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Journal Article

Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Mixing Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0570
Mixing controlled compression ignition, i.e., diesel engines are efficient and are likely to continue to be the primary means for movement of goods for many years. Low-net-carbon biofuels have the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of diesel combustion and could have advantageous properties for combustion, such as high cetane number and reduced engine-out particle and NOx emissions. We developed a list of over 400 potential biomass-derived diesel blendstocks and populated a database with the properties and characteristics of these materials. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a blendstock met the basic requirements for handling in the diesel distribution system and use as a blend with conventional diesel. Criteria included cetane number ≥40, flashpoint ≥52°C, and boiling point or T90 ≤338°C.
Technical Paper

Refining Measurement Uncertainties in HCCI/LTGC Engine Experiments

2018-04-03
2018-01-1248
This study presents estimates for measurement uncertainties for a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)/Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) engine testing facility. A previously presented framework for quantifying those uncertainties developed uncertainty estimates based on the transducers manufacturers’ published tolerances. The present work utilizes the framework with improved uncertainty estimates in order to more accurately represent the actual uncertainties of the data acquired in the HCCI/LTGC laboratory, which ultimately results in a reduction in the uncertainty from 30 to less than 1 kPa during the intake and exhaust strokes. Details of laboratory calibration techniques and commissioning runs are used to constrain the sensitivities of the transducers relative to manufacturer supplied values.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Uncertainty in Predictions of Kinetically Modulated Combustion: Application to HCCI Using a Detailed Transportation Fuel Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-1251
Simulation of chemical kinetic processes in combustion engine environments has become ubiquitous towards the understanding of combustion phenomenology, the evaluation of controlling parameters, and the design of configurations and/or control strategies. Such calculations are not free from error however, and the interpretation of simulation results must be considered within the context of uncertainties in the chemical kinetic model. Uncertainties arise due to structural issues (e.g., included/missing reaction pathways), as well as inaccurate descriptions of kinetic rate parameters and thermochemistry. In fundamental apparatuses like rapid compression machines and shock tubes, computed constant-volume ignition delay times for simple, single-component fuels can have variations on the order of factors of 2-4.
Journal Article

Kinetic Modeling Study of NOx Conversion Based on Physicochemical Characteristics of Hydrothermally Aged SCR/DPF Catalyst

2017-10-08
2017-01-2386
Diesel engines have better fuel economy over comparable gasoline engines and are useful for the reduction of CO2 emissions. However, to meet stringent emission standards, the technology for reducing NOx and particulate matter (PM) in diesel engine exhaust needs to be improved. A conventional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and urea-SCR catalyst. Recently, more stringent regulations have led to the development of SCR systems with a larger volume and increased the cost of such systems. In order to solve these problems, an SCR catalyst-coated DPF (SCR/DPF) is proposed. An SCR/DPF system has lower volume and cost compared to the conventional SCR system. The SCR/DPF catalyst has two functions: combustion of PM and reduction of NOx emissions.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Laminar Flame Speed Compared to Engine Tumble Ratio, Ignition Energy, and Injection Strategy on Lean and EGR Dilute Spark Ignition Combustion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0671
Previous studies have shown that fuels with higher laminar flame speed also have increased tolerance to EGR dilution. In this work, the effects of fuel laminar flame speed on both lean and EGR dilute spark ignition combustion stability were examined. Fuels blends of pure components (iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene, ethanol, and methanol) were derived at two levels of laminar flame speed. Each fuel blend was tested in a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine under both lean-out and EGR dilution sweeps until the coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure increased above thresholds of 3% and 5%. The relative importance of fuel laminar flame speed to changes to engine design parameters (spark ignition energy, tumble ratio, and port vs. direct injection) was also assessed.
Journal Article

Effects of Cavitation and Hydraulic Flip in 3-Hole GDI Injectors

2017-03-28
2017-01-0848
The performance of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines is governed by multiple physical processes such as the internal nozzle flow and the mixing of the liquid stream with the gaseous ambient environment. A detailed knowledge of these processes even for complex injectors is very important for improving the design and performance of combustion engines all the way to pollutant formation and emissions. However, many processes are still not completely understood, which is partly caused by their restricted experimental accessibility. Thus, high-fidelity simulations can be helpful to obtain further understanding of GDI injectors. In this work, advanced simulation and experimental methods are combined in order to study the spray characteristics of two different 3-hole GDI injectors.
Journal Article

