylinder pressure rise were lowered which resulted in high carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. However, NOx emission was decreased due to relatively low combustion temperature. The engine combustion showed only high temperature reaction when dimethyl-ether was injected near top dead center. When exhaust gas recirculation gas was added, the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate were decreased. However, it retarded combustion phase resulting in higher indicated mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Injection Location of DME and LPG in a Dual Fuel HCCI Engine

Dimethyl ether (DME) as a high cetane number fuel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a high octane number fuel were supplied together to evaluate the controllability of combustion phase and improvement of power and exhaust emission in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. Each fuel was injected at the intake port and in the cylinder separately during the same cycle, i.e., DME in the cylinder and LPG at the intake port, or vice versa. Direct injection timing was varied from 200 to 340 crank angle degree (CAD) while port injection timing was fixed at 20 CAD. In general, the experimental results showed that DME direct injection with LPG port injection was the better way to increase the IMEP and reduce emissions. The direct injection timing of high cetane number fuel was important to control the auto-ignition timing because the auto-ignition was occurred at proper area, where the air and high cetane number fuel were well mixed.
Technical Paper

Operating Range of Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with Supercharging

Low temperature diesel combustion with a large amount of exhaust gas recirculation in a direct injection diesel engine was investigated. Tests were carried out under various engine speeds, injection pressures, injection timings, and injection quantities. Exhaust emissions and brake specific fuel consumption were measured at different torque and engine speed conditions. High rates of exhaust gas recirculation led to the simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxide and soot emissions due to a lower combustion temperature than conventional diesel combustion. However, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions increased as the combustion temperature decreased because of incomplete combustion and the lack of an oxidation reaction. To overcome the operating range limits of low temperature diesel combustion, increased intake pressure with a modified turbocharger was employed.
Journal Article

Improvement of DME HCCI Engine Performance by Fuel Injection Strategies and EGR

The combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a DME fueled HCCI engine were investigated. Different fuel injection strategies were tested under various injection quantities and timings with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The combustion phase in HCCI was changed by an in-cylinder direct injection and EGR, due to changes in the in-cylinder temperature and mixture homogeneity. The gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEPgross) increased and the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions decreased as the equivalence ratio was augmented. The IMEPgross with direct injection was greater than with the port injection due to retarded ignition timing resulting from latent heat of direct injected DME fuel. It was because that most of burn duration was completed before top dead center owing to higher ignitability for DME with high cetane number. However, HC and CO emissions were similar for both injection locations.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Pilot Injection on Combustion in Dimethyl-ether (DME) Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

Dimethyl-ether combustion with pilot injection was investigated in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common-rail injection system. Combustion characteristics and emissions were tested with dimethyl-ether and compared with diesel fuel. The main injection timing was fixed to have the best timings for maximum power output. The total injected fuel mass corresponded to a low heating value of 405 joules per cycle at 800 rpm. The fuel quantity and the injection timing of the pilot injection were varied from 8 to 20% of the total injected mass and from 50 to 10 crank angle degrees before the main injection timing, respectively. Ignition delay decreased with pilot injection. The effects of pilot injection were less significant with DME combustion than with diesel. Pilot injection caused the main combustion to increase in intensity resulting in decreased emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter.
Technical Paper

The Dual-Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Using Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Di-methyl Ether

The combustion, knock characteristics and exhaust emissions in an engine were investigated under homogeneous charge compression ignition operation fueled with liquefied petroleum gas with regard to variable valve timing and the addition of di-methyl ether. Liquefied petroleum gas was injected at an intake port as the main fuel in a liquid phase using a liquefied injection system, while a small amount of di-methyl ether was also injected directly into the cylinder during the intake stroke as an ignition promoter. Different intake valve timings and fuel injection amount were tested in order to identify their effects on exhaust emissions, combustion and knock characteristics. The optimal intake valve open timing for the maximum indicated mean effective pressure was retarded as the λTOTAL was decreased. The start of combustion was affected by the intake valve open timing and the mixture strength (λTOTAL) due to the volumetric efficiency and latent heat of vaporization.
Technical Paper

