Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

A Coupled Tabulated Kinetics and Flame Propagation Model for the Simulation of Fumigated Medium Speed Dual-Fuel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0098
The present work describes the numerical modeling of medium-speed marine engines, operating in a fumigated dual-fuel mode, i.e. with the second fuel injected in the ports. This engine technology allows reducing engine-out emissions while maintaining the engine efficiency and can be fairly easily retrofitted from current diesel engines. The main premixed fuel that is added can be a low-carbon one and can additionally be of a renewable nature, thereby reducing or even completely removing the global warming impact. To fully optimize the operational parameters of such a large marine engine, computational fluid dynamics can be very helpful. Accurately describing the combustion process in such an engine is key, as the prediction of the heat release and the pollutant formation is crucial. Auto-ignition of the diesel fuel needs to be captured, followed by the combustion and flame propagation of the premixed fuel.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection Strategies on Engine Efficiency for a Methanol PPC Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0116
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is one of several advanced combustion concepts for the conventional diesel engine. PPC uses a separation between end of fuel injection and start of combustion, also called ignition dwell, to increase the mixing of fuel and oxidizer. This has been shown to be beneficial for simultaneously reducing harmful emissions and fuel consumption. The ignition dwell can be increased by means of exhaust gas recirculation or lower intake temperature. However, the most effective means is to use a fuel with high research octane number (RON). Methanol has a RON of 109 and a recent study found that methanol can be used effectively in PPC mode, with multiple injections, to yield high brake efficiency. However, the early start of injection (SOI) timings in this study were noted as a potential issue due to increased combustion sensitivity. Therefore, the present study attempts to quantify the changes in engine performance for different injection strategies.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Based Method for In-Cycle Pilot Misfire Detection

2019-09-09
2019-24-0017
For the reduction of emissions and combustion noise in an internal combustion diesel engine, multiple injections are normally used. A pilot injection reduces the ignition delay of the main injection and hence the combustion noise. However, normal variations of the operating conditions, component tolerances, and aging may result in the lack of combustion i.e. pilot misfire. The result is a lower indicated thermal efficiency, higher emissions, and louder combustion noise. Closed-loop combustion control techniques aim to monitor in real-time these variations and act accordingly to counteract their effect. To ensure the in-cycle controllability of the main injection, the misfire diagnosis must be performed before the start of the main injection. This paper focuses on the development and evaluation of in-cycle algorithms for the pilot misfire detection. Based on in-cylinder pressure measurements, different approaches to the design of the detectors are compared.
Technical Paper

Learning Based Model Predictive Control of Combustion Timing in Multi-Cylinder Partially Premixed Combustion Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0016
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has shown to be a promising advanced combustion mode for future engines in terms of efficiency and emission levels. The combustion timing should be suitably phased to realize high efficiency. However, a simple constant model based predictive controller is not sufficient for controlling the combustion during transient operation. This article proposed one learning based model predictive control (LBMPC) approach to achieve controllability and feasibility. A learning model was developed to capture combustion variation. Since PPC engines could have unacceptably high pressure-rise rates at different operation points, triple injection is applied as a solvent, with the use of two pilot fuel injections. The LBMPC controller utilizes the main injection timing to manage the combustion timing. The cylinder pressure is used as the combustion feedback. The method is validated in a multi-cylinder heavy-duty PPC engine for transient control.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Methanol Ignition Sequence in an Optical PPC Engine with Multiple Injection Strategies