A Framework for Quantifying Measurement Uncertainties and Uncertainty Propagation in HCCI/LTGC Engine Experiments

2017-03-28
2017-01-0736
In this paper, a framework for estimating experimental measurement uncertainties for a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)/Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) engine testing facility is presented. Detailed uncertainty quantification is first carried out for the measurement of the in-cylinder pressure, whose variations during the cycle provide most of the information for performance evaluation. Standard uncertainties of other measured quantities, such as the engine geometry and speed, the air and fuel flow rate and the intake/exhaust dry molar fractions are also estimated. Propagating those uncertainties using a Monte Carlo simulation and Bayesian inference methods then allows for estimation of uncertainties of the mass-average temperature and composition at IVC and throughout the cycle; and also of the engine performances such as gross Integrated Mean Effective Pressure, Heat Release and Ringing Intensity.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Hydrous Ethanol Fuel Lubricity by HFRR

2016-10-17
2016-01-2260
Improvement of thermal efficiency is an important problem for internal combustion engines. Fuel reforming with dehydrogenation reaction by exhaust heat is one of the measures to increase thermal efficiency using hydrogen mixed SI combustion. For this kind engine system, hydrous ethanol has a good potential. Furthermore, when the hydrous ethanol inject to combustion chamber directory, high compression combustion can be achieved by its large amount of latent heat. Therefore, fuel lubricity is an important check point for the hydrous ethanol reforming engine systems. In this study, effect of water concentrations within ethanol on the hydrous ethanol fuel lubricity has been evaluated using HFRR (High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig) test method. Wear scar diameter on 100 % of ethanol was around 700 μm which was a little better than gasoline lubricity. When the water concentration within ethanol was increased, the wear scar diameters were decreasing around 330 μm.
Journal Article

Investigation of Mechanism for Formation of EGR Deposit by in situ ATR-FTIR Spectrometer and SEM

2016-10-17
2016-01-2351
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. However, a lacquer is formed on the EGR valve or EGR cooler due to particulate matter and other components present in diesel exhaust, causing serious problems. In this study, the mechanism of lacquer deposition is investigated using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Deposition of temperature-dependent lacquers was evaluated by varying the temperature of a diamond prism between 80 and 120 °C in an ATR-FTIR spectrometer integrated into a custom-built sample line, which branched off from the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine. Lacquers were deposited on the diamond prism at 100 °C or less, while no lacquer was deposited at 120 °C. Time-dependent ATR-FTIR spectra were obtained for approximately 2 h from the beginning of the experiment.
Journal Article

The Performance of Multi-Cylinder Hydrogen / Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

2015-09-06
2015-24-2458
Hydrogen can be produced by electrolyzation with renewable electricity and the combustion products of hydrogen mixture include no CO, CO2 and hydrocarbons. In this study, engine performance with hydrogen / diesel dual fuel (hydrogen DDF) operation in a multi-cylinder diesel engine is investigated due to clarify advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen DDF operation. Hydrogen DDF operation under several brake power conditions are evaluated by changing a rate of hydrogen to total input energy (H2 rate). As H2 rate is increased, an amount of diesel fuel is decreased to keep a given torque constant. When the hydrogen DDF engine is operated with EGR, Exhaust gas components including carbon are improved or suppressed to same level as conventional diesel combustion. In addition, brake thermal efficiency is improved to 40% by increase in H2 rate that advances combustion phasing under higher power condition. On the other hand, NOx emission is much higher than one of conventional diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Injected Droplet Size Effects on Diesel Spray Results with RANS and LES Turbulence Models