Generation of Robust and Well-Atomized Swirl Spray

The spray characteristics of a swirl injector for direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines were investigated for the generation of robust and well-atomized swirl spray. A highly-inclined tapered nozzle is applied as a test nozzle and the spray characteristics are compared with conventional nozzle and L-step nozzle. When the taper angle is 70°, an opened hollow cone spray is formed. This spray does not collapse with increasing fuel temperature and back pressure conditions. However, the taper angle should be optimized to avoid forming a locally rich area and to increase the spray volume. The droplet size of 70° tapered nozzle spray shows a value similar to that of the original swirl spray in the horizontal mainstream while it shows an increased value in the vertical mainstream. The deteriorated atomization characteristics of the tapered nozzle spray are improved by applying high fuel temperature injection without causing spray collapse.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine

Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Simulation and Experimental Analysis of Needle Response and Controlled Injection Rate Shape Characteristics in a Piezo-driven Diesel Injector

The More precise control of the multiple-injection is required in common-rail injection system of direct injection diesel engine to meet the low NOx emission and optimal PM filter system. The main parameter for obtaining the multiple-injections is the mechanism controlling the injector needle energizing and movement. In this study, a piezo-driven diesel injector, as a new method driven by piezoelectric energy, has been applied with a purpose to develop the analysis model of the piezo actuator to predict the dynamics characteristics of the hydraulic component (injector) by using the AMESim code and to evaluate the effect of this control capability on spray formation processes. Aimed at simulating the hydraulic behavior of the piezo-driven injector, the circuit model has been developed and verified by comparison with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Charge Dilution and Injection Timing on Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion and Emissions

The effects of charge dilution on low-temperature diesel combustion and emissions were investigated in a small-bore single-cylinder diesel engine over a wide range of injection timing. The fresh air was diluted with additional N2 and CO2, simulating 0 to 65% exhaust gas recirculation in an engine. Diluting the intake charge lowers the flame temperature T due to the reactant being replaced by inert gases with increased heat capacity. In addition, charge dilution is anticipated to influence the local charge equivalence ratio ϕ prior to ignition due to the lower O2 concentration and longer ignition delay periods. By influencing both ϕ and T, charge dilution impacts the path representing the progress of the combustion process in the ϕ-T plane, and offers the potential of avoiding both soot and NOx formation.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Thermal Shock in a Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer

One of the major problems limiting the accuracy of piezoelectric transducers for cylinder pressure measurements in an internal-combustion (IC) engine is the thermal shock. Thermal shock is generated from the temperature variation during the cycle. This temperature variation results in contraction and expansion of the diaphragm and consequently changes the force acting on the quartz in the pressure transducer. An empirical equation for compensation of the thermal shock error was derived from consideration of the diaphragm thermal deformation and actual pressure data. The deformation and the resulting pressure difference due to thermal shock are mainly a function of the change in surface temperature and the equation includes two model constants. In order to calibrate these two constants, the pressure inside the cylinder of a diesel engine was measured simultaneously using two types of pressure transducers, in addition to instantaneous wall temperature measurement.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Injector Temperature on Spray and Combustion Characteristics in a Single Cylinder DISI Engine

The spray behavior of direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines is crucial for obtaining the required mixture distribution for optimal engine combustion. The spray characteristics of DISI engines are affected by many factors. In this study, the effect of injector temperature was particularly investigated. Spray images from slit injectors using Mie scattering and shadowgraph techniques showed that spray penetration decreases and spray width increases at higher injector temperature. However, opposite trend has been observed for the spray structure from swirl injector. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) results showed, for both injectors, a reduction in droplet sizes at higher injector temperatures. The effect of injector temperature using the slit injector on engine combustion during cold start and warming-up operating conditions was also investigated. Successive flame images using high speed camera, engine-out emissions and performance data have been analyzed.
Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust Throttling on Engine Performance and Residual Gas in an SI Engine

