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Journal Article

Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Mixing Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0570
Mixing controlled compression ignition, i.e., diesel engines are efficient and are likely to continue to be the primary means for movement of goods for many years. Low-net-carbon biofuels have the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of diesel combustion and could have advantageous properties for combustion, such as high cetane number and reduced engine-out particle and NOx emissions. We developed a list of over 400 potential biomass-derived diesel blendstocks and populated a database with the properties and characteristics of these materials. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a blendstock met the basic requirements for handling in the diesel distribution system and use as a blend with conventional diesel. Criteria included cetane number ≥40, flashpoint ≥52°C, and boiling point or T90 ≤338°C.
Technical Paper

Refining Measurement Uncertainties in HCCI/LTGC Engine Experiments

2018-04-03
2018-01-1248
This study presents estimates for measurement uncertainties for a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)/Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) engine testing facility. A previously presented framework for quantifying those uncertainties developed uncertainty estimates based on the transducers manufacturers’ published tolerances. The present work utilizes the framework with improved uncertainty estimates in order to more accurately represent the actual uncertainties of the data acquired in the HCCI/LTGC laboratory, which ultimately results in a reduction in the uncertainty from 30 to less than 1 kPa during the intake and exhaust strokes. Details of laboratory calibration techniques and commissioning runs are used to constrain the sensitivities of the transducers relative to manufacturer supplied values.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Uncertainty in Predictions of Kinetically Modulated Combustion: Application to HCCI Using a Detailed Transportation Fuel Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-1251
Simulation of chemical kinetic processes in combustion engine environments has become ubiquitous towards the understanding of combustion phenomenology, the evaluation of controlling parameters, and the design of configurations and/or control strategies. Such calculations are not free from error however, and the interpretation of simulation results must be considered within the context of uncertainties in the chemical kinetic model. Uncertainties arise due to structural issues (e.g., included/missing reaction pathways), as well as inaccurate descriptions of kinetic rate parameters and thermochemistry. In fundamental apparatuses like rapid compression machines and shock tubes, computed constant-volume ignition delay times for simple, single-component fuels can have variations on the order of factors of 2-4.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Laminar Flame Speed Compared to Engine Tumble Ratio, Ignition Energy, and Injection Strategy on Lean and EGR Dilute Spark Ignition Combustion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0671
Previous studies have shown that fuels with higher laminar flame speed also have increased tolerance to EGR dilution. In this work, the effects of fuel laminar flame speed on both lean and EGR dilute spark ignition combustion stability were examined. Fuels blends of pure components (iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene, ethanol, and methanol) were derived at two levels of laminar flame speed. Each fuel blend was tested in a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine under both lean-out and EGR dilution sweeps until the coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure increased above thresholds of 3% and 5%. The relative importance of fuel laminar flame speed to changes to engine design parameters (spark ignition energy, tumble ratio, and port vs. direct injection) was also assessed.
Journal Article

A Framework for Quantifying Measurement Uncertainties and Uncertainty Propagation in HCCI/LTGC Engine Experiments

2017-03-28
2017-01-0736
In this paper, a framework for estimating experimental measurement uncertainties for a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)/Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) engine testing facility is presented. Detailed uncertainty quantification is first carried out for the measurement of the in-cylinder pressure, whose variations during the cycle provide most of the information for performance evaluation. Standard uncertainties of other measured quantities, such as the engine geometry and speed, the air and fuel flow rate and the intake/exhaust dry molar fractions are also estimated. Propagating those uncertainties using a Monte Carlo simulation and Bayesian inference methods then allows for estimation of uncertainties of the mass-average temperature and composition at IVC and throughout the cycle; and also of the engine performances such as gross Integrated Mean Effective Pressure, Heat Release and Ringing Intensity.
Technical Paper

Injected Droplet Size Effects on Diesel Spray Results with RANS and LES Turbulence Models

