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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Heat Retention and Warm-Up with Thermal Encapsulation of Powertrain

2020-04-14
2020-01-0158
Powertrain thermal encapsulation has the potential to improve fuel consumption and CO2 via heat retention. Heat retained within the powertrain after a period of engine-off, can increase the temperature of the next engine start hours after key-off. This in turn reduces inefficiencies associated with sub-optimal temperatures such as friction. The Ambient Temperature Correction Test was adopted in the current work which contains two World-wide harmonised Light duty Test Procedure (WLTP) cycles separated by a 9-hour soak period. A coupled 1D - 3D computational approach was used to capture heat retention characteristics and subsequent warm-up effects. A 1-D powertrain warm-up model was developed in GT-Suite to capture the thermal warm-up characteristics of the powertrain. The model included a temperature dependent friction model, the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the cooling and lubrication circuits as well as parasitic losses associated with pumps.
Technical Paper

Holistic Thermal Energy Modelling for Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)

2020-04-14
2020-01-0151
Full hybrid electric vehicles are usually defined by their capability to drive in a fully electric mode, offering the advantage that they do not produce any emissions at the point of use. This is particularly important in built up areas, where localized emissions in the form of NOx and particulate matter may worsen health issues such as respiratory disease. However, high degrees of electrification also mean that waste heat from the internal combustion engine is often not available for heating the cabin and for maintaining the temperature of the powertrain and emissions control system. If not managed properly, this can result in increased fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and reduced electric-only range at moderately high or low ambient temperatures negating many of the benefits of the electrification. This paper describes the development of a holistic, modular vehicle model designed for development of an integrated thermal energy management strategy.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of a Sensor Network Using Bayesian Analysis Demonstrated on an Inlet Manifold

2019-04-02
2019-01-0121
Modern control strategies for internal combustion engines use increasingly complex networks of sensors and actuators to measure different physical parameters. Often indirect measurements and estimation of variables, based off sensor data, are used in the closed loop control of the engine and its subsystems. Thus, sensor fusion techniques and virtual instrumentation have become more significant to the control strategy. With the large volumes of data produced by the increasing number of sensors, the analysis of sensor networks has become more important. Understanding the value of the information they contain and how well it is extracted through uncertainty quantification will also become essential to the development of control architecture. This paper proposes a methodology to quantify how valuable a sensor is relative to the architecture. By modelling the sensor network as a Bayesian network, Bayesian analysis and control metrics were used to assess the value of the sensor.
Technical Paper

A Parallel Hybrid Drive System for Small Vehicles: Architecture and Control Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-1170
The TC48 project is developing a state-of-the-art, exceptionally low cost, 48V Plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) demonstration drivetrain suitable for electrically powered urban driving, hybrid operation, and internal combustion engine powered high speed motoring. This paper explains the motivation for the project, and presents the layout options considered and the rationale by which these were reduced. The vehicle simulation model used to evaluate the layout options is described and discussed. The modelling work was used in order to support and justify the design choices made. The design of the vehicle's control systems is discussed, presenting simulation results. The physical embodiment of the design is not reported in this paper. The paper describes analysis of small vehicles in the marketplace, including aspects of range and cost, leading to the justification for the specification of the TC48 system.
Technical Paper

Optimal Control Inputs for Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-1221
Hybrid electric vehicles offer significant fuel economy benefits, because battery and fuel can be used as complementing energy sources. This paper presents the use of dynamic programming to find the optimal blend of power sources, leading to the lowest fuel consumption and the lowest level of harmful emissions. It is found that the optimal engine behavior differs substantially to an on-line adaptive control system previously designed for the Lotus Evora 414E. When analyzing the trade-off between emission and fuel consumption, CO and HC emissions show a traditional Pareto curve, whereas NOx emissions show a near linear relationship with a high penalty. These global optimization results are not directly applicable for online control, but they can guide the design of a more efficient hybrid control system.
Technical Paper

GPS Based Energy Management Control for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1226
In 2012 MAHLE Powertrain developed a range-extended electric vehicle (REEV) demonstrator, based on a series hybrid configuration, and uses a battery to store electrical energy from the grid. Once the battery state of charge (SOC) is depleted a gasoline engine (range extender) is activated to provide the energy required to propel the vehicle. As part of the continuing development of this vehicle, MAHLE Powertrain has developed control software which can intelligently manage the use of the battery energy through the combined use of GPS and road topographical data. Advanced knowledge of the route prior to the start of a journey enables the software to calculate the SOC throughout the journey and pre-determine the optimum operating strategy for the range extender to enable best charging efficiency and minimize NVH. The software can also operate without a pre-determined route being selected.
Technical Paper

