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Technical Paper

Addressing the Heat Exchange Question for Thermo-Electric Generators

The use of thermo-electric (TE) generation systems in internal combustion engines (ICEs) to reduce the carbon dioxide emission by harnessing the exhaust thermal energy is showing increasing promise. In addition, integration with after treatment devices is a development route for this technology that offers a great potential. Recent work on TE systems have shown that the overall efficiency of present TE generation systems are constrained by, the limitations of the conversion efficiency and operating temperatures of TE materials; fabrication quality, durability and thermal performance of the thermo-electric modules (TEMs); geometrical configuration and heat exchange efficiency of thermo-electric generator (TEG) and; conversion techniques of the TEG's electrical output to a form suitable for vehicle systems.
Journal Article

Accurate and Continuous Fuel Flow Rate Measurement Prediction for Real Time Application

One of the most critical challenges currently facing the diesel engine industry is how to improve fuel economy under emission regulations. Improvement in fuel economy can be achieved by precisely controlling Air/Fuel ratio and by monitoring fuel consumption in real time. Accurate and repeatable measurements of fuel rate play a critical role in successfully controlling air/fuel ratio and in monitoring fuel consumption. Volumetric and gravimetric measurements are well-known methods for measuring fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. However, these methods are not suitable for obtaining fuel flow rate data used in real-time control/measurement. In this paper, neural networks are used to solve the problem concerning discontinuous data of fuel flow rate measured by using an AVL 733 s fuel meter. The continuous parts of discontinuous fuel flow rate are used to train and validate a neural network, which can then be used to predict the discontinuous parts of the fuel flow rate.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Impact on Diesel Engine Fuel Economy and Emissions by Variable Compression Ratio Using GT-Power Simulation

Variable compression ratio in conjunction with a control system is an effective way to improve performance and reduce emissions in a diesel engine. There are various methods that may be employed that include geometry changes and varying valve timing to change the effective compression ratio. In this paper, a simulation study is presented that is based on a modern, multi-cylinder, fixed compression ratio diesel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The engine is represented using the GT-Power code, and includes a predictive combustion model. The aim of the investigation is to identify the impact of variable compression ratio on fuel economy and emission reduction and whether realistic optimal conditions exist. This paper describes how a formal design of experiments procedure is used to define the simulation conditions. Cost functions are defined with different weights for fuel consumption, NOx and soot emissions.