2015-04-14
2015-01-0925
Injection spray dynamics is known to be of great importance when modeling turbulent multi-phase flows in diesel engines. Two key aspects of spray dynamics are liquid breakup and penetration, both of which are affected by the initial sizes of the injected droplets. In the current study, injection of liquid n-heptane is characterized with initial droplet sizes with diameters on the order of 0.10 - 0.25 nozzle diameters. This is done for a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) RNG k-ε turbulence model with a minimum grid size of 125 μm and for a Large Eddy Simulations (LES) viscosity turbulence model with a minimum grid size of 62.5 μm. The results of both turbulence models are validated against non-reacting experimental data from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). The results show that the injected droplet sizes have a significant impact on both liquid and vapor penetration lengths.
Technical Paper

Acceleration of Detailed Chemical Kinetics Using Multi-zone Modeling for CFD in Internal Combustion Engine Simulations

2012-04-16
2012-01-0135
Detailed chemical kinetics, although preferred due to increased accuracy, can significantly slow down CFD combustion simulations. Chemistry solutions are typically the most computationally costly step in engine simulations. The calculation time can be significantly accelerated using a multi-zone combustion model. The multi-zone model is integrated into the CONVERGE CFD code. At each time-step, the CFD cells are grouped into zones based on the cell temperature and equivalence ratio. The chemistry solver is invoked only on each zone. The zonal temperature and mass fractions are remapped onto the CFD cells, such that the temperature and composition non-uniformities are preserved. Two remapping techniques published in the literature are compared for their relative performance. The accuracy and speed-up of the multi-zone model is improved by using variable bin sizes at different temperature and equivalence ratios.
Technical Paper

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Conventional Gasoline at Highly Boosted Conditions and the Associated Intermediate Temperature Heat Release

2012-04-16
2012-01-1109
The combustion behavior of conventional gasoline has been numerically investigated by means of detailed chemical-kinetic modeling simulations, with particular emphasis on analyzing the chemistry of the intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR). Previous experimental work on highly boosted (up to 325 kPa absolute) HCCI combustion of gasoline (SAE 2020-01-1086) showed a steady increase in the charge temperature up to the point of hot ignition, even for conditions where the ignition point was retarded well after top dead center (TDC). Thus, sufficient energy was being released by early pre-ignition reactions resulting in temperature rise during the early part of the expansion stroke This behavior is associated with a slow pre-ignition heat release (ITHR), which is critical to keep the engine from misfiring at the very late combustion phasings required to prevent knock at high-load boosted conditions.
Journal Article

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of HCCI Combustion with Isopentanol

2011-09-11
2011-24-0023
Isopentanol is an advanced biofuel that can be produced by micro-organisms through genetically engineered metabolic pathways. Compared to the more frequently studied ethanol, isopentanol's molecular structure has a longer carbon chain and includes a methyl branch. Its volumetric energy density is over 30% higher than ethanol, and it is less hygroscopic. Some fundamental combustion properties of isopentanol in an HCCI engine have been characterized in a recent study by Yang and Dec (SAE 2010-01-2164). They found that for typical HCCI operating conditions, isopentanol lacks two-stage ignition properties, yet it has a higher HCCI reactivity than gasoline. The amount of intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR) is an important fuel property, and having sufficient ITHR is critical for HCCI operation without knock at high loads using intake-pressure boosting. Isopentanol shows considerable ITHR, and the amount of ITHR increases with boost, similar to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Iso-octane SI-HCCI Transition

2010-04-12
2010-01-1087
We describe a CHEMKIN-based multi-zone model that simulates the expected combustion variations in a single-cylinder engine fueled with iso-octane as the engine transitions from spark-ignited (SI) combustion to homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. The model includes a 63-species reaction mechanism and mass and energy balances for the cylinder and the exhaust flow. For this study we assumed that the SI-to-HCCI transition is implemented by means of increasing the internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at constant engine speed. This transition scenario is consistent with that implemented in previously reported experimental measurements on an experimental engine equipped with variable valve actuation. We find that the model captures many of the important experimental trends, including stable SI combustion at low EGR (~0.10), a transition to highly unstable combustion at intermediate EGR, and finally stable HCCI combustion at very high EGR (~0.75).
Technical Paper

