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Technical Paper

Review of Selection Criteria for Sensor and Actuator Configurations Suitable for Internal Combustion Engines

This literature review considers the problem of finding a suitable configuration of sensors and actuators for the control of an internal combustion engine. It takes a look at the methods, algorithms, processes, metrics, applications, research groups and patents relevant for this topic. Several formal metric have been proposed, but practical use remains limited. Maximal information criteria are theoretically optimal for selecting sensors, but hard to apply to a system as complex and nonlinear as an engine. Thus, we reviewed methods applied to neighboring fields including nonlinear systems and non-minimal phase systems. Furthermore, the closed loop nature of control means that information is not the only consideration, and speed, stability and robustness have to be considered. The optimal use of sensor information also requires the use of models, observers, state estimators or virtual sensors, and practical acceptance of these remains limited.
Journal Article

Off-Road Tire-Terrain Interaction: An Analytical Solution

A novel semi-analytical solution has been developed for the calculation of the static and dynamic response of an off road tire interacting with a deformable terrain, which utilizes soil parameters independent of the size of the contact patch (size-independent). The models involved in the solution presented, can be categorized in rigid and/or pneumatic tires, with or without tread pattern. After a concise literature review of related methods, a detailed presentation of the semi-analytical solution is presented, along with assumptions and limitations. A flowchart is provided, showing the main steps of the numerical implementation, and various test cases have been examined, characterized in terms of vertical load, tire dimensions, soil properties, deformability of the tire, and tread pattern. It has been found that the proposed model can qualitatively capture the response of a rolling wheel on deformable terrain.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Number of Thermoelectric Modules in a Thermoelectric Generator for a Specific Engine Drive Cycle

Two identical commercial Thermo-Electric Modules (TEMs) were assembled on a plate type heat exchanger to form a Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) unit in this study. This unit was tested on the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) flow path of a test engine. The data collected from the test was used to develop and validate a steady state, zero dimensional numerical model of the TEG. Using this model and the EGR path flow conditions from a 30% torque Non-Road Transient Cycle (NRTC) engine test, an optimization of the number of TEM units in this TEG device was conducted. The reduction in fuel consumption during the transient test cycle was estimated based on the engine instantaneous Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). The perfect conversion of TEG recovered electrical energy to engine shaft mechanical energy was assumed. Simulations were performed for a single TEG unit (i.e. 2 TEMs) to up to 50 TEG units (i.e. 100 TEMs).
Technical Paper

The Influence of Thermoelectric Materials and Operation Conditions on the Performance of Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive

An automotive engine can be more efficient if thermoelectric generators (TEG) are used to convert a portion of the exhaust gas enthalpy into electricity. Due to the relatively low cost of the incoming thermal energy, the efficiency of the TEG is not an overriding consideration. Instead, the maximum power output (MPO) is the first priority. The MPO of the TEG is closely related to not only the thermoelectric materials properties, but also the operating conditions. This study shows the development of a numerical TEG model integrated with a plate-fin heat exchanger, which is designed for automotive waste heat recovery (WHR) in the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) path in a diesel engine. This model takes into account the following factors: the exhaust gas properties’ variation along the flow direction, temperature influence on the thermoelectric materials, thermal contact effect, and heat transfer leakage effect. Its accuracy has been checked using engine test data.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Dynamics Analysis for Electrified Turbocharged Diesel Engines

Engine electrification is a critical technology in the promotion of engine fuel efficiency, among which the electrified turbocharger is regarded as the promising solution in engine downsizing. By installing electrical devices on the turbocharger, the excess energy can be captured, stored, and re-used. The electrified turbocharger consists of a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and an electric motor (EM) within the turbocharger bearing housing, where the EM is capable in bi-directional power transfer. The VGT, EM, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve all impact the dynamics of air path. In this paper, the dynamics in an electrified turbocharged diesel engine (ETDE), especially the couplings between different loops in the air path is analyzed. Furthermore, an explicit principle in selecting control variables is proposed. Based on the analysis, a model-based multi-input multi-output (MIMO) decoupling controller is designed to regulate the air path dynamics.
Technical Paper