2015-04-14
2015-01-0925
Injection spray dynamics is known to be of great importance when modeling turbulent multi-phase flows in diesel engines. Two key aspects of spray dynamics are liquid breakup and penetration, both of which are affected by the initial sizes of the injected droplets. In the current study, injection of liquid n-heptane is characterized with initial droplet sizes with diameters on the order of 0.10 - 0.25 nozzle diameters. This is done for a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) RNG k-ε turbulence model with a minimum grid size of 125 μm and for a Large Eddy Simulations (LES) viscosity turbulence model with a minimum grid size of 62.5 μm. The results of both turbulence models are validated against non-reacting experimental data from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). The results show that the injected droplet sizes have a significant impact on both liquid and vapor penetration lengths.
Technical Paper

LES Analysis of Fuel/Air Mixing and Heat Release Processes in a Diesel Spray

2013-10-14
2013-01-2537
Numerical calculations were performed to investigate the mixture formation, ignition, and combustion processes in a diesel spray. The spray was formed by injecting n-heptane into a constant volume vessel under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions. The fuel droplets were described by a discrete droplet model (DDM). Numerical calculations for the flow and turbulent diffusion processes were performed on the basis of large eddy simulation (LES) to describe the processes of local non-homogeneous mixture formation and heat release. The oxidation processes in the mixture were calculated by Schreiber's five-step mechanism for n-heptane. Calculations were performed for sprays formed by single-stage injection and pilot/main two-stage injection. The flame structure in a diesel spray and its temporal change were discussed using a flame index proposed by Yamashita et al.
Technical Paper

Acceleration of Detailed Chemical Kinetics Using Multi-zone Modeling for CFD in Internal Combustion Engine Simulations

2012-04-16
2012-01-0135
Detailed chemical kinetics, although preferred due to increased accuracy, can significantly slow down CFD combustion simulations. Chemistry solutions are typically the most computationally costly step in engine simulations. The calculation time can be significantly accelerated using a multi-zone combustion model. The multi-zone model is integrated into the CONVERGE CFD code. At each time-step, the CFD cells are grouped into zones based on the cell temperature and equivalence ratio. The chemistry solver is invoked only on each zone. The zonal temperature and mass fractions are remapped onto the CFD cells, such that the temperature and composition non-uniformities are preserved. Two remapping techniques published in the literature are compared for their relative performance. The accuracy and speed-up of the multi-zone model is improved by using variable bin sizes at different temperature and equivalence ratios.
Technical Paper

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Conventional Gasoline at Highly Boosted Conditions and the Associated Intermediate Temperature Heat Release

2012-04-16
2012-01-1109
The combustion behavior of conventional gasoline has been numerically investigated by means of detailed chemical-kinetic modeling simulations, with particular emphasis on analyzing the chemistry of the intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR). Previous experimental work on highly boosted (up to 325 kPa absolute) HCCI combustion of gasoline (SAE 2020-01-1086) showed a steady increase in the charge temperature up to the point of hot ignition, even for conditions where the ignition point was retarded well after top dead center (TDC). Thus, sufficient energy was being released by early pre-ignition reactions resulting in temperature rise during the early part of the expansion stroke This behavior is associated with a slow pre-ignition heat release (ITHR), which is critical to keep the engine from misfiring at the very late combustion phasings required to prevent knock at high-load boosted conditions.
Journal Article

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of HCCI Combustion with Isopentanol

2011-09-11
2011-24-0023
Isopentanol is an advanced biofuel that can be produced by micro-organisms through genetically engineered metabolic pathways. Compared to the more frequently studied ethanol, isopentanol's molecular structure has a longer carbon chain and includes a methyl branch. Its volumetric energy density is over 30% higher than ethanol, and it is less hygroscopic. Some fundamental combustion properties of isopentanol in an HCCI engine have been characterized in a recent study by Yang and Dec (SAE 2010-01-2164). They found that for typical HCCI operating conditions, isopentanol lacks two-stage ignition properties, yet it has a higher HCCI reactivity than gasoline. The amount of intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR) is an important fuel property, and having sufficient ITHR is critical for HCCI operation without knock at high loads using intake-pressure boosting. Isopentanol shows considerable ITHR, and the amount of ITHR increases with boost, similar to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Iso-octane SI-HCCI Transition