Demonstrating Optimum HCCI Combustion with Advanced Control Technology

2009-06-15
2009-01-1885
We have converted a Caterpillar 3406 natural gas spark ignited engine to HCCI mode and used it as a test bed for demonstrating advanced control methodologies. Converting the engine required modification of most engine systems: piston geometry, starting, fueling, boosting, and (most importantly) controls. We implemented a thermal management system consisting of a recuperator that transfers heat from exhaust to intake gases and a dual intake manifold that permits precise cylinder-by-cylinder ignition control. Advanced control methodologies are used for (1) minimizing cylinder-to-cylinder combustion timing differences caused by small variations in temperature or compression ratio; (2) finding the combustion timing that minimizes fuel consumption; and (3) tuning the controller parameters to improve transient response.
Technical Paper

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Low-Temperature Heat Release for PRF Fuels in an HCCI Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1806
Now more than ever, the increasing strictness of environmental regulation and the stronger need of higher efficiency standards are pushing for the development of cleaner and energy-efficient powertrains. HCCI engines are suitable candidates to achieve these objectives. Understanding the autoignition process and how it is affected by operating conditions is central to the development of these engines. In addition to experiments, detailed kinetic modeling represents a very effective tool for gaining deeper insight into the fundamentals of HCCI autoignition and combustion. Indeed, modeling activities are today widely used in engine design, allowing a significant reduction in prototype development costs and providing a valuable support to the improvement of control strategies.
Technical Paper

Modeling Iso-octane HCCI Using CFD with Multi-Zone Detailed Chemistry; Comparison to Detailed Speciation Data Over a Range of Lean Equivalence Ratios

2008-04-14
2008-01-0047
Multi-zone CFD simulations with detailed kinetics were used to model iso-octane HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine. The modeling goals were to validate the method (multi-zone combustion modeling) and the reaction mechanism (LLNL 857 species iso-octane) by comparing model results to detailed exhaust speciation data, which was obtained with gas chromatography. The model is compared to experiments run at 1200 RPM and 1.35 bar boost pressure over an equivalence ratio range from 0.08 to 0.28. Fuel was introduced far upstream to ensure fuel and air homogeneity prior to entering the 13.8:1 compression ratio, shallow-bowl combustion chamber of this 4-stroke engine. The CFD grid incorporated a very detailed representation of the crevices, including the top-land ring crevice and head-gasket crevice. The ring crevice is resolved all the way into the ring pocket volume. The detailed grid was required to capture regions where emission species are formed and retained.
Journal Article

Pathline Analysis of Full-cycle Four-stroke HCCI Engine Combustion Using CFD and Multi-Zone Modeling

2008-04-14
2008-01-0048
This paper investigates flow and combustion in a full-cycle simulation of a four-stroke, three-valve HCCI engine by visualizing the flow with pathlines. Pathlines trace massless particles in a transient flow field. In addition to visualization, pathlines are used here to trace the history, or evolution, of flow fields and species. In this study evolution is followed from the intake port through combustion. Pathline analysis follows packets of intake charge in time and space from induction through combustion. The local scalar fields traversed by the individual packets in terms of velocity magnitude, turbulence, species concentration and temperatures are extracted from the simulation results. The results show how the intake event establishes local chemical and thermal environments in-cylinder and how the species respond (chemically react) to the local field.
Journal Article