An Optical Analysis of a DISI Engine Cold Start-Up Strategy

Particulate number (PN) standards in the current ‘Euro 6’ European emissions standards pose a challenge for engine designers and calibrators during the warm-up phases of cold direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines. To achieve catalyst light-off in the shortest time, engine strategies are often employed which inherently use more fuel to attain higher exhaust temperatures. This can lead to the generation of locally fuel-rich regions within the combustion chamber and the emission of particulates. This investigation analyses the combustion structures during the transient start-up phase of an optical DISI engine. High-speed, colour 9 kHz imaging was used to investigate five important operating points of an engine start-up strategy whilst simultaneously recording in-cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

Non-Thermal Particulate Filter Regeneration Using Rapid Pulse Electric Discharges

This research introduces a new, novel approach to reverse flow particulate filter regeneration enabled by rapidly pulsed electric discharges. The discharges physically dislodge particulate matter (PM) from the filter substrate and allow a very low reverse air flow to transport it to a soot handling system. The system is operable independent of filter temperature, does not expose the filter to high thermal stresses or temperatures, has no apparent upper limit for filter PM-mass level (regeneration of a filter up to 17 g/L has been demonstrated), and does not require any catalyst. The system is inherently scalable allowing application to monolithic filters of any size or shape and can be tailored to suit specific application requirements such as limits on maximum regeneration time or power consumption. For example a light duty application would require as little as 200-500W electrical power to regenerate a filter in less than ten minutes (i.e. passenger car GPF or DPF).
Technical Paper

Interaction Between Ceramic Matrix Composite and Organic Pad Materials and its Impact on the Friction Performance

Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) have been increasingly used as alternative materials of the rotors of friction brakes. However there is still a need for a better understanding of fundamentals of CMC rotors and their associated friction materials. In this paper, the friction performance at the initial stage was characterized by testing on a laboratory-scale dynamometer and a car for brakes consisting of rotors made of carbon-fiber-reinforced carbon-silicon carbide (Cf/C-SiC) composite, and pads with organic liners. The characteristics of friction surface and its evolution were studied through focused imaging on the surface of the rotor after testing on the dynamometer. Both dynamometer and vehicle tests showed that bedding was essential to reach the required coefficient of friction (CoF). Sustainable transfer layer was successfully deposited on the surface of silicon in the early stage of bedding, but the deposition became difficult on that of carbon constituents and silicon carbide.
Technical Paper

BSFC Investigation Using Variable Valve Timing in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Variable valve actuation in heavy duty diesel engines is not well documented, because of diesel engine feature, such as, unthrottled air handling, which gives little room to improve pumping loss; a very high compression ratio, which makes the clearance between the piston and valve small at the top dead center. In order to avoid strike the piston while maximizing the valve movement scope, different strategies are adopted in this paper: (1) While exhaust valve closing is fixed, exhaust valve opening is changed; (2) While exhaust valve closing is fixed, late exhaust valve opening: (3) While inlet valve opening is fixed, inlet valve closing is changed; (4) Delayed Inlet valve and exhaust valve openings and closings; (5) Changing exhaust valve timing; (6) changing inlet valve timing; (7) Changing both inlet and exhaust timing, will be used.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone Kinetic Model of Controlled Auto Ignition Combustion

A multi-zone Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) model for simulating the combustion and emissions has been developed and reported in this paper. The model takes into account the effects of the boundary layer, crevice volume, and blowby. In order to investigate the influences of in-cylinder inhomogeneity, the main cylinder chamber has been divided into multiple core zones with varying temperature and composition. Mass and energy transfer between neighbouring zones were modeled. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism was implemented in each zone to simulate the CAI combustion chemistry and emission formation. An in-house code, the LUCKS (Loughborough University Chemical Kinetics Simulation), was employed to solve the coupled differential equations of the system. The model was validated against experimental results at various Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation (IEGR) levels and was then used to analyze the thermal and chemical effect of the IEGR on the CAI combustion.
Technical Paper