2010-04-12
2010-01-1087
We describe a CHEMKIN-based multi-zone model that simulates the expected combustion variations in a single-cylinder engine fueled with iso-octane as the engine transitions from spark-ignited (SI) combustion to homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. The model includes a 63-species reaction mechanism and mass and energy balances for the cylinder and the exhaust flow. For this study we assumed that the SI-to-HCCI transition is implemented by means of increasing the internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at constant engine speed. This transition scenario is consistent with that implemented in previously reported experimental measurements on an experimental engine equipped with variable valve actuation. We find that the model captures many of the important experimental trends, including stable SI combustion at low EGR (~0.10), a transition to highly unstable combustion at intermediate EGR, and finally stable HCCI combustion at very high EGR (~0.75).
Technical Paper

Study on Improvement of Combustion and Effect of Fuel Property in Advanced Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1117
The tasks to improve diesel emissions and fuel consumption must be accomplished with urgency. However, due to the trade-off relationship between NOx emissions, soot emissions and fuel consumption, clean diesel combustion should be achieved by both innovative combustion and fuel technologies. The objective of this study is to extend the clean diesel combustion operating range (Engine-out emission: NOx ≺ 0.2 g/kWh, Soot ≺ 0.02 g/kWh). In this study, performance of a single-cylinder test engine equipped with a hydraulic valve actuation system and an ultra-high pressure fuel injection system was investigated. Also evaluated, were the effects of fuel properties such as auto-ignitability, volatility and aromatic hydrocarbon components, on combustion performance. The results show that applying a high EGR (Exhaust gas recirculation) rate can significantly reduce NOx emission with an increase in soot emission.
Technical Paper

Demonstrating Optimum HCCI Combustion with Advanced Control Technology

2009-06-15
2009-01-1885
We have converted a Caterpillar 3406 natural gas spark ignited engine to HCCI mode and used it as a test bed for demonstrating advanced control methodologies. Converting the engine required modification of most engine systems: piston geometry, starting, fueling, boosting, and (most importantly) controls. We implemented a thermal management system consisting of a recuperator that transfers heat from exhaust to intake gases and a dual intake manifold that permits precise cylinder-by-cylinder ignition control. Advanced control methodologies are used for (1) minimizing cylinder-to-cylinder combustion timing differences caused by small variations in temperature or compression ratio; (2) finding the combustion timing that minimizes fuel consumption; and (3) tuning the controller parameters to improve transient response.
Technical Paper

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Low-Temperature Heat Release for PRF Fuels in an HCCI Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1806
Now more than ever, the increasing strictness of environmental regulation and the stronger need of higher efficiency standards are pushing for the development of cleaner and energy-efficient powertrains. HCCI engines are suitable candidates to achieve these objectives. Understanding the autoignition process and how it is affected by operating conditions is central to the development of these engines. In addition to experiments, detailed kinetic modeling represents a very effective tool for gaining deeper insight into the fundamentals of HCCI autoignition and combustion. Indeed, modeling activities are today widely used in engine design, allowing a significant reduction in prototype development costs and providing a valuable support to the improvement of control strategies.
Technical Paper

Modeling Iso-octane HCCI Using CFD with Multi-Zone Detailed Chemistry; Comparison to Detailed Speciation Data Over a Range of Lean Equivalence Ratios

2008-04-14
2008-01-0047
Multi-zone CFD simulations with detailed kinetics were used to model iso-octane HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine. The modeling goals were to validate the method (multi-zone combustion modeling) and the reaction mechanism (LLNL 857 species iso-octane) by comparing model results to detailed exhaust speciation data, which was obtained with gas chromatography. The model is compared to experiments run at 1200 RPM and 1.35 bar boost pressure over an equivalence ratio range from 0.08 to 0.28. Fuel was introduced far upstream to ensure fuel and air homogeneity prior to entering the 13.8:1 compression ratio, shallow-bowl combustion chamber of this 4-stroke engine. The CFD grid incorporated a very detailed representation of the crevices, including the top-land ring crevice and head-gasket crevice. The ring crevice is resolved all the way into the ring pocket volume. The detailed grid was required to capture regions where emission species are formed and retained.
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