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Technical Paper

Effects of Hydrogen Ratio and EGR on Combustion and Emissions in a Hydrogen/Diesel Dual-Fuel PCCI Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1815
The effects of hydrogen ratio and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emissions in a hydrogen/diesel dual-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) engine were investigated. The control of combustion phasing could be improved using hydrogen enrichment and EGR due to the retarded combustion phasing with a higher hydrogen ratio. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) was increased with a higher hydrogen ratio because the hydrogen enrichment intensified the high temperature reactions and thus decreased the combustion duration. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were reduced significantly in a hydrogen/diesel dual-fuel PCCI mode with a similar NOx emissions level as that of the diesel PCCI mode.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR and DME Injection Strategy in Hydrogen-DME Compression Ignition Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1790
The compression ignition combustion fuelled with hydrogen and dimethyl-ether was investigated. Exhaust gas recirculation was applied to reduce noise and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission. When dimethyl-ether was injected earlier, combustion showed two-stage ignitions known as low temperature reaction and high temperature reaction. With advanced dimethyl-ether injection, combustion temperature and in-cylinder pressure rise were lowered which resulted in high carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. However, NOx emission was decreased due to relatively low combustion temperature. The engine combustion showed only high temperature reaction when dimethyl-ether was injected near top dead center. When exhaust gas recirculation gas was added, the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate were decreased. However, it retarded combustion phase resulting in higher indicated mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Active Regenerative DPF Using a Plasma Assisted Burner

2009-06-15
2009-01-1926
Plasma burner for the regeneration of active DPF system is proposed. Plasma used in this work is rotating arc that is optimized for burner application. Electric power required to operate plasma burner is less than 200W and is not dependent on the engine size. In this plasma burner, plasma plays multiple roles including heater for fuel vaporization, mixer, partial reformer, igniter and flame holder. These special functions enable the burner to sustain stable flame even in ultra rich condition where a flame is never possible to be sustained in conventional burner. Air flow rate required to operate the burner is 50~100 liter/min regardless of the amount of fuel where the amount of fuel usage depends on the target temperature. Road test showed successful operation over 20,000km run with 2.5, 5 and 8.5 ton truck satisfying mode condition for certification of Korea governmental retrofit program.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Injection Location of DME and LPG in a Dual Fuel HCCI Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1847
Dimethyl ether (DME) as a high cetane number fuel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a high octane number fuel were supplied together to evaluate the controllability of combustion phase and improvement of power and exhaust emission in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. Each fuel was injected at the intake port and in the cylinder separately during the same cycle, i.e., DME in the cylinder and LPG at the intake port, or vice versa. Direct injection timing was varied from 200 to 340 crank angle degree (CAD) while port injection timing was fixed at 20 CAD. In general, the experimental results showed that DME direct injection with LPG port injection was the better way to increase the IMEP and reduce emissions. The direct injection timing of high cetane number fuel was important to control the auto-ignition timing because the auto-ignition was occurred at proper area, where the air and high cetane number fuel were well mixed.
Journal Article

Improvement of DME HCCI Engine Performance by Fuel Injection Strategies and EGR

2008-06-23
2008-01-1659
The combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a DME fueled HCCI engine were investigated. Different fuel injection strategies were tested under various injection quantities and timings with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The combustion phase in HCCI was changed by an in-cylinder direct injection and EGR, due to changes in the in-cylinder temperature and mixture homogeneity. The gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEPgross) increased and the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions decreased as the equivalence ratio was augmented. The IMEPgross with direct injection was greater than with the port injection due to retarded ignition timing resulting from latent heat of direct injected DME fuel. It was because that most of burn duration was completed before top dead center owing to higher ignitability for DME with high cetane number. However, HC and CO emissions were similar for both injection locations.
Technical Paper

The Dual-Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Using Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Di-methyl Ether

