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Technical Paper

Heat Release in the End-Gas Prior to Knock in Lean, Rich and Stoichiometric Mixtures With and Without EGR

2002-03-04
2002-01-0239
SI Engine knock is caused by autoignition in the unburnt part of the mixture (end-gas) ahead of the propagating flame. Autoignition of the end-gas occurs when the temperature and pressure exceeds a critical limit when comparatively slow reactions-releasing moderate amounts of heat-transform into ignition and rapid heat release. In this paper the difference in the heat released in the end-gas-by low temperature chemistry-between lean, rich, stochiometric, and stoichiometric mixtures diluted with cooled EGR was examined by measuring the temperature in the end-gas with Dual Broadband Rotational CARS. The measured temperature history was compared with an isentropic temperature calculated from the cylinder pressure trace. The experimentally obtained values for knock onset were compared with results from a two-zone thermodynamic model including detailed chemistry modeling of the end-gas reactions.
Technical Paper

Modeling of HCCI Combustion Using Adaptive Chemical Kinetics

2002-03-04
2002-01-0426
In this paper an online method for automatically reducing complex chemical mechanisms for simulations of combustion phenomena has been developed. The method is based on the Quasi Steady State Assumption (QSSA). In contrast to previous reduction schemes where chemical species are selected only when they are in steady state throughout the whole process, the present method allows for species to be selected at each operating point separately generating an adaptive chemical kinetics. The method is used for calculations of a natural gas fueled engine operating under Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) conditions. We discuss criteria for selecting steady state species and the influence of these criteria on the results such as concentration profiles and temperature.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Pressure Measurements Using the Spark Plug as an Ionization Sensor

1997-02-24
970857
A model based on an ionization equilibrium analysis, that can relate the ion current to the state of the gas inside the combustion volume, has been presented earlier. This paper introduces several additional models, that together with the previous model have the purpose of improving the pressure predictions. One of the models is a chemistry model that enables us to realistically consider the current contribution from the most relevant species. A second model can predict the crank angle of the peak pressure and thereby substantially increase the accuracy of the pressure predictions. Several other additions and improvements have been introduced, including support for part load engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Local Air-Fuel Ratio Measurements Using the Spark Plug as an Ionization Sensor

1997-02-24
970856
The influence of variable air-fuel ratio inside a spark ignition engine is examined by the use of an ionization sensor. The measured ion currents are used for predicting the local air-fuel ratio in the vicinity of the spark plug. In order to support the results, a theoretical analysis has been made. An instationary chemical kinetic model burning a mixture of iso-octane and n-heptane is used for the calculations. The results are used to reconstruct the crank angle resolved ion current that has been measured in an engine. This technique has been developed in order to offer a supplementary low-cost facility of controlling the air-fuel ratio within the combustion chamber of an engine.
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