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Technical Paper

Application of Electrically Driven Coolant Pumps on a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0074
A reduction in CO2 emissions and consequently fuel consumption is essential in the context of future greenhouse gas limits. With respect to the thermodynamic loss analysis of an internal combustion engine, a gap between the net indicated thermal efficiency and the brake thermal efficiency is recognizable. This share is caused by friction losses, which are the focus of this research project. The parasitic loss reduction potential by replacing the mechanical water pump with an electric coolant pump is discussed in the course of this work. This is not a novel approach in light duty vehicles, whereas in commercial vehicles a rigid drive of all auxiliaries is standard. Taking into account an implementation of a 48-V power system in the short or medium term, an electrification of auxiliary components becomes feasible. The application of electric coolant pumps on an Euro VI certified 6-cylinder in-line heavy-duty diesel engine regarding fuel economy was thus performed.
Technical Paper

Highly Dynamic Intake and Exhaust Back Pressure Control

2019-01-09
2019-26-0147
Measuring emissions of internal combustion engines-not only at steady-state conditions, but also with highly dynamic test cycles-is an important issue in modern engine development. Due to the fact that ambient conditions have an essential influence on power and emissions of internal combustion engines, test beds used for such measurements typically incorporate intake air and exhaust back pressure control for reasons of repeatability, accuracy and comparability. As test cycle dynamics get faster and legal pressure tolerances get narrower, pressure control becomes more demanding and simple PI control schemes are pushed to their limits; therefore, more sophisticated control schemes are necessary. In this paper, a linearised model is first derived and then used to both simplify and optimise PI controller tuning. This is done by means of frequency domain methods. Limitations to such controllers and possible approaches to overcome them are discussed.
Technical Paper

Technologies to Achieve Future Emission Legislations with Two Stroke Motorcycles

2018-10-30
2018-32-0042
Increasingly stringent emission regulations force manufacturers of two wheelers to develop low emission motorcycle concepts. Especially for small two-stroke engines with symmetrical port timing structure, causing high HC-emissions due to scavenge losses, this is a challenging demand that can only be met with alternative mixture formation strategies and by intensifying the use of modern development tools. Changing from EU4 to EU5, emission legislation will not only have an impact on the improvement of internal combustion but will also drastically change the after-treatment system. Nowadays, small two-stroke engines make use of a simple carburetor for external mixture preparation. The cylinders are scavenged by air/fuel mixtures. Equipped with exhaust gas after-treatment systems, such as secondary air with two or three catalytic converters, the emission limits for EURO 4 homologation can be achieved with carbureted engines.
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network Based Predictive Real Drive Emission and Fuel Economy Simulation of Motorcycles

2018-10-30
2018-32-0030
As the number of different engine and vehicle concepts for powered-two wheelers is very high and will even rise with hybridization, the simulation of emissions and fuel consumption is indispensable for further development towards more environmentally friendly mobility. In this work, an adaptive artificial neural network based predictive model for emission and fuel consumption simulation of motorcycles operated in real world conditions is presented. The model is developed in Matlab and Simulink and is integrated into a longitudinal vehicle dynamic simulation whereby it is possible to simulate various and not yet measured test cycles. Subsequently, it is possible to predict real drive emissions RDE and on-road fuel consumption by a minimum of previous measurement effort.
Technical Paper

Current Findings in Measurement Technology and Measurement Methodology for RDE and Fuel Consumption for Two-Wheeler-Applications

2017-11-05
2017-32-0041
Real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and fuel consumption. To reduce climate-relevant and environmentally harmful gaseous emissions and the exploitation of fossil resources, deep understanding concerning the real drive behavior of mobile sources is needed because emissions and fuel consumption of e.g. passenger cars, operated in real world conditions, considerably differ from the officially published values which are valid for specific test cycles only [1]. Due to legislative regulations by the European Commission a methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is well approved for heavy duty vehicles and automotive applications but may not be adapted similar to two-wheeler-applications. This is due to several issues when using the state of the art portable emission measurement system PEMS that will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Results, Assessment and Legislative Relevance of RDE and Fuel Consumption Measurements of Two-Wheeler-Applications

