Numerical Investigation of Heat Retention and Warm-Up with Thermal Encapsulation of Powertrain
Powertrain thermal encapsulation has the potential to improve fuel consumption and CO2 via heat retention. Heat retained within the powertrain after a period of engine-off, can increase the temperature of the next engine start hours after key-off. This in turn reduces inefficiencies associated with sub-optimal temperatures such as friction. The Ambient Temperature Correction Test was adopted in the current work which contains two World-wide harmonised Light duty Test Procedure (WLTP) cycles separated by a 9-hour soak period. A coupled 1D - 3D computational approach was used to capture heat retention characteristics and subsequent warm-up effects. A 1-D powertrain warm-up model was developed in GT-Suite to capture the thermal warm-up characteristics of the powertrain. The model included a temperature dependent friction model, the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the cooling and lubrication circuits as well as parasitic losses associated with pumps.