2007-08-05
2007-01-3619
The combustion, knock characteristics and exhaust emissions in an engine were investigated under homogeneous charge compression ignition operation fueled with liquefied petroleum gas with regard to variable valve timing and the addition of di-methyl ether. Liquefied petroleum gas was injected at an intake port as the main fuel in a liquid phase using a liquefied injection system, while a small amount of di-methyl ether was also injected directly into the cylinder during the intake stroke as an ignition promoter. Different intake valve timings and fuel injection amount were tested in order to identify their effects on exhaust emissions, combustion and knock characteristics. The optimal intake valve open timing for the maximum indicated mean effective pressure was retarded as the λTOTAL was decreased. The start of combustion was affected by the intake valve open timing and the mixture strength (λTOTAL) due to the volumetric efficiency and latent heat of vaporization.
Technical Paper

Generation of Robust and Well-Atomized Swirl Spray

2007-07-23
2007-01-1852
The spray characteristics of a swirl injector for direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines were investigated for the generation of robust and well-atomized swirl spray. A highly-inclined tapered nozzle is applied as a test nozzle and the spray characteristics are compared with conventional nozzle and L-step nozzle. When the taper angle is 70°, an opened hollow cone spray is formed. This spray does not collapse with increasing fuel temperature and back pressure conditions. However, the taper angle should be optimized to avoid forming a locally rich area and to increase the spray volume. The droplet size of 70° tapered nozzle spray shows a value similar to that of the original swirl spray in the horizontal mainstream while it shows an increased value in the vertical mainstream. The deteriorated atomization characteristics of the tapered nozzle spray are improved by applying high fuel temperature injection without causing spray collapse.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Droplet and Icing Formation of an injector for Liquid Phase LPG Injection System

2007-07-23
2007-01-2050
The use of clean gaseous fuel in automotive engines has been continuously increased in order to meet the reinforcing emission regulations and to efficiently utilize limited natural resources. Since the liquid phase LPG injection (LPLI) system has an advantage of higher power and lower emission characteristics than the mixer type fuel supply system, many studies and applications have been conducted. However, the heat extraction, due to the evaporation of liquid LPG fuel, causes not only a dropping of LPG fuel but also icing phenomenon that is a frost of moisture in the air around the nozzle tip. Because both lead to a difficulty in the control of accurate air fuel ratio, it can result in poor engine performance and a large amount of HC emissions. The main objective of this study is to examine the characteristics of icing phenomenon and also aims to improve it through the use of anti-icing injection tip. An experimental investigation was carried out on the bench test rig in this study.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Thermal Shock in a Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer

2005-05-11
2005-01-2092
One of the major problems limiting the accuracy of piezoelectric transducers for cylinder pressure measurements in an internal-combustion (IC) engine is the thermal shock. Thermal shock is generated from the temperature variation during the cycle. This temperature variation results in contraction and expansion of the diaphragm and consequently changes the force acting on the quartz in the pressure transducer. An empirical equation for compensation of the thermal shock error was derived from consideration of the diaphragm thermal deformation and actual pressure data. The deformation and the resulting pressure difference due to thermal shock are mainly a function of the change in surface temperature and the equation includes two model constants. In order to calibrate these two constants, the pressure inside the cylinder of a diesel engine was measured simultaneously using two types of pressure transducers, in addition to instantaneous wall temperature measurement.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Injector Temperature on Spray and Combustion Characteristics in a Single Cylinder DISI Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0101
The spray behavior of direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines is crucial for obtaining the required mixture distribution for optimal engine combustion. The spray characteristics of DISI engines are affected by many factors. In this study, the effect of injector temperature was particularly investigated. Spray images from slit injectors using Mie scattering and shadowgraph techniques showed that spray penetration decreases and spray width increases at higher injector temperature. However, opposite trend has been observed for the spray structure from swirl injector. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) results showed, for both injectors, a reduction in droplet sizes at higher injector temperatures. The effect of injector temperature using the slit injector on engine combustion during cold start and warming-up operating conditions was also investigated. Successive flame images using high speed camera, engine-out emissions and performance data have been analyzed.
Technical Paper

