Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Assessment of the Ignition and Lift-off Characteristics of a Diesel Spray with a Transient Spreading Angle

2015-09-01
2015-01-1828
Multi-hole diesel fuel injectors have shown significant transients in spreading angle during injections, different than past fundamental research using single-hole injectors. We investigated the effect of a this transient spreading angle on combustion parameters such as ignition delay and lift-off length by comparing a three-hole nozzle (Spray B) and single-hole nozzle (Spray A) with holes of the same size and shape as targets for the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). With the temperature distribution for a target plume of Spray B characterized extensively in a constant-volume combustion chamber, the ignition delay and lift-off length were measured and compared. Results show that the lift-off length of Spray B increases and grows by approximately 1.5 mm after the initial stages of ignition, in an opposite trend compared to Spray A where the lift-off length decreases with time.
Technical Paper

Effects of Hydrogen Ratio and EGR on Combustion and Emissions in a Hydrogen/Diesel Dual-Fuel PCCI Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1815
The effects of hydrogen ratio and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emissions in a hydrogen/diesel dual-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) engine were investigated. The control of combustion phasing could be improved using hydrogen enrichment and EGR due to the retarded combustion phasing with a higher hydrogen ratio. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) was increased with a higher hydrogen ratio because the hydrogen enrichment intensified the high temperature reactions and thus decreased the combustion duration. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were reduced significantly in a hydrogen/diesel dual-fuel PCCI mode with a similar NOx emissions level as that of the diesel PCCI mode.
Technical Paper

Effects of High-Response TiAl Turbine Wheel on Engine Performance under Transient Conditions

2015-09-01
2015-01-1881
Transient tests in a 2.0 liter in-line 4 cylinder downsizing gasoline direct injection engine were conducted under various transient conditions in order to investigate effects of lower rotational inertia of titanium aluminide alloy (TiAl) turbine wheel on engine and turbocharger performances. As a representative result, fast boost pressure build up was achieved in case of TiAl turbocharger compared to Inconel turbocharger. This result was mainly due to lower rotational inertia of TiAl turbine wheel. Engine torque build up response was also improved with TiAl turbocharger even though engine torque response gap between both turbochargers was slightly reduced due to retarded combustion phase. In addition, with advanced ignition timing, fuel consumption became less than that of Inconel turbocharger with similar engine torque response.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR and DME Injection Strategy in Hydrogen-DME Compression Ignition Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1790
The compression ignition combustion fuelled with hydrogen and dimethyl-ether was investigated. Exhaust gas recirculation was applied to reduce noise and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission. When dimethyl-ether was injected earlier, combustion showed two-stage ignitions known as low temperature reaction and high temperature reaction. With advanced dimethyl-ether injection, combustion temperature and in-cylinder pressure rise were lowered which resulted in high carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. However, NOx emission was decreased due to relatively low combustion temperature. The engine combustion showed only high temperature reaction when dimethyl-ether was injected near top dead center. When exhaust gas recirculation gas was added, the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate were decreased. However, it retarded combustion phase resulting in higher indicated mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Injection Location of DME and LPG in a Dual Fuel HCCI Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1847
Dimethyl ether (DME) as a high cetane number fuel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a high octane number fuel were supplied together to evaluate the controllability of combustion phase and improvement of power and exhaust emission in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. Each fuel was injected at the intake port and in the cylinder separately during the same cycle, i.e., DME in the cylinder and LPG at the intake port, or vice versa. Direct injection timing was varied from 200 to 340 crank angle degree (CAD) while port injection timing was fixed at 20 CAD. In general, the experimental results showed that DME direct injection with LPG port injection was the better way to increase the IMEP and reduce emissions. The direct injection timing of high cetane number fuel was important to control the auto-ignition timing because the auto-ignition was occurred at proper area, where the air and high cetane number fuel were well mixed.
Journal Article