2017-11-05
2017-32-0042
The reduction of environmentally harmful gases and the ambitions to reduce the exploitation of fossil resources lead to stricter legislation for all mobile sources. Legislative development significantly affected improvements in emissions and fuel consumptions over the last years, mainly measured under laboratory conditions. But real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and it is already well known that these values considerably differ from officially published figures [1]. There are regulated emissions by the European Commission by means of real driving scenarios for passenger cars. A methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is therefore well approved for automotive applications but was not adapted for two-wheeler-applications yet [2]. Hence measurements have been performed on-road and on chassis dynamometer for motorcycles with the state of the art RDE measurement equipment to be prepared for possible future legislation.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Loss Analysis of a High Power Motorcycle Engine with Focus on Alcohol Blended Fuels

2017-11-05
2017-32-0070
The development of future internal combustion engines and fuels is influenced by decreasing energy resources, restriction of emission legislation and increasing environmental awareness of humanity itself. Alternative renewable fuels have, in dependency on their physical and chemical properties, on the production process and on the raw material, the potential to contribute a better well-to-wheel-CO2-emission-balance in automotive and nonautomotive applications. The focus of this research is the usage of alcohol fuels, like ethanol and 2-butanol, in motorcycle high power engines. The different propulsion systems and operation scenarios of motorcycle applications in comparison to automobile applications raise the need for specific research in this area.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Lean NOx Trap (LNT) Regeneration Strategies for Diesel Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0124
To minimize nitrogen oxide (NOx) as well as carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions to fulfil the new European real driving emissions (RDE) legislation, the LNT operation strategy - especially for DeNOx events (rich mode) - has to be optimized. On one hand the DeNOx purges should be long enough to fully regenerate the lean NOx trap, on the other hand the purges should be as short as possible to reduce the fuel consumption penalty from rich mode. Fundamental experiments have been conducted on a synthetic-gas-test-bench, purposely designed to test LNT catalysts. This methodology allowed to remove NOx from the gasfeed after the lean storage phase. The actually reduced amount of NOx could be easily calculated from the NOx storage before a regeneration event minus the NOx that was desorbed during the DeNOx event and afterwards thermally desorbed NOx.
Journal Article

Advanced Heat Transfer and Underhood Airflow Investigation with Focus on Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) of Snowmobiles

2017-06-28
2017-01-9180
The presented paper focuses on the computation of heat transfer related to continuously variable transmissions (CVTs). High temperatures are critical for the highly loaded rubber belts and reduce their lifetime significantly. Hence, a sufficient cooling system is inevitable. A numerical tool which is capable of predicting surface heat transfer and maximum temperatures is of high importance for concept design studies. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a suitable method to carry out this task. In this work, a time efficient and accurate simulation strategy is developed to model the complexity of a CVT. The validity of the technique used is underlined by field measurements. Tests have been carried out on a snowmobile CVT, where component temperatures, air temperatures in the CVT vicinity and engine data have been monitored. A corresponding CAD model has been created and the boundary conditions were set according to the testing conditions.
Journal Article

Improved Modeling of Near-Wall Heat Transport for Cooling of Electric and Hybrid Powertrain Components by High Prandtl Number Flow

2017-03-28
2017-01-0621
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations of heat transfer involving wall bounded flows at elevated Prandtl numbers typically suffer from a lack of accuracy and/or increased mesh dependency. This can be often attributed to an improper near-wall turbulence modeling and the deficiency of the wall heat transfer models (based on the so called P-functions) that do not properly account for the variation of the turbulent Prandtl number in the wall proximity (y+< 5). As the conductive sub-layer gets significantly thinner than the viscous velocity sub-layer (for Pr >1), treatment of the thermal buffer layer gains importance as well. Various hybrid strategies utilize blending functions dependent on the molecular Prandtl number, which do not necessarily provide a smooth transition from the viscous/conductive sub-layer to the logarithmic region.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Different Injection Technologies for High Performance Two-Stroke Engines