Towards an Open Source Model for Engine Control Systems

Traditionally, university research in engine technology has been focused on fundamental engine phenomena. Increasingly however, research topics are developing in the form of systems issues. Examples include air and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) management, after-treatment systems, engine cooling, hybrid systems and energy recovery. This trend leads to the need for engine research to be conducted using currently available products and components that are re-configured or incrementally improved to support a particular research investigation. A production engine will include an electronic control unit (ECU) that must be understood and utilised or simply removed and circumvented. In general the intellectual property (IP) limitations places on ECUs by their suppliers mean that they cannot be used. The supplier of the ECU is usually unable to reveal any detail of the implementation. As a consequence any research using production hardware is seriously disadvantaged from the beginning.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Unthrottled, Single and Two-valve Induction Strategies Utilising Direct Gasoline Injection: Emissions, Heat-release and Fuel Consumption Analysis

For a spark-ignition engine, the parasitic loss suffered as a result of conventional throttling has long been recognised as a major reason for poor part-load fuel efficiency. While lean, stratified charge, operation addresses this issue, exhaust gas aftertreatment is more challenging compared with homogeneous operation and three-way catalyst after-treatment. This paper adopts a different approach: homogeneous charge direct injection (DI) operation with variable valve actuations which reduce throttling losses. In particular, low-lift and early inlet valve closing (EIVC) strategies are investigated. Results from a thermodynamic single cylinder engine are presented that quantify the effect of two low-lift camshafts and one standard high-lift camshaft operating EIVC strategies at four engine running conditions; both, two- and single-inlet valve operation were investigated. Tests were conducted for both port and DI fuelling, under stoichiometric conditions.
Technical Paper

Human Factors Issues in the Application of a Novel Process Description Environment for Machine Design and Control Developed under the Foresight Vehicle Programme

In the globalization of the automotive businesses, manufacturing companies and their suppliers are forced to distribute the various lifecycle phases in different geographical locations. Misunderstandings arising from the variety of personnel involved, each with different requirements, backgrounds, roles, cultures and skills for example can result in increased cost and development time. To enable collaborating companies to have a common platform for interaction, the COMPANION project at Loughborough University has been undertaken to develop a common model-based environment for manufacturing automotive engines. Through the use of this environment, the stakeholders will be able to “visualize” consistently the evolution of automated systems at every lifecycle stage i.e. requirements definition, specification, design, analysis, build, evaluation, maintenance, diagnostics and recycle.
Technical Paper

Development of a Validated CFD Process for the Analysis of Inlet Manifold Flows with EGR

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is one of several technologies that are being investigated to deliver future legislative emissions targets for diesel engines. Its application requires a detailed understanding of the thermo-fluidic processes within the engine's air system. A validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) process is one way of providing this understanding. This paper describes a CFD process to analyse unsteady manifold flows and mixing fields in the presence of realistic levels of EGR. The validation methodology was drawn from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and divides the problem into smaller elemental problems. Detailed knowledge about these elemental problems is easily attainable, reducing the requirement for a large number of complex validation runs. The final validated process was compared to flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) data collected from a motored engine.
Technical Paper

The Effect of EGR on Diesel Engine Wear

As part of an ongoing programme of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) wear investigations, this paper reports a study into the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation, and a variety of interacting factors, on the wear rate of the top piston ring and the liner top ring reversal point on a 1.0 litre/cylinder medium duty four cylinder diesel engine. Thin Layer Activation (TLA - also known as Surface Layer Activation in the US) has been used to provide individual wear rates for these components when engine operating conditions have been varied. The effects of oil condition, EGR level, fuel sulphur content and engine coolant temperature have been investigated at one engine speed at full load. The effects of engine load and uncooled EGR have also been assessed. The effects of these parameters on engine wear are presented and discussed. When EGR was applied a significant increase in wear was observed at EGR levels of between 10% and 15%.