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Journal Article

Vehicle Level Brake Drag Target Setting for EPA Fuel Economy Certification

2016-09-18
2016-01-1925
The strong focus on reducing brake drag, driven by a historic ramp-up in global fuel economy and carbon emissions standards, has led to renewed research on brake caliper drag behaviors and how to measure them. However, with the increased knowledge of the range of drag behaviors that a caliper can exhibit comes a particularly vexing problem - how should this complex range of behaviors be represented in the overall road load of the vehicle? What conditions are encountered during coastdown and fuel economy testing, and how should brake drag be measured and represented in these conditions? With the Environmental Protection Agency (amongst other regulating agencies around the world) conducting audit testing, and the requirement that published road load values be repeatable within a specified range during these audits, the importance of answering these questions accurately is elevated. This paper studies these questions, and even offers methodology for addressing them.
Technical Paper

Disc Brake Pad Corrosion Adhesion: Test-to-Field Issue Correlation, and Exploration of Friction Physical Properties Influence to Adhesion Break-Away Force

2016-09-18
2016-01-1926
Brake pad to rotor adhesion following exposure to corrosive environments, commonly referred to as “stiction”, continues to present braking engineers with challenges in predicting issues in early phases of development and in resolution once the condition has been identified. The goal of this study took on two parts - first to explore trends in field stiction data and how testing methods can be adapted to better replicate the vehicle issue at the component level, and second to explore the impacts of various brake pad physical properties variation on stiction propensity via a controlled design of experiments. Part one will involve comparison of various production hardware configurations on component level stiction tests with different levels of prior braking experience to evaluate conditioning effects on stiction breakaway force.
Journal Article

Power Dense and Robust Traction Power Inverter for the Second-Generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range EV

2015-04-14
2015-01-1201
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. First generation Chevrolet Volts were driven over half a billion miles in North America from October 2013 through September 2014, 74% of which were all-electric [1, 12]. For 2016, GM has developed the second-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. By significantly re-engineering the traction power inverter module (TPIM) for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (EREV), we were able to meet all performance targets while maintaining extremely high reliability and environmental robustness. The power switch was re-designed to achieve efficiency targets and meet thermal challenges. A novel cooling approach enables high power density while maintaining a very high overall conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

On-Line Sound Brush Measurement Technique for 3D Noise Emission Studies

2013-05-13
2013-01-1973
A key issue in noise emission studies of noise producing machinery concerns the identification and analysis of the noise sources and their interaction and radiation into the far field. This paper presents a new acoustic measurement technique for noise source identification in stationary applications. The core of the technology is a handheld measurement instrument combining a position and orientation tracking device with a 3D sound intensity probe. The technique allows an on-line 3D visualization of the sound field while moving the probe freely around the test object. By focusing on the areas of interest, troublesome areas can be identified that require further in-depth analysis. The measurement technique is flexible, interactive and widely applicable in industrial applications. This paper explains the working principle and characteristics of this new technology and positions it to existing methods like traditional sound intensity testing and array techniques.
Technical Paper

Virtual Car Sound Synthesis Technique for Brand Sound Design of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

2012-11-25
2012-36-0614
One of the practical consequences of the development of low CO₂ emission cars is that many of the traditional NVH sound engineering processes no longer apply and must be revisited. Different and new sound sources, new constraints on vehicle body design (e.g., due to weight) and new sound perception characteristics make that the NVH knowledge built on generations of internal combustion-powered vehicles cannot be simply transferred to Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEV). Hence, the applicability of tools must be reviewed and extensions need to be developed where necessary. This paper focuses on sound synthesis tools as developed for ICE-powered vehicles. Because of the missing masking effect and the missing intake and exhaust noise of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) in electric vehicles, on one hand electric vehicles are quieter than traditional vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Source-Transfer-Receiver Approach to NVH Engineering of Hybrid/Electric Vehicles

2012-11-25
2012-36-0646
Vehicles with electrified powertrains are being introduced at an increasing pace. On the level of interior sound, one is often inclined to assume that NVH problems in EV have disappeared together with the combustion engine. Three observations demonstrate that this is not the case. First of all, only the dominant engine sound disappears, not the noise from tire, wind or auxiliaries, which consequently become increasingly audible due to the removal of the broadband engine masking sound. Secondly, new noise sources like tonal sounds from the electro-mechanical drive systems emerge and often have, despite their low overall noise levels, a high annoyance rating. Thirdly, the fact that engine/exhaust sounds are often used to contribute to the “character” of the vehicle leads to an open question how to realize an appealing brand sound with EV. Hybrid vehicles are furthermore characterized by mode-switching effects, with impact on both continuity feeling and sound consistency problems.
Technical Paper