Improvement of DME HCCI Engine Performance by Fuel Injection Strategies and EGR

2008-06-23
2008-01-1659
The combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a DME fueled HCCI engine were investigated. Different fuel injection strategies were tested under various injection quantities and timings with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The combustion phase in HCCI was changed by an in-cylinder direct injection and EGR, due to changes in the in-cylinder temperature and mixture homogeneity. The gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEPgross) increased and the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions decreased as the equivalence ratio was augmented. The IMEPgross with direct injection was greater than with the port injection due to retarded ignition timing resulting from latent heat of direct injected DME fuel. It was because that most of burn duration was completed before top dead center owing to higher ignitability for DME with high cetane number. However, HC and CO emissions were similar for both injection locations.
Technical Paper

The Dual-Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Using Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Di-methyl Ether

2007-08-05
2007-01-3619
The combustion, knock characteristics and exhaust emissions in an engine were investigated under homogeneous charge compression ignition operation fueled with liquefied petroleum gas with regard to variable valve timing and the addition of di-methyl ether. Liquefied petroleum gas was injected at an intake port as the main fuel in a liquid phase using a liquefied injection system, while a small amount of di-methyl ether was also injected directly into the cylinder during the intake stroke as an ignition promoter. Different intake valve timings and fuel injection amount were tested in order to identify their effects on exhaust emissions, combustion and knock characteristics. The optimal intake valve open timing for the maximum indicated mean effective pressure was retarded as the λTOTAL was decreased. The start of combustion was affected by the intake valve open timing and the mixture strength (λTOTAL) due to the volumetric efficiency and latent heat of vaporization.
Technical Paper

Generation of Robust and Well-Atomized Swirl Spray

2007-07-23
2007-01-1852
The spray characteristics of a swirl injector for direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines were investigated for the generation of robust and well-atomized swirl spray. A highly-inclined tapered nozzle is applied as a test nozzle and the spray characteristics are compared with conventional nozzle and L-step nozzle. When the taper angle is 70°, an opened hollow cone spray is formed. This spray does not collapse with increasing fuel temperature and back pressure conditions. However, the taper angle should be optimized to avoid forming a locally rich area and to increase the spray volume. The droplet size of 70° tapered nozzle spray shows a value similar to that of the original swirl spray in the horizontal mainstream while it shows an increased value in the vertical mainstream. The deteriorated atomization characteristics of the tapered nozzle spray are improved by applying high fuel temperature injection without causing spray collapse.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Thermal Shock in a Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer

2005-05-11
2005-01-2092
One of the major problems limiting the accuracy of piezoelectric transducers for cylinder pressure measurements in an internal-combustion (IC) engine is the thermal shock. Thermal shock is generated from the temperature variation during the cycle. This temperature variation results in contraction and expansion of the diaphragm and consequently changes the force acting on the quartz in the pressure transducer. An empirical equation for compensation of the thermal shock error was derived from consideration of the diaphragm thermal deformation and actual pressure data. The deformation and the resulting pressure difference due to thermal shock are mainly a function of the change in surface temperature and the equation includes two model constants. In order to calibrate these two constants, the pressure inside the cylinder of a diesel engine was measured simultaneously using two types of pressure transducers, in addition to instantaneous wall temperature measurement.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Injector Temperature on Spray and Combustion Characteristics in a Single Cylinder DISI Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0101
The spray behavior of direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines is crucial for obtaining the required mixture distribution for optimal engine combustion. The spray characteristics of DISI engines are affected by many factors. In this study, the effect of injector temperature was particularly investigated. Spray images from slit injectors using Mie scattering and shadowgraph techniques showed that spray penetration decreases and spray width increases at higher injector temperature. However, opposite trend has been observed for the spray structure from swirl injector. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) results showed, for both injectors, a reduction in droplet sizes at higher injector temperatures. The effect of injector temperature using the slit injector on engine combustion during cold start and warming-up operating conditions was also investigated. Successive flame images using high speed camera, engine-out emissions and performance data have been analyzed.
Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust Throttling on Engine Performance and Residual Gas in an SI Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-2974
Combustion in engines can be controlled by the amount of residual gas, which has high temperature and heat capacity compared with fresh charge. Residual gas also acts like a dilution gas during combustion period. Accordingly, combustion duration increases, while the peak combustion temperature and nitrogen oxides (NOx) decreases. Amount of residual gas is affected by pressure difference between exhaust and intake, valve timing and engine speed. The main objective of this work is to identify the effects of exhaust throttle, valve timing and load conditions on residual gas fraction and engine performance. The intake valve open timing was varied freely under fixed exhaust valve close (EVC) timing. Additionally, exhaust throttle has been installed in the exhaust manifold to build up the exhaust back-pressure allowing extra amount of exhaust gases to be admitted into the cylinder during the valve overlap duration.
Technical Paper