Fuel Stratification in a Liquid-Phase LPG Injection Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1777
To investigate the mixture distributions in an LPG engine with Liquid phase port injection for heavy duty vehicles, an optical single cylinder engine, which is optically accessible both in side and bottom view, and laser diagnostic system were incorporated to apply PLIF (planar laser induced fluorescence) technique. Acetone was used as a dopant in LPG fuel, which was excited by KrF excimer laser (248nm), and its fluorescence images were acquired with ICCD camera. The effects of fuel injection timing, swirl intensity and excess air ratio were investigated. For the case of open valve injection, favorable stratification of fuel, both in axial and radial direction, was clearly observed compared to the closed valve injection, where reverse stratification in axial direction was observed. At the Ricardo swirl ratio of 3.4, it was apparent that excessive axial stratification of fuel got dominant, which would lead to poor engine performances.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Icing Phenomenon on Injector in a Liquid Phase LPG Injection SI Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1919
A liquid phase LPG injection (LPLi) system has been considered as one of the next generation fuel supply system, since it has a very strong potential to accomplish the higher power, higher efficiency, and lower emission characteristics than the mixer type that is classified as a second generation technology, whereas the LPLi system is classified as a third generation technology. However, when a liquid LPG fuel is injected into the inlet duct of an engine, a large quantity of heat is extracted due to its high latent heat of evaporation. This leads the moisture in the air to freeze around the nozzle exit, which is called icing phenomenon. It may cause damage to the outlet nozzle of an injector or inlet valve seat. In this work, the experimental investigation of the icing phenomenon was carried out. The results showed that humidity of air rather than the temperature of air in the inlet duct mainly controlled the icing process.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Fuel/Air Mixture Formation for Heavy Duty Liquid Phase LPG Injection (LPLI) Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-0636
Submodels are developed for injection, evaporation and wall impingement of a liquid LPG spray. The injection model determines the quality of fuel as two-phase choke flow at the nozzle exit. Wind tunnel experiments show the spray penetration more sensitive to ambient flow velocity than to injection pressure. Most evaporation occurs during choking, while heat transfer from surrounding air has a negligible effect on downstream droplet sizes. Three dimensional simulation shows that the bathtub cavity is better than the dog-dish cavity for stable flame propagation in lean-burn conditions. The injection timing during the IVC period has a negligible effect, while injection during an intake stroke enhances fuel/air mixing to result in more homogeneous cylinder charge.
Technical Paper

Dimethyl Ether (DME) Spray Characteristics Compared to Diesel in a Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

2002-10-21
2002-01-2898
Dimethyl Ether (DME) has been considered as one of the most attractive alternative fuels for compression ignition engine. Its main advantage in compression-ignition engine application is high efficiency of diesel cycle with soot free combustion though conventional fuel injection system has to be modified due to the intrinsic properties of the DME. Experimental study of the DME and conventional diesel spray employing a common-rail type fuel injection system with a sac type injector was performed in a constant volume vessel pressurized by nitrogen gas. A CCD camera was employed to capture time series of spray images, so that spray cone angles and penetrations of the DME spray were characterized and compared with those of diesel. Intermittent hesitating DME spray appeared at injection pressures of 25MPa and 40MPa in both atmospheric and 3MPa chamber pressures.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Operating Conditions on Catalytic Converter Temperature in an SI Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1677
To meet stringent emission standards, a considerable amount of development work is necessary to ensure suitable efficiency and durability of catalyst systems. The main challenge is to reduce the engine cold-start emissions. Close-coupled catalyst (CCC) provides fast light-off time by utilizing the energy in the exhaust gas. However, if some malfunction occurred during engine operation and the catalyst temperature exceeds 1050°C, the catalytic converter becomes deactivated and shows poor conversion efficiency. Close-coupled catalyst temperature was investigated under various engine operating conditions. All of the experiments were conducted with a 1.0L SI engine at 1500-4000 rpm. The engine was operated at no load to full load conditions. Exhaust gas temperature and catalyst temperature were measured as a function of lambda value (0.8-1.2), ignition timing (BTDC 30°-ATDC 30°) and misfire rates (0-28%).
Technical Paper