Passenger Vehicle Pass-By Noise Test Using Generalized Inverse Beamforming

2011-10-04
2011-36-0408
The investigation of critical noise sources on pass-by noise tests is demanding development of the current techniques in order to locate and quantify these sources. One recent approach is to use beamforming techniques to this purpose. The phased array information can be processed using several methods, for example, conventional delay-and-sum algorithms, deconvolution based algorithms, such as DAMAS, and more recently, the generalized inverse beamforming. This later method, presents the advantage of separating coherent sources with better dynamic range than conventional beamforming. Also, recent developments, such as Iteratively Re-Weigthing Least Squares, increases the localization accuracy allowing it to be used in a challenging problem as a fast moving source detection, a non-stationary condition. The work will raise the main advantages and disadvantages on this method using a practical case, a passenger vehicle pass-by test.
Technical Paper

Noise Contribution Analysis at Suspension Interfaces Using Different Force Identification Techniques

2011-05-17
2011-01-1600
Road-tire induced vibrations are in many vehicles determining the interior noise levels in (semi-) constant speed driving. The understanding of the noise contributions of different connections of the suspension systems to the vehicle is essential in improvement of the isolation capabilities of the suspension- and body-structure. To identify these noise contributions, both the forces acting at the suspension-to-body connections points and the vibro-acoustic transfers from the connection points to the interior microphones are required. In this paper different approaches to identify the forces are compared for their applicability to road noise analysis. First step for the force identification is the full vehicle operational measurement in which target responses (interior noise) and indicator responses (accelerations or other) are measured.
Technical Paper

Time-Domain Source Contribution Analysis Method for In-Room Pass-By Noise

2011-05-17
2011-01-1609
This paper presents a new time-domain source contribution analysis method for in-room pass-by noise. The core of the method is a frequency-domain ASQ model (Airborne Source Quantification) representing each noise generating component (engine, exhaust, left and right tyres, etc.) by a number of acoustic sources. The ASQ model requires the measurement of local FRF's and acoustic noise transfer functions to identify the operational loads from nearby pressure indicator responses and propagate the loads to the various target microphones on the sides of the vehicle. Once a good ASQ model is obtained, FIR filters are constructed, allowing a time-domain synthesis of the various source contributions to each target microphone. The synthesized target response signals are finally recombined into a pass-by sound by taking into account the speed profile of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Synthesis of Drive-by Noise Based on Numerically Evaluated Source-Receiver Transfer Functions Employing the FMBEM

2011-05-17
2011-01-1610
Prediction of the drive-by noise level in the early design stage of an automotive vehicle is feasible if the source signatures and source-receiver transfer functions may be determined from simulations based on the available CAD/CAE models. This paper reports on the performance of a drive-by noise synthesis procedure in which the transfer functions are numerically evaluated by employing the Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method (FMBEM). The proposed synthesis procedure first computes the steady-state receiver contributions of the sources as appearing from a number of vehicle positions along the drive path. In a second step, these contributions are then combined into a single transient signal from a moving vehicle for each source-receiver pair by means of a travel time correction.
Technical Paper

A Method to Combine a Tire Model with a Flexible Rim Model in a Hybrid MBS/FEM Simulation Setup

2011-04-12
2011-01-0186
During the last ten years, there is a significant tendency in automotive design to use lower aspect ratio tires and meanwhile also more and more run-flat tires. In appropriate publications, the influences of these tire types on the dynamic loads - transferred from the road passing wheel center into the car - have been investigated pretty well, including comparative wheel force transducer measurements as well as simulation results. It could be shown that the fatigue input into the vehicle tends to increase when using low aspect ratio tires and particularly when using run-flat tires. But which influences do we get for the loading and fatigue behavior of the respective rims? While the influences on the vehicle are relatively easy to detect by using wheel force transducers, the local forces acting on the rim flange (when for example passing a high obstacle) are much more difficult to detect (in measurement as well as in simulation).
Technical Paper

Radiated Fuel Tank Slosh Noise Simulation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0495
With the introduction of hybrid vehicles and the associated elimination of engine and exhaust masking noises, sounds from other sources is becoming more noticeable. Fuel tank sloshing is one of these sources. Fuel sloshing occurs when a vehicle is accelerated in any direction and can create noise that may be perceived as a quality issue by the customer. To reduce slosh noise, a fuel tank has to be carefully designed. Reduction in slosh noise using test- based methods can be very costly and timely. This paper shows how, using the combination of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic), FE (Finite Element) and Acoustic simulation methods, the radiated fuel tank slosh noise performance can be evaluated using CAE methods. Although the de-coupled fluid /structure interaction (FSI) method was used for the examples in this paper, the acoustic simulation method is not limited to the decoupled FSI method.
Technical Paper

Advanced State Estimator Design for an Active Suspension

2011-01-19
2011-26-0068
Active suspension systems aim at increasing safety by improving vehicle ride and handling performance while ensuring superior passenger comfort. Good control of this active system can only be achieved by providing the control algorithm with reliable and accurate signals for the required quantities. This paper presents the design and development of a state estimator that accurately provides the information required by a sky-hook controller, using a minimum of sensors. The vehicle inertial parameters are estimated by an algorithm based on Monte Carlo simulations and anthropometric data. All state updating is performed using Kalman filters. The resulting performance enhancement has been proven during test drives.
Technical Paper