Managing Loads on Aircraft Generators to Prevent Overheat In-Flight

2014-09-16
2014-01-2195
On future UAVs it is envisaged that the power requirements of all on-board electrical systems will increase. In most flight (mission) situations the installed power generation will have adequate capacity to operate the aircraft. It is possible that during abnormal situations such as coolant blockage the generators on-board may be forced to operate under very high load conditions. The main failure mechanism for a generator is overheating and subsequent disintegration of windings, hence the research problem being addressed here is to manage the loads upon the generator to prevent overheats. The research presented here summarizes the modeling of the generator and formation of the load management system. Results are presented showing the system reallocating loads after a fault during flight, preventing overheat of the generators and successfully completing the mission.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Thermal State of Generators On-Board UAVs

2013-09-17
2013-01-2251
On future Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) it is envisaged that the power requirements of all on-board electrical systems will increase. Whilst, in most flight (mission) situations the installed generation capacity will have adequate capacity to operate the systems, it is possible that during certain abnormal situations the generators on-board may be forced to operate under very high load conditions. The main failure mechanism for a generator is overheating and subsequent disintegration of windings, hence the research problem being addressed here is that of modelling the thermal dynamics of a generator in such a way that the model can be used to predict future temperatures given knowledge of the future mission requirements. The temperature predictions will be used to allow prioritising of the mission actions in order to allow maximum utilisation of power generation capacity without overheating.
Journal Article

Real-Time Optimal Energy Management of Heavy Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1748
The performance of energy flow management strategies is essential for the success of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which are considered amongst the most promising solutions for improving fuel economy as well as reducing exhaust emissions. The heavy duty HEVs engaged in cycles characterized by start-stop configuration has attracted widely interests, especially in off-road applications. In this paper, a fuzzy equivalent consumption minimization strategy (F-ECMS) is proposed as an intelligent real-time energy management solution for heavy duty HEVs. The online optimization problem is formulated as minimizing a cost function, in terms of weighted fuel power and electrical power. A fuzzy rule-based approach is applied on the weight tuning within the cost function, with respect to the variations of the battery state-of-charge (SOC) and elapsed time.
Journal Article

Development of Model Predictive Controller for SOFC-IC Engine Hybrid System

2009-04-20
2009-01-0146
Fuel cell hybrid systems have emerged rapidly in efforts to reduce emissions. The success of these systems mainly depends on implementation of suitable control architectures. This paper presents a control system design for a novel fuel cell - IC Engine hybrid power system. Control oriented models of the system components are developed and integrated. Based on the simulation results of the system model, the control variables are identified. The main objective for the control design is to manage fuel, air and exhaust flows in a way to deliver the required load on the system within local constraints. The controller developed for regulating flows in the system is based on model predictive control theory. The performance of the overall control system is assessed through simulations on a nonlinear dynamic model.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Control Design of a SOFC-IC Engine Hybrid System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0082
This paper presents a control system design strategy for a novel fuel cell - internal combustion engine hybrid power system. Dynamic control oriented models of the system components are developed. The transient behavior of the system components is investigated in order to determine control parameters and set-points. The analysis presented here is the first step towards development of a controller for this complex system. The results indicate various possibilities for control design and development. A control strategy is discussed to achieve system performance optimization.
Technical Paper

On the Aerodynamics of a Goodwood Festival of Speed Gravity Racer

2004-11-30
2004-01-3548
Considerable engineering effort is now being applied to the design and development of Soapboxes entered in the Goodwood Festival of Speed Gravity Challenge. With average speeds of 18 ms-1 (40 mph) from a standing start along the 0.7 mile course and maximum speeds of around 27 ms-1 (60 mph), the aerodynamic contribution to performance is significant. This paper discusses the aerodynamic considerations given to the design of the leading Soapboxes and to the racing conditions experienced. Analysis and test techniques which may also be employed are also described.
Technical Paper

A Process Definition Environment for Component Based Manufacturing Machine Control Systems Developed Under the Foresight Vehicle Programme

2002-03-04
2002-01-0468
The COMponent Based Paradigm for AGile Automation (COMPAG) provides a component-based solution to engine production-line machine control systems. The traditional PLC system is replaced with a distributed control network containing intelligent nodes comprising locally controlled actuators and sensors. The Process Definition Environment provides support for the specification, configuration, and maintenance of the machine control application and facilitates both the initial design and maintenance stages of the lifecycle by describing the control logic as a set of consistent timing and state transition diagrams commonly used in the initial design stages.
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