2019-09-09
2019-24-0007
Methanol is a genuine candidate on the alternative fuel market for internal combustion engines, especially within the heavy-duty transportation sector. Partially premixed combustion (PPC) engine concept, known for its high efficiency and low emission rates, can be promoted further with methanol fuel due to its unique thermo-physical properties. The low stoichiometric air to fuel ratio allows to utilize late injection timings, which reduces the wall-wetting effects, and thus can lead to less unburned hydrocarbons. Moreover, combustion of methanol as an alcohol fuel, is free from soot emissions, which allows to extend the operation range of the engine. However, due to the high latent heat of vaporization, the ignition event requires a high inlet temperature to achieve ignition event. In this paper LES simulations together with experimental measurements on an heavy-duty optical engine are used to study methanol PPC engine.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of an Ignition Front in a Heavy Duty Partially Premixed Combustion Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0010
In partially premixed combustion engines high octane number fuels are injected into the cylinder during the late part of the compression cycle, giving the fuel and oxidizer enough time to mix into a desirable stratified mixture. If ignited by auto-ignition such a gas composition can react in a combustion mode dominated by ignition wave propagation. 3D-CFD modeling of such a combustion mode is challenging as the rate of fuel consumption can be dependent on both mixing history and turbulence acting on the reaction wave. This paper presents a large eddy simulation (LES) study of the effects of stratification in scalar concentration (enthalpy and reactant mass fraction) due to large scale turbulence on the propagation of reaction waves in PPC combustion engines. The studied case is a closed cycle simulation of a single cylinder of a Scania D13 engine running PRF81 (81% iso-octane and 19% n-heptane).
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow Structures on Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Swirl-Supported Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0009
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to describe the effect of in-cylinder flow structures on the formation and oxidation of soot in a swirl-supported light-duty diesel engine. The focus of the paper is on the effect of swirl motion and injection pressure on late cycle soot oxidation. The structure of the flow at different swirl numbers is studied to investigate the effect of varying swirl number on the coherent flow structures. These coherent flow structures are studied to understand the mechanism that leads to efficient soot oxidation in late cycle. Effect of varying injection pressure at different swirl numbers and the interaction between spray and swirl motions are discussed. The complexity of diesel combustion, especially when soot and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Timing on the Ignition and Mode of Combustion in a HD PPC Engine Running Low Load

2019-04-02
2019-01-0211
This work aims to study the effect of fuel inhomogeneity on the ignition process and subsequent combustion in a compression ignition Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) engine using a primary reference fuel (PRF) in low load conditions. Five cases with injection timings ranging from the start of injection (SOI) at -70 crank angle degrees (CAD) to -17 CAD have been studied numerically and experimentally in a heavy duty (HD) piston bowl geometry. Intake temperature is adjusted to keep the combustion phasing constant. Three dimensional numerical simulations are performed in a closed cycle sector domain using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation with k-ϵ turbulence closure and direct coupling of finite rate chemistry. The results are compared with engine experiments. The predicted trends in required intake temperature and auto-ignition location for a constant combustion phasing are consistent with experiments.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Kinetic Mechanisms for Numerical Simulation of Methanol Combustion in DICI Heavy-Duty Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0208
The combustion process in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is mainly governed by ignition wave propagation. The in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, and the emission characteristics are thus largely driven by the chemical kinetics of the fuel. As a result, CFD simulation of such combustion process is very sensitive to the employed reaction mechanism, which model the real chemical kinetics of the fuel. In order to perform engine simulation with a range of operating conditions and cylinder-piston geometry for the design and optimization purpose, it is essential to have a chemical kinetic mechanism that is both accurate and computational inexpensive. In this paper, we report on the evaluation of several chemical kinetic mechanisms for methanol combustion, including large mechanisms and skeletal/reduced mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Study on Heat Losses during Flame Impingement in a Diesel Engine Using Phosphor Thermometry Surface Temperature Measurements

2019-04-02
2019-01-0556
In-cylinder heat losses in diesel engines decrease engine efficiency significantly and account for approximately 14-19% [1, 2, 3] of the injected fuel energy. A great part of the heat losses during diesel combustion presumably arises from the flame impingement onto the piston. Therefore, the present study investigates the heat losses during flame impingement onto the piston bowl wall experimentally. The measurements were performed on a full metal heavy-duty diesel engine with a small optical access through a removed exhaust valve. The surface temperature at the impingement point of the flame was determined by evaluating a phosphor’s temperature dependent emission decay. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements and high-speed videos are associated to the surface temperature measurements in each cycle. Thus, surface temperature readings could be linked to specific impingement and combustion events.
Technical Paper

