Gasoline Surrogate Fuels for Partially Premixed Combustion, of Toluene Ethanol Reference Fuels
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is intended to improve fuel efficiency and minimize the engine-out emissions. PPC is known to have the potential to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot, but often at the expense of increased emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO). PPC has demonstrated remarkable fuel flexibility and can be operated with a large variety of liquid fuels, ranging from low-octane, high-cetane diesel fuels to high-octane gasolines and alcohols. Several research groups have demonstrated that naphtha fuels provide a beneficial compromise between functional load range and low emissions. To increase the understanding of the influence of individual fuel components typically found in commercial fuels, such as alkenes, aromatics and alcohols, a systematic experimental study of 15 surrogate fuel mixtures of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene and ethanol was performed in a light-duty PPC engine using a design of experiment methodology.