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Journal Article

Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Pyrolysis Oil-Ethanol Blend with Diesel and Biodiesel Pilot Injection

The vast stores of biomass available worldwide have the potential to displace significant amounts of petroleum fuels. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is one of several possible paths by which we can convert biomass to higher value products. Pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from wood has been regarded as an alternative fuel to be used in diesel engines. However, the use of PO in a diesel engine requires engine modifications due to the low energy density, high acidity, high viscosity, and low cetane number of PO. Therefore, PO should be blended or emulsified with other fuels that have a high cetane number or used through pilot injection. PO has poor miscibility with light petroleum fuel oils; the most suitable candidate fuels for direct fuel mixing are alcohol fuels. Early mixing with alcohol fuels has the added benefit of significantly improving the storage and handling properties of the PO.
Technical Paper

Emission Characteristics of Gasoline and LPG in a Spray-Guided-Type Direct Injection Engine

Nowadays, automobile manufacturers are focusing on reducing exhaust-gas emissions because of their harmful effects on humans and the environment, such as global warming due to greenhouse gases. Direct injection combustion is a promising technology that can significantly improve fuel economy compared to conventional port fuel injection spark ignition engines. However, previous studies indicate that relatively high levels of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission were produced with gasoline fuel in a spray-guided-type combustion system as a result of the stratified combustion characteristics. Because a lean-burn engine cannot employ a three-way catalyst, NOx emissions can be an obstacle to commercializing a lean-burn direct injection engine. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fuel was proposed as an alternative for reducing NOx emission because it has a higher vapor pressure than gasoline and decreases the local rich mixture region as a result of an improved mixing process.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Direct Injection LPG/Gasoline Spark Ignition Engine

Combustion and emission characteristics of LPG(Liquefied Petroleum Gas) and gasoline fuels were compared in a single cylinder engine with direct fuel injection. While fuel injection pressure and IMEP(indicated mean effective pressure) were varied with 60, 90, 120 bar and 2 to 10 bar, another parameters for the engine operation as engine speed, air excess, and fuel injection timing were fixed at 1500 rpm, 1.0, and BTDC 300 CA respectively. Experimental results showed that MBT timing for LPG was less sensitive to IMEP, and high injection pressure made combustion stability worse at IMEP=2 bar. Through heat release analysis LPG showed shorter 10 and 90% MBD(mass burn duration) than gasoline due to fast flame speed and for both fuels injection pressure hardly affected burn duration. It was also found that thermal efficiency of LPG had a little higher than that of gasoline. Hydrocarbon emissions of gasoline rose to a level of three-fold than those of LPG.