Interaction between Fuel Jets and Prevailing Combustion During Closely-Coupled Injections in an Optical LD Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0551
Two imaging techniques are used to investigate the interaction between developed combustion from earlier injections and partially oxidized fuel (POF) of a subsequent injection. The latter is visualized by using planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) of formaldehyde and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. High speed imaging captures the natural luminescence (NL) of the prevailing combustion. Three different fuel injection strategies are studied. One strategy consists of two pilot injections, with modest separations after each, followed by single main and post injections. Both of the other two strategies have three pilots followed by single main and post injections. The separations after the second and third pilots are several times shorter than in the reference case (making them closely-coupled). The closely-coupled cases have more linear heat release rates (HRR) which lead to much lower combustion noise levels.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Gasoline Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions with a Wide-Range EGR in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0761
A large number of measurement techniques have been developed or adapted from other fields to measure various parameters of engine particulates. With the strict limits given by regulations on pollutant emissions, many advanced combustion strategies have been developed towards cleaner combustion. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely applied to suppress nitrogen oxide (NOx) and reduce soot emissions. On the other hand, gasoline starts to be utilized in compression ignition engines due to great potential in soot reduction and high engine efficiency. New engine trends raise the need for good sensitivity and suitable accuracy of the PM measurement techniques to detect particulates with smaller size and low particulate mass emissions. In this work, we present a comparison between different measurement techniques for particulate matter (PM) emissions in a compression ignition engine running on gasoline fuel. A wide-range of EGR was used with lambda varied from 3 down to 1.
Technical Paper

The Relevance of Different Fuel Indices to Describe Autoignition Behaviour of Gasoline in Light Duty DICI Engine under PPC Mode

2019-04-02
2019-01-1147
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) with gasoline fuels is a new promising combustion concept for future internal combustion engines. However, many researchers have argued the capabilities of research octane number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) to describe the autoignition behaviour of gasoline fuels in advanced combustion concepts like PPC. The objective of this study is to propose a new method, called PPC number, to characterize the auto ignition quality of gasoline fuels in a light-duty direct injected compression ignition engine under PPC conditions. The experimental investigations were performed on a 4-cylinder Volvo D4 2 litre engine. The ignition delay which was defined as the crank angle degrees between the start of injection (SOI) and start of combustion (SOC) was used to represent the auto ignition quality of a fuel.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Investigation of Achieving Low Temperature Combustion with Methanol in a Direct Injected Compression Ignition Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1152
Low temperature combustion concepts used in compression ignition engines have shown to be able to produce simultaneous reduction of oxides of nitrogen and soot as well as generating higher gross indicated efficiencies compared to conventional diesel combustion. This is achieved by a combination of premixing, dilution and optimization of combustion phasing. Low temperature combustion can be complemented by moving away from fossil fuels in order to reduce the net output of CO2 emissions. Alternative fuels are preferably liquid and of sufficient energy density. As such methanol is proposed as a viable option. This paper reports the results from a simulation based investigation on a heavy-duty multi-cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine with standard compression ratio. The engine was simulated using two different fuels: methanol and gasoline with an octane number of 70.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation on the Combustion Process Differences between Double-Pilot and Closely-Coupled Triple-Pilot Injection Strategies in a LD Diesel Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0022
The combustion processes of three injection strategies in a light-duty (LD) diesel engine at a medium load point are captured with a high speed video camera. A double-pilot/main/single-post injection strategy representative of a LD Euro 6 calibration is considered as the reference. There is a modest temporal spacing (dwell) after the first pilot (P1) and second pilot (P2). A second strategy, “A,” adds a third pilot (P3). The dwell after both P2 and P3 are several times shorter than in the reference strategy. A third strategy, “B,” further reduces all dwells. Each injection has its own associated local peak in the heat release rate (HRR) following some ignition delay. Between these peaks lie local minima, or dips. In all three cases, the fuel from P1 combusts as a propagating premixed flame. For all strategies, the ignition of P2 primarily occurs at its interface with the existing combustion regions.
Technical Paper

Thermal Reduction of NOx in a Double Compression Expansion Engine by Injection of AAS 25 and AUS 32 in the Exhaust Gases