2016-11-08
2016-32-0001
High performance engines are used in many different powersports applications. In several of these applications 2-stroke engines play an important role. The direct injection technology is a key technology for 2-stroke engines to fulfill both the customers’ request for high power and the environmental requirements concerning emissions and efficiency. As the load spectrum differs from one application to the other, it was interesting to find out if different injection technologies can answer the needs for different applications more efficiently regarding performance but also economic targets. Therefore, the results of the BRP Rotax 600 cm3 E-TEC (direct injection system) engine are compared to the same base engine but adopted with the LPDI (low pressure direct injection) technology developed by IVT at Graz University of Technology. The systems were compared on the engine testbench over 17 rpm / load points representing different product usage profiles.
Journal Article

Investigations and Analysis of Working Processes of Two-Stroke Engines with the Focus on Wall Heat Flux

2016-11-08
2016-32-0028
Small displacement two-stroke engines are widely used as affordable and low-maintenance propulsion systems for motorcycles, scooters, hand-held power tools and others. In recent years, considerable progress regarding emission reduction has been reached. Nevertheless, a further improvement of two-stroke engines is necessary to cover protection of health and environment. In addition, the shortage of fossil fuel resources and the anthropogenic climate change call for a sensual use of natural resources and therefore, the fuel consumption and engine efficiency needs to be improved. With the application of suitable analyses methods it is possible to find improving potential of the working processes of these engines. The thermodynamic loss analysis is a frequently applied method to examine the working process and is universally adaptable.
Technical Paper

Optimization Approach to Handle Global CO2 Fleet Emission Standards

2016-04-05
2016-01-0904
A worldwide decrease of legal limits for CO2 emissions and fuel economy led to stronger efforts for achieving the required reductions. The task is to evaluate technologies for CO2 reduction and to define a combination of such measures to ensure the targets. The challenge therefor is to find the optimal combination with respect to minimal costs. Individual vehicles as well as the whole fleet have to be considered in the cost analysis - which raises the complexity. Hereby, the focus of this work is the consideration and improvement of a new model series against the background of a fleet and the selection of measures. The ratio between the costs and the effect of the measures can be different for the each vehicle configuration. Also, the determination of targets depends whether a fleet or an individual vehicle is selected and has impact on the selection and optimization process of those measures.
Journal Article

Sulfur Poisoning of a NOx Storage Catalyst - A Comprehensive Modelling Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0964
This paper describes the development of a 0-D-sulfur poisoning model for a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). The model was developed and calibrated using findings and data obtained from a passenger car diesel engine used on testbed. Based on an empirical approach, the developed model is able to predict not only the lower sulfur adsorption with increasing temperature and therefore the higher SOx (SO2 and SO3) slip after NSC, but also the sulfur saturation with increasing sulfur loading, resulting in a decrease of the sulfur adsorption rate with ongoing sulfation. Furthermore, the 0-D sulfur poisoning model was integrated into an existing 1-D NOx storage catalyst kinetic model. The combination of the two models results in an “EAS Model” (exhaust aftertreatment system) able to predict the deterioration of NOx-storage in a NSC with increasing sulfation level, exhibiting higher NOx-emissions after the NSC once it is poisoned.
Journal Article

Experimental Optimization of a Small Bore Natural Gas-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine with Direct Fuel Injection

2016-04-05
2016-01-0783
Dual fuel combustion processes, which burn varying ratios of natural gas and diesel, are an attempt to reach high efficiencies similar to diesel engines while exploiting the CO2 savings potential of natural gas. As shown in earlier studies, the main challenge of this combustion process is the high emission of unburned hydrocarbons during low load operation. Many publications have focused on a layout which utilizes port injection of natural gas and a direct injection of diesel to initiate combustion. However, previous studies indicated that a sequential direct injection of both fuels is more promising. It enables charge stratification of natural gas and air, whereby a remarkable reduction of the unburned hydrocarbon emissions was observed. This work develops this approach further, utilizing a low pressure direct injection of natural gas.
Technical Paper

A History-Based Load Requirement Prediction Algorithm, for Predictive Hybrid- and Thermal Operation Strategies