Simulating Acoustic Engine Performance Over a Broad Frequency Range

2011-01-19
2011-26-0019
Acoustic performance of vehicle engines is a real challenge for powertrain design engineers. Quiet engines are required to reduce noise pollution and satisfy pass-by noise regulations, but also to improve the driving comfort. Simulation techniques such as the Boundary Element Method (BEM) have already been available for some time and allow predicting the vibro-acoustic response of engines. Although the accuracy of these simulation techniques has been proven, a challenge still remains in the required computation time. Given the large amount of speeds for a full engine run-up and the need to cover a large frequency range, computation times are significant, which limits the possibility to perform many design iterations to optimize the system. In 2001, Acoustic Transfer Vectors (ATV) [1] have been presented to adequately deal with multiple rpm. The ATV provide the acoustic response for unit surface velocities and are therefore independent from the engine's actual surface vibrations.
Technical Paper

A Test-Based Procedure for the Identification of Rack and Pinion Steering System Parameters for Use In CAE Ride-Comfort Simulations

2009-05-19
2009-01-2090
Current CAE modeling and simulation techniques in the time domain allow, by now, very accurate prediction of many ride-comfort performances of the cars. Nevertheless, the prediction of the steering wheel rotation vibration excited by, for instance, wheel unbalance or asymmetric obstacle impact, often runs into the difficulty of modeling the steering line with sufficient accuracy. For a classic rack and pinion, hydraulic assisted steering line, one of the challenges is to model the complex and non linear properties - stiffness, friction and damping - of the rack-rack case system. This paper proposes a rack model, thought for easy implementation in complex multi-body models, and an identification procedure of its parameters, based on measurements, in the operational range of the wheel unbalance excitation. The measurements have been gathered by specific tests on the components and the test set-up is also shown here.
Technical Paper

Data-Driven Driving Skill Characterization: Algorithm Comparison and Decision Fusion

2009-04-20
2009-01-1286
By adapting vehicle control systems to the skill level of the driver, the overall vehicle active safety provided to the driver can be further enhanced for the existing active vehicle controls, such as ABS, Traction Control, Vehicle Stability Enhancement Systems. As a follow-up to the feasibility study in [1], this paper provides some recent results on data-driven driving skill characterization. In particular, the paper presents an enhancement of discriminant features, the comparison of three different learning algorithms for recognizer design, and the performance enhancement with decision fusion. The paper concludes with the discussions of the experimental results and some of the future work.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Brake System Performance during Race Track/High Energy Driving Conditions with Integrated Vehicle Dynamics and Neural-Network Subsystem Models

2009-04-20
2009-01-0860
In racetrack conditions, brake systems are subjected to extreme energy loads and energy load distributions. This can lead to very high friction surface temperatures, especially on the brake corner that operates, for a given track, with the most available traction and the highest energy loading. Individual brake corners can be stressed to the point of extreme fade and lining wear, and the resultant degradation in brake corner performance can affect the performance of the entire brake system, causing significant changes in pedal feel, brake balance, and brake lining life. It is therefore important in high performance brake system design to ensure favorable operating conditions for the selected brake corner components under the full range of conditions that the intended vehicle application will place them under. To address this task in an early design stage, it is helpful to use brake system modeling tools to analyze system performance.
Technical Paper

Early Noise Analysis for Robust Quiet Brake Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-0858
At the early design stage it is easier to achieve impacts on the brake noise. However most noise analyses are applied later in the development stage when the design space is limited and changes are costly. Early noise analysis is seldom applied due to lack of credible inputs for the finite element modeling, the sensitive nature of the noise, and reservations on the noise event screening of the analysis. A high quality brake finite element model of good components’ and system representation is the necessary basis for credible early noise analysis. That usually requires the inputs from existing production hardware. On the other hand in vehicle braking the frequency contents and propensity of many noise cases are sensitive to minor component design modifications, environmental factors and hardware variations in mass production. Screening the noisy modes and their sensitivity levels helps confirm the major noisy event at the early design stage.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Robust Optimization for Performances of Noise & Vibration and Impact Hardness & Memory Shake

2009-04-20
2009-01-0341
This paper demonstrates the benefit of using simulation and robust optimization for the problem of balancing vehicle noise, vibration, and ride performance over road impacts. The psychophysics associated with perception of vehicle performance on an impact is complex because the occupants encounter both tactile and audible stimuli. Tactile impact vibration has multiple dimensions, such as impact hardness and memory shake. Audible impact sound also affects occupant perception of the vehicle quality. This paper uses multiple approaches to produce the similar, robust, optimized tuning strategies for impact performance. A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project was established to help identify a balanced, optimized solution. The CAE simulations were combined with software tools such as iSIGHT and internally developed Kriging software to identify response surfaces and find optimal tuning.
Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0143
Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
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