Effects of Multiple Injections in a HSDI Diesel Engine Equipped with Common Rail Injection System

2004-03-08
2004-01-0127
Diesel fuel injection system is the most important part of the direct-injection diesel engine and, in recent years, it has become one of the critical technologies for emission control with the help of electronically controlled fuel injection. Common rail injection system has great flexibility in injection timing, pressure and multi-injections. Many studies and applications have reported the advantages of using common rail system to meet the strict emission regulation and to improve engine performance for diesel engines. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of pilot-, post- and multiple-fuel injection strategies on engine performance and emissions. The study was carried out on a single cylinder optical direct injection diesel engine equipped with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. Spray and combustion evolutions were visualized through a high speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera.
Technical Paper

Effects of Stratified EGR on the Performance of a Liquid Phase LPG Injection Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0982
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and lean burn utilize the diluents into the engine cylinder to control combustion leading to enhanced fuel economy and reduced emissions. However, the occurrence of excessive cyclic variation with high diluent rates, brings about an undesirable combustion instability within the engine cylinder resulting in the deterioration of both engine performance and emissions. Proper stratification of mixture and diluents could improve the combustion stability under high diluent environment. EGR stratification within the cylinder was made by adopting a fast-response solenoid valve in the midst of EGR line and controlling its timing and duty. With EGR in both homogeneous mode and stratified mode, in-cylinder pressure and emissions were measured. The thermodynamic heat release analysis showed that the burning duration was decreased in case of stratified EGR. It was found that the stratification of EGR hardly affected the emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Design Parameters on the Performance of Finned Exhaust Heat Exchanger

2003-10-27
2003-01-3076
This paper describes the results of a DOE (design of experiment) applied to an exhaust heat exchanger to lower the exhaust gas temperature mainly under high load conditions. The heat exchanger was installed between the exhaust manifold and the inlet of the close-coupled catalytic converter (CCC) to avoid thermal aging. The DOE evaluates the influence of the selected eight design parameters of the heat exchanger geometry on the performance of the exhaust gas cooling system, and the interaction between these parameters. To maximize the heat transfer between exhaust gas and coolant, fins were implemented at the inner surface of the heat exchanger. The design parameters consist of the fin geometry (length, thickness, arrangement, number of fin), coolant direction, exchanger wall thickness, and the length of the heat exchanger. The acceptable range of each design parameter is discussed by analyzing the DOE results.
Technical Paper

Fuel Stratification in a Liquid-Phase LPG Injection Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1777
To investigate the mixture distributions in an LPG engine with Liquid phase port injection for heavy duty vehicles, an optical single cylinder engine, which is optically accessible both in side and bottom view, and laser diagnostic system were incorporated to apply PLIF (planar laser induced fluorescence) technique. Acetone was used as a dopant in LPG fuel, which was excited by KrF excimer laser (248nm), and its fluorescence images were acquired with ICCD camera. The effects of fuel injection timing, swirl intensity and excess air ratio were investigated. For the case of open valve injection, favorable stratification of fuel, both in axial and radial direction, was clearly observed compared to the closed valve injection, where reverse stratification in axial direction was observed. At the Ricardo swirl ratio of 3.4, it was apparent that excessive axial stratification of fuel got dominant, which would lead to poor engine performances.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Fuel/Air Mixture Formation for Heavy Duty Liquid Phase LPG Injection (LPLI) Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-0636
Submodels are developed for injection, evaporation and wall impingement of a liquid LPG spray. The injection model determines the quality of fuel as two-phase choke flow at the nozzle exit. Wind tunnel experiments show the spray penetration more sensitive to ambient flow velocity than to injection pressure. Most evaporation occurs during choking, while heat transfer from surrounding air has a negligible effect on downstream droplet sizes. Three dimensional simulation shows that the bathtub cavity is better than the dog-dish cavity for stable flame propagation in lean-burn conditions. The injection timing during the IVC period has a negligible effect, while injection during an intake stroke enhances fuel/air mixing to result in more homogeneous cylinder charge.
Technical Paper