Detailed HCCI Exhaust Speciation and the Sources of Hydrocarbon and Oxygenated Hydrocarbon Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0053
Detailed exhaust speciation measurements were made on an HCCI engine fueled with iso-octane over a range of fueling rates, and over a range of fuel-stratification levels. Fully premixed fueling was used for the fueling sweep. This sweep extended from a fuel/air equivalence ratio (ϕ) of 0.28, which is sufficiently high to achieve a combustion efficiency of 96%, down to a below-idle fueling rate of ϕ = 0.08, with a combustion efficiency of only 55%. The stratification sweep was conducted at an idle fueling rate, using an 8-hole GDI injector to vary stratification from well-mixed conditions for an early start of injection (SOI) (40°CA) to highly stratified conditions for an SOI well up the compression stroke (325°CA, 35°bTDC-compression). The engine speed was 1200 rpm. At each operating condition, exhaust samples were collected and analyzed by GC-FID for the C1 and C2 hydrocarbon (HC) species and by GC-MS for all other species except formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.
Journal Article

Understanding the Chemical Effects of Increased Boost Pressure under HCCI Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0019
One way to increase the load range in an HCCI engine is to increase boost pressure. In this modeling study, we investigate the effect of increased boost pressure on the fuel chemistry in an HCCI engine. Computed results of HCCI combustion are compared to experimental results in a HCCI engine. We examine the influence of boost pressure using a number of different detailed chemical kinetic models - representing both pure compounds (methylcyclohexane, cyclohexane, iso-octane and n-heptane) and multi-component models (primary reference fuel model and gasoline surrogate fuel model). We examine how the model predictions are altered by increased fueling, as well as reaction rate variation, and the inclusion of residuals in our calculations. In this study, we probe the low temperature chemistry (LTC) region and examine the chemistry responsible for the low-temperature heat release (LTHR) for wide ranges of intake boost pressure.
Technical Paper

Effects of Toluene Addition to Primary Reference Fuel at High Temperature

2007-10-29
2007-01-4104
The ignition delay times of primary reference fuel (PRF) and toluene mixtures have been measured behind the reflected shock waves. The range of experiments covered combustion of fuel in diluted argon for stoichiometric mixtures, pressures of 2.5 atm, temperatures from 1200-1600 K, 0.4% of fuel concentration. The ignition delay times of n-heptane increased with the addition of toluene. However the ignition delay times of iso-octane decreased with the addition of toluene from 0 to 50% and increased from 50 to 100%. A detailed kinetic model with cross reactions considered in this study can not reproduce the trend of ignition delay times for iso-octane/toluene mixtures. From the reaction path analysis, it was suggested that cross reactions between alkenes and aromatics are required to account for these experimental results.
Technical Paper

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Toluene Combustion over a Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure

2007-07-23
2007-01-1885
The ignition delay times of toluene-oxygen-argon mixtures with fuel equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 1.5 and concentrations of toluene from 0.1 to 2.0% were measured behind reflected shock waves for temperatures 1270 to 1755 K and at a pressure of 2.4 ± 0.7 atm. A detailed chemical kinetic model has been developed on the basis of a kinetic mechanism proposed by Pitz et al. [1] to reproduce our experimental results as well as some literature data obtained in other shock tubes at pressures from 1.1 to 50 atm. It is found that the present chemical kinetic model could give better agreement on the pressure dependence of the ignition delay times than the previously proposed kinetic models.
Technical Paper

Development of an Experimental Database and Chemical Kinetic Models for Surrogate Gasoline Fuels

2007-04-16
2007-01-0175
The development of surrogate mixtures that represent gasoline combustion behavior is reviewed. Combustion chemistry behavioral targets that a surrogate should accurately reproduce, particularly for emulating homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation, are carefully identified. Both short and long term research needs to support development of more robust surrogate fuel compositions are described. Candidate component species are identified and the status of present chemical kinetic models for these components and their interactions are discussed. Recommendations are made for the initial components to be included in gasoline surrogates for near term development. Components that can be added to refine predictions and to include additional behavioral targets are identified as well. Thermodynamic, thermochemical and transport properties that require further investigation are discussed.
Technical Paper

Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling Using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology

2006-10-16
2006-01-3265
To facilitate the growing interest in hydrogen combustion for internal combustion engines, computer models are being developed to simulate gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. Modeling combustion is not covered in this paper. The injection model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.
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