Combustion in engines can be controlled by the amount of residual gas, which has high temperature and heat capacity compared with fresh charge. Residual gas also acts like a dilution gas during combustion period. Accordingly, combustion duration increases, while the peak combustion temperature and nitrogen oxides (NOx) decreases. Amount of residual gas is affected by pressure difference between exhaust and intake, valve timing and engine speed. The main objective of this work is to identify the effects of exhaust throttle, valve timing and load conditions on residual gas fraction and engine performance. The intake valve open timing was varied freely under fixed exhaust valve close (EVC) timing. Additionally, exhaust throttle has been installed in the exhaust manifold to build up the exhaust back-pressure allowing extra amount of exhaust gases to be admitted into the cylinder during the valve overlap duration.
Technical Paper

Effects of Multiple Injections in a HSDI Diesel Engine Equipped with Common Rail Injection System

Diesel fuel injection system is the most important part of the direct-injection diesel engine and, in recent years, it has become one of the critical technologies for emission control with the help of electronically controlled fuel injection. Common rail injection system has great flexibility in injection timing, pressure and multi-injections. Many studies and applications have reported the advantages of using common rail system to meet the strict emission regulation and to improve engine performance for diesel engines. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of pilot-, post- and multiple-fuel injection strategies on engine performance and emissions. The study was carried out on a single cylinder optical direct injection diesel engine equipped with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. Spray and combustion evolutions were visualized through a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera.
Technical Paper

Effects of Stratified EGR on the Performance of a Liquid Phase LPG Injection Engine

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and lean burn utilize the diluents into the engine cylinder to control combustion leading to enhanced fuel economy and reduced emissions. However, the occurrence of excessive cyclic variation with high diluent rates, brings about an undesirable combustion instability within the engine cylinder resulting in the deterioration of both engine performance and emissions. Proper stratification of mixture and diluents could improve the combustion stability under high diluent environment. EGR stratification within the cylinder was made by adopting a fast-response solenoid valve in the midst of EGR line and controlling its timing and duty. With EGR in both homogeneous mode and stratified mode, in-cylinder pressure and emissions were measured. The thermodynamic heat release analysis showed that the burning duration was decreased in case of stratified EGR. It was found that the stratification of EGR hardly affected the emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Design Parameters on the Performance of Finned Exhaust Heat Exchanger

This paper describes the results of a DOE (design of experiment) applied to an exhaust heat exchanger to lower the exhaust gas temperature mainly under high load conditions. The heat exchanger was installed between the exhaust manifold and the inlet of the close-coupled catalytic converter (CCC) to avoid thermal aging. The DOE evaluates the influence of the selected eight design parameters of the heat exchanger geometry on the performance of the exhaust gas cooling system, and the interaction between these parameters. To maximize the heat transfer between exhaust gas and coolant, fins were implemented at the inner surface of the heat exchanger. The design parameters consist of the fin geometry (length, thickness, arrangement, number of fin), coolant direction, exchanger wall thickness, and the length of the heat exchanger. The acceptable range of each design parameter is discussed by analyzing the DOE results.
Technical Paper

Fuel Stratification in a Liquid-Phase LPG Injection Engine

To investigate the mixture distributions in an LPG engine with Liquid phase port injection for heavy duty vehicles, an optical single cylinder engine, which is optically accessible both in side and bottom view, and laser diagnostic system were incorporated to apply PLIF (planar laser induced fluorescence) technique. Acetone was used as a dopant in LPG fuel, which was excited by KrF excimer laser (248nm), and its fluorescence images were acquired with ICCD camera. The effects of fuel injection timing, swirl intensity and excess air ratio were investigated. For the case of open valve injection, favorable stratification of fuel, both in axial and radial direction, was clearly observed compared to the closed valve injection, where reverse stratification in axial direction was observed. At the Ricardo swirl ratio of 3.4, it was apparent that excessive axial stratification of fuel got dominant, which would lead to poor engine performances.