Dimethyl Ether (DME) Spray Characteristics Compared to Diesel in a Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

2002-10-21
2002-01-2898
Dimethyl Ether (DME) has been considered as one of the most attractive alternative fuels for compression ignition engine. Its main advantage in compression-ignition engine application is high efficiency of diesel cycle with soot free combustion though conventional fuel injection system has to be modified due to the intrinsic properties of the DME. Experimental study of the DME and conventional diesel spray employing a common-rail type fuel injection system with a sac type injector was performed in a constant volume vessel pressurized by nitrogen gas. A CCD camera was employed to capture time series of spray images, so that spray cone angles and penetrations of the DME spray were characterized and compared with those of diesel. Intermittent hesitating DME spray appeared at injection pressures of 25MPa and 40MPa in both atmospheric and 3MPa chamber pressures.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Operating Conditions on Catalytic Converter Temperature in an SI Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1677
To meet stringent emission standards, a considerable amount of development work is necessary to ensure suitable efficiency and durability of catalyst systems. The main challenge is to reduce the engine cold-start emissions. Close-coupled catalyst (CCC) provides fast light-off time by utilizing the energy in the exhaust gas. However, if some malfunction occurred during engine operation and the catalyst temperature exceeds 1050°C, the catalytic converter becomes deactivated and shows poor conversion efficiency. Close-coupled catalyst temperature was investigated under various engine operating conditions. All of the experiments were conducted with a 1.0L SI engine at 1500-4000 rpm. The engine was operated at no load to full load conditions. Exhaust gas temperature and catalyst temperature were measured as a function of lambda value (0.8-1.2), ignition timing (BTDC 30°-ATDC 30°) and misfire rates (0-28%).
Technical Paper

Engine Controller for the Hydrocarbon Reduction During Cold Start in SI Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1666
In order to reduce hydrocarbon emission in gasoline engine, especially during warming-up period, it is necessary to estimate the fuel and fuel product flow rate in the emission gas. The intake airflow rate should also be estimated. A strategy was proposed to estimate air fuel ratio in a spark ignition engine. The mass of air in the cylinder was determined by filling-emptying method, and the fuel in the intake manifold and cylinder was estimated by the “wall-wetting” effect calculation. The use of graphical dynamic system control software is becoming more popular as automotive engineers strive to reduce the time to develop new control systems. The rapid prototype engine controller has been developed by using MATLAB, SIMULINK, REAL TIME WORKSHOP, xPC Target, and WATCOM C++. The sensor data from the engine will be transferred to computer, and the fuel delivery will be calculated.
Technical Paper

Flame Propagation Characteristics in a Heavy Duty LPG Engine with Liquid Phase Port Injection

2002-05-06
2002-01-1736
Combustion and flame propagation characteristics of the liquid phase LPG injection (LPLI) engine were investigated in a single cylinder optical engine. Lean burn operation is needed to reduce thermal stress of exhaust manifold and engine knock in a heavy duty LPG engine. An LPLI system has advantages on lean operation. Optimized engine design parameters such as swirl, injection timing and piston geometry can improve lean burn performance with LPLI system. In this study, the effects of piston geometry along with injection timing and swirl ratio on flame propagation characteristics were investigated. A series of bottom-view flame images were taken from direct visualization using a UV intensified high-speed CCD camera. Concepts of flame area speed, in addition to flame propagation patterns and thermodynamic heat release analysis, was introduced to analyze the flame propagation characteristics.
X