2019-01-15
2019-01-0045
The double compression expansion engine (DCEE) is a promising concept for high engine efficiency while fulfilling the most stringent European and US emission legislation. The complete thermodynamic cycle of the engine is split among several cylinders. Combustion of fuel occurs in the combustion cylinder and in the expansion cylinder the exhaust gases are over expanded to obtain high efficiency. A high-pressure tank is installed between these two cylinders for after-treatment purposes. One proposal is to utilize thermal reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the high-pressure tank as exhaust temperatures can be sufficiently high (above 700 °C) for the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) reactions to occur. The exhaust gas residence time at these elevated exhaust temperatures is also long enough for the chemical reactions, as the volume of the high-pressure tank is substantially larger than the volume of the combustion cylinders.
Technical Paper

Simulation of System Brake Efficiency in a Double Compression-Expansion Engine-Concept (DCEE) Based on Experimental Combustion Data

2019-01-15
2019-01-0073
The double compression-expansion engine concepts (DCEE) are split-cycle concepts where the compression, combustion, expansion and gas exchange strokes occur in two or more different cylinders. Previous simulation studies reveal there is a potential to improve brake efficiency with these engine concepts due to improved thermodynamic and mechanical efficiencies. As a continuation of this project this paper studies an alternative layout of the DCEE-concept. The concept studied in this paper has three different cylinders, a compression, a combustion and an expansion cylinder. Overall system indicated and brake efficiency estimations were based on both engine experiments and simulations. The engine experiments were carried out at 10 different operating points and 5 fuelling rates (between 98.2 and 310.4 mg/cycle injection mass) at an engine speed of 1200 rpm. The inlet manifold pressure was varied between 3 and 5 bar.
Journal Article

NOx-Conversion Comparison of a SCR-Catalyst Using a Novel Biomimetic Effervescent Injector on a Heavy-Duty Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0047
NOx pollution from diesel engines has been stated as causing over 10 000 pre-mature deaths annually and predictions are showing that this level will increase [1]. In order to decrease this growing global problem, exhaust after-treatment systems for diesel engines have to be improved, this is especially so for vehicles carrying freight as their use of diesel engines is expected to carry on into the future [2]. The most common way to reduce diesel engine NOx out emissions is to use SCR. SCR operates by injecting aqueous Urea solution, 32.5% by volume (AUS-32), that evaporates prior the catalytic surface of the SCR-catalyst. Due to a catalytic reaction within the catalyst, NOx is converted nominally into Nitrogen and Water. Currently, the evaporative process is enhanced by aggressive mixer plates and long flow paths.
Technical Paper

Heat Loss Analysis for Various Piston Geometries in a Heavy-Duty Methanol PPC Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1726
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) in internal combustion engine as a low temperature combustion strategy has shown great potential to achieve high thermodynamic efficiency. Methanol due to its unique properties is considered as a preferable PPC engine fuel. The injection timing to achieve methanol PPC conditions should be set very close to TDC, allowing to utilize spray-bowl interaction to further improve combustion process in terms of emissions and heat losses. In this study CFD simulations are performed to investigate spray-bowl interaction for a number of different piston designs and its impact on the heat transfer and the overall piston performance. The validation case is based on a single cylinder heavy-duty Scania D13 engine with a compression ratio 15. The operation point is set to low load 5.42 IMEPg bar with SOI -3 aTDC.
Technical Paper

Analyzing Factors Affecting Gross Indicated Efficiency When Inlet Temperature Is Changed

2018-09-10
2018-01-1780
Observations from engine experiments indicates that the gross indicated efficiency (GIE) increases when the inlet temperature (Tinlet) is lowered. The change in Tinlet affects several important factors, such as the heat release profile (affecting heat and exhaust losses), working fluid properties, combustion efficiency and heat transfer losses. These factors all individually contributes to the resulting change in GIE. However, due to their strong dependency to temperature it is not possible to quantify the contribution from each of these parameters individually. Therefore, a simulation model in GT-power has been created and calibrated to the performed engine experiments. With simulations the temperature dependency can be separated and it becomes possible to evaluate the contribution to GIE from each factor individually. The simulation results indicate that the specific heats of the working medium are the largest contributor.
X