2016-04-05
2016-01-1238
In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), the operation strategy strongly influences the available system power, as well as local exhaust emissions. Predictive operation strategies rely on knowledge of future traction-force demands. This predicted information can be used to balance the battery’s state of charge or the engine’s thermal system in their legal operation limits and can reduce peak loads. Assuming the air and rolling drag-coefficient to be constant, the desired vehicle velocity, vehicle-mass and longitudinal driving resistances determine the vehicle’s traction-force demand. In this paper, a novel methodology, combining a history-based prediction algorithm for estimating future traction-force demands with the parameter identification of road grade angle and vehicle mass, is proposed. It is solely based on a route-history database and internal vehicle data, available on its on-board communication and measuring systems.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Valve Train Variability in Diesel Engines

2015-09-06
2015-24-2532
The continuously decreasing emission limits lead to a growing importance of exhaust aftertreatment in Diesel engines. Hence, methods for achieving a rapid catalyst light-off after engine cold start and for maintaining the catalyst temperature during low load operation will become more and more necessary. The present work evaluates several valve timing strategies concerning their ability for doing so. For this purpose, simulations as well as experimental investigations were conducted. A special focus of simulation was on pointing out the relevance of exhaust temperature, mass flow and enthalpy for these thermomanagement tasks. An increase of exhaust temperature is beneficial for both catalyst heat-up and maintaining catalyst temperature. In case of the exhaust mass flow, high values are advantageous only in case of a catalyst heat-up process, while maintaining catalyst temperature is supported by a low mass flow.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Emission Reduction on Small Capacity Two-Wheelers with Regard to Future Legislative Limits

2014-11-11
2014-32-0031
Looking at upcoming emission legislations for two-wheelers, it is quite obvious that the fulfilment of these targets will become one of the biggest challenges within the engine development process. The gradual harmonization of emission limits for two-wheelers with existing automotive standards will subsequently lead to new approaches regarding mixture preparation and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Referring to these future scenarios, a state-of-the-art in development of catalytic converters for two- or three-wheeler applications should be presented. After choosing a suitable test carrier, which has already been equipped with EFI components including an oxygen sensor for λ=1 operation mode, a basic injection system calibration was used to optimize the combustion process. Based on this setup, a variable exhaust system was manufactured to be able to integrate different catalyst configurations.
Journal Article

Advantages and Challenges of Lean Operation of Two-Stroke Engines for Hand-Held Power Tools

2014-11-11
2014-32-0009
One of the most significant current discussions worldwide is the anthropogenic climate change accompanying fossil fuel consumption. Sustainable development in all fields of combustion engines is required with the principal objective to enhance efficiency. This certainly concerns the field of hand-held power tools as well. Today, two-stroke SI engines equipped with a carburetor are the most widely used propulsion technology in hand-held power tools like chain saws and grass trimmers. To date, research tended to focus on two-stroke engines with rich mixture setting. In this paper the advantages and challenges of leaner and/or lean operation are discussed. Experimental investigations regarding the influence of equivalence ratio on emissions, fuel consumption and power have been performed. Accompanying 3D-CFD simulations support the experiments in order to gain insight into these complex processes. The investigations concentrate on two different mixture formation processes, i.e.
Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Combustion Concept for Gasoline and Diesel

2014-04-01
2014-01-1319
Dual Fuel concepts are of interest from different perspectives: use of available fuel, independence of supplier, emission reduction and energy costs. This article presents the results of experimental work investigating the possible combination and functional effects of gasoline and diesel fuels. The test bed setup for a single cylinder research engine with a displacement of 2 liters allows gasoline to be added by external mixture formation and combustion to be started by diesel pilot injection. The goal is to reduce the engine out pollutant emissions, while keeping the efficiency at a level comparable to a modern diesel engine. The main focus is on reducing soot and nitric oxide emissions. The charge composition of gasoline is homogenous, so the combustion system can also be seen as a partial or fully homogenous combustion concept, depending on the ignition timing and the ignition delay of the diesel fuel.
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