Engine Controller for the Hydrocarbon Reduction During Cold Start in SI Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1666
In order to reduce hydrocarbon emission in gasoline engine, especially during warming-up period, it is necessary to estimate the fuel and fuel product flow rate in the emission gas. The intake airflow rate should also be estimated. A strategy was proposed to estimate air fuel ratio in a spark ignition engine. The mass of air in the cylinder was determined by filling-emptying method, and the fuel in the intake manifold and cylinder was estimated by the “wall-wetting” effect calculation. The use of graphical dynamic system control software is becoming more popular as automotive engineers strive to reduce the time to develop new control systems. The rapid prototype engine controller has been developed by using MATLAB, SIMULINK, REAL TIME WORKSHOP, xPC Target, and WATCOM C++. The sensor data from the engine will be transferred to computer, and the fuel delivery will be calculated.
Technical Paper

Flame Propagation Characteristics in a Heavy Duty LPG Engine with Liquid Phase Port Injection

2002-05-06
2002-01-1736
Combustion and flame propagation characteristics of the liquid phase LPG injection (LPLI) engine were investigated in a single cylinder optical engine. Lean burn operation is needed to reduce thermal stress of exhaust manifold and engine knock in a heavy duty LPG engine. An LPLI system has advantages on lean operation. Optimized engine design parameters such as swirl, injection timing and piston geometry can improve lean burn performance with LPLI system. In this study, the effects of piston geometry along with injection timing and swirl ratio on flame propagation characteristics were investigated. A series of bottom-view flame images were taken from direct visualization using a UV intensified high-speed CCD camera. Concepts of flame area speed, in addition to flame propagation patterns and thermodynamic heat release analysis, was introduced to analyze the flame propagation characteristics.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Air Fuel Ratio of a SI Engine from Exhaust Gas Temperature at Cold Start Condition

2002-05-06
2002-01-1667
Wall wetting of injected fuel onto the intake manifold and cylinder wall causes unpredictable transient behavior of air-fuel mixing which results in a significant emission of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emission during cold start operation. Heated exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensors cannot measure the air-fuel ratio (A/F) of exhaust gas during cold start condition. Precise and fast estimation of air/fuel ratio of the exhaust gas is required to elucidate the wall wetting phenomena and subsequent HC formation. Refined A/F estimation can enable the control of fuel injection minimizing HC emissions during cold start conditions so that HC emissions can be minimized. A new estimator for A/F of the exhaust gas has been developed. The A/F estimator described in this study utilizes measured exhaust gas temperature and general engine parameters such as engine speed, airflow, coolant temperature, etc.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Performance and Combustion of an LPG MPI Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

2002-03-04
2002-01-0449
An LPG engine for heavy duty vehicles has been developed using liquid phase LPG injection (hereafter LPLI) system, which has regarded as as one of next generation LPG fuel supply systems. In this work the optimized piston cavities were investigated and chosen for an LPLI engine system. While the mass production of piston cavities is considered, three piston cavities were tested: Dog-dish type, bathtub type and top-land-cut bathtub type. From the experiments the bathtub type showed the extension of lean limit while achieving the stable combustion, compared to the dog-dish type at the same injection timing. Throughout CFD analysis, it was revealed that the extension of lean limit was due to an increase of turbulence intensity by the enlarged crevice area, and the enlargement of flame front surface owing to the shape of the bathtub piston cavity compared to that of the dog-dish type.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of an 11L LPG MPI Engine for City Buses

2002-03-04
2002-01-0448
An 11L heavy duty LPG MPI engine has been developed using the liquid phase LPG injection system, which is one of the next generation LPG fueling technologies, since the LPG MPI engine can achieve the higher power and efficiency, and lower exhaust emissions than the conventional mixer type system. Two prototypes - a natural aspiration(NA) engine and a turbocharged inter-cooler(TCI) engine - were developed in this work and tested to measure the performance and emissions. For a NA type engine, in order to achieve the low emissions, the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio was adapted with a three-way catalytic converter. Whereas, for a TCI type, the lean burn technology was introduced to minimize the thermal loading due to an increase of the engine power. The results in this work demonstrated that the LPG MPI engines have the higher engine performance and lower exhaust emissions than